SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pathfinder (military)

In military organizations, a pathfinder is a specialized soldier inserted or dropped into place in order to set up and operate drop zones, pickup zones, helicopter landing sites for airborne operation, air resupply operations, or other air operations in support of the ground unit commander. Pathfinders first appeared in World War II, where they served with distinction, continue to serve an important role in today's modern armed forces, providing commanders with the option of flexibly employing air assets. During the Second World War small groups of parachute soldiers were formed into pathfinder units, to parachute ahead of the main force, their tasks were to mark the drop zones or landing zones, set up radio beacons as a guide for the aircraft carrying the main force and to clear and protect the area as the main force arrived. The units were formed into two companies to work with the two British airborne divisions created during the war, the 1st and 6th; the 21st Independent Parachute Company was formed in June 1942 and became part of the 1st Airborne Division commanded by Major General Frederick Arthur Montague "Boy" Browning, considered to be the father of the British Army's airborne forces.

The 22nd Independent Parachute Company was raised in May 1943 and was part of the 6th Airborne Division, under the command of Major General Richard Nelson "Windy" Gale. During the Allied invasion of Sicily the 21st Independent Parachute Company parachuted ahead of the main force during Operation Fustian to capture the Primosole Bridge on the night of 13/14 July 1943, they took part in Operation Slapstick, part of the Allied invasion of Italy, landing by sea at Taranto on 9 September. The company, with most of the rest of the 1st Airborne Division, after fighting in the early stages of the Italian Campaign, returned to the United Kingdom in December 1943, but left an independent platoon behind in Italy to work with the 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade Group. Held in reserve and unused for the Allied invasion of Normandy, the company took part in Operation Market Garden, landing at the Dutch town of Arnhem on the night of 17 September 1944. After marking the DZs and LZs the company was trapped with the rest of the division in the Oosterbeek Perimeter, suffering heavy casualties in what is now known as the Battle of Arnhem.

The company did not see any further action in the war. Towards the end of the war the 21st Independent Parachute Company went as part of Operation Doomsday with the 1st Airborne Division to Norway to disarm the German garrison there between May and October 1945, it was attached to the 6th Airborne Division serving in Mandate Palestine where it was still serving in September 1946, when it was disbanded. The 22nd Independent Parachute Company were the lead elements of the 6th Airborne Division's drop into Normandy as part of Operation Tonga in the early hours of D-Day, 6 June 1944; the company, together with the rest of the division, remained in Normandy, acting as standard line infantry, until the 6th Airborne Division's advance to the River Seine in August, returning to England in September but was sent to Belgium in December, due to the German Ardennes offensive, again fighting as standard infantrymen. The company participated in Operation Varsity, the airborne component of Operation Plunder, the British assault crossing of the Rhine in late March 1945 and took part in the Western Allied invasion of Germany.

The 22nd Independent Parachute Company was sent with the 5th Parachute Brigade, part of the 6th Airborne Division but temporarily detached, to the Far East in mid-1945, remaining there until disbandment in July 1946. Post war. To provide this formation with a pathfinder capacity the Guards Independent Parachute Company was formed in 1948 on the disbandment of Composite Guards Parachute Battalion; the Company deployed on a wide variety of operations between 1948 and 1977. It was deployed to Borneo during the Borneo Confrontation where it was used provide reinforcement to the SAS and its professional performance resulted in the formation of G Sqn of that regiment in 1966; the pathfinder role in the Territorial Army, the British Army's part-time reserve, was continued by 16 Independent Parachute Company as part of 44th Parachute Brigade. The 16 Air Assault Brigade employs elite pathfinders in their Pathfinder Platoon. During World War II, the pathfinders were a group of volunteers selected within the Airborne units who were specially trained to operate navigation aids to guide the main airborne body to the drop zones.

The pathfinder teams were made up of a group of eight to twelve pathfinders and a group of six bodyguards whose job was to defend the pathfinders while they set up their equipment. The pathfinder teams dropped thirty minutes before the main body in order to locate designated drop zones and provide radio and visual guides for the main force in order to improve the accuracy of the jump; these navigational aids included compass beacons, colored panels, Eureka radar sets, colored smoke. When they jumped, the pathfinders many times would encounter less resistance than the follow-up waves of paratroopers because they had the element of surprise on their side. Once the main body jumped, the pathfinders joined their original units and fought as standard airborne infantry; the first two U. S. airborne campaigns, the drops into North Africa and Sicily did not make use of pathfinders. The jump into North Africa, made up of men of the 509th Parachute Infantry Battalion, resulted in its men being scattered to places such as Algeria and Morocco when they ran into bad weather

President's Cup (chess)

The President's Cup determines the U. S. college team chess champion. Hosted in part by the United States Chess Federation, the President's Cup is an annual invitational team championship, open to the top four U. S. schools from the most recent Pan-American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship. It is run as a fixed-roster team round-robin tournament, scored by individual points; the President's Cup takes place in early Spring. The President's Cup has taken place each year in various locations since it was founded in 2001 by Dr. Tim Redman with the financial support of University of Texas at Dallas president Dr. Franklyn Jenifer. Since 2011, the President's Cup has been sponsored in part by Booz Allen Hamilton; the governing body for the President's Cup is the College Chess Committee of the USCF. The event is played under USCF rules; the CCC has established eligibility requirements for college chess, these same requirements apply to the Pan-Am and the President's Cup. Each team up to two alternates from the same school campus.

Unlike the Pan-Am, ties for first place are broken. The winner of the President's Cup is considered the top chess team among U. S. post-secondary schools. By contrast, the Pan-Am determines the top post-secondary school in North American, Central America, South America, or the Caribbean; the winning school takes possession of the perpetual trophy, created in 2008 using funds from Sun Trust Bank, for one year. Annual Reports of the USCF College Chess Committee Articles about the President's Cup published in Chess Life magazine "Rating Reports from the President's Cup". US Chess Federation. Program booklets from the President's Cup for some years. College Chess "Pan-American Intercollegiate Team Chess Championship Rules". College Chess Eligibility Requirements at University of Texas at Dallas United States Chess Federation World Chess Federation

1933 Yakima Valley strike

The 1933 Yakima Valley strike took place on 24 August 1933 in the Yakima Valley, United States. It is notable as the most serious and publicized agricultural labor disturbance in Washington history and as a brief revitalization of the Industrial Workers of the World in the region. Since 1916, the Yakima Valley had felt the presence of the Industrial Workers of the World, which positioned itself in conflict with local authorities and business interests; the meeting hall opened by the IWW in Yakima during the fall of that year was promptly raided by local police, who arrested its inhabitants, closed the building, denied Wobblies the right to hold the street meetings which they regarded as essential to their organizational effort among the harvest workers flooding into the valley. The Yakima strikes began with hop pickers in the Yakima Valley; the demands of the hop pickers were not of anything uncommon during the 1930s, with striking for regular eight-hour work days, the end of child labor in the yards, a minimum wage of 35 cents per hour for men and women alike.

At the time, the current rate for common labor was 10 to 12 cents an hour, with hop farmers claiming that they could not pay any more than 12 ½ cents per hour for labor due to lack of profit they made in sales. In 1932, Yakima Valley hops sold for 11 to 14 cents a pound. Effective 7 April 1933, Congress legalized 3.2 percent beer and wine. States moved to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment; the effect of these events on hop prices was dramatic: in April and May, Valley papers reported sales of the remaining uncommitted 1932 crops at 40 to 50 cents. The forthcoming crop for 1933 commanded 20 to 30 cents. Three- and four-year contracts were being signed for 18 to 25 cents. On the second day of the strike, the Yakima County Sheriff called the Washington State Patrol to send aid in which resulted in twenty-two officers coming to the aid of the Yakima County Sheriff's office by the next morning. Although eight picketers were arrested, it did not discourage picketers from continuing their activities; the IWW attorney had contacted the hop growers to see if he could bring about a peaceful settlement to the strike, but the hop growers never responded to the attorney.

The strike had fizzled out with little success when matched against the hop growers and state patrolmen with the Yakima Chamber of Commerce giving the law enforcement and business owners' their support. In order to ensure that peace was maintained on the hop farms, Chief Criminal Deputy H. T. "Army" Armstrong persuaded local growers to enforce a "night hop patrol" in which at least six men would be on patrol at all times during the harvest in order to protect the fields from sabotage. The Yakima valley was an important apple district. After the men were laid off due to being transient workers, they became provoked to strike in regards to the lack of work offered, in which farmers responded by creating vigilante bands around the orchards. On August 14, several dozen men assembled at the Sunnyside Canal Bridge near the lower valley community of Sawyer; some entered the orchard of Anna Mitchell. While some protestors were reaching out to the pickers working at the orchard farms, others held their position on the bridge to try to dissuade the pickers from crossing the bridge to work for the farmers on the north side of the canal.

With word spreading of the protestors at the bridge, farmers gathered in order to out-number the strikers. Both sides had armed themselves with homemade clubs or tree limbs; the protest turned physical. Farmers banded together to throw protestors over the bridge in to the canal to "cool them off" in order to calm down the protestors. Seeing as the farmers were well-organized and prepared for strikes, along with having the county sheriffs and state patrolmen coming to their aid, the protests of 15 and 16 August were a complete failure; the IWW and the pickers reached the peak of their strike on 23 August 1933 when several hundred workers gathered in Selah, elected a strike committee of seven members, demanded an eight-hour day plus 50 cents an hour. They voted for a strike at eleven o'clock the next day. In the early morning hours of August 24, about twenty picketers gathered at the Selah ranch and sixty at another, but local farmers and sheriffs patrolled the area in order to keep the pear harvest in operation.

At about 11:00 am, a group of sixty to one hundred picketers gathered at the large Congdon Orchards ranch, three miles west of Yakima, where pears were being picked. The men carried signs which advocated striking and discouraged "scabbing." Two sheriff deputies were called, they told the pickets to move on. The picketers left the orchard, some to continue to picketing along the road and others to gather at the grassy and tree-shaded triangle of land in the middle of the intersection of what is today Nob Hill and 64th avenues. Farmers within a ten-mile radius started calling other farmers to let them know about the picketing that had taken place and to rally up farmers to resist the pickers; the farmers began to walk the picketers still hanging around the orchards towards the town "The Triangle". Once the picketers were in that area, the farmers insisted that Triangle was private property and demanded that the workers vacate it; the strikers complied. Yet, as soon as they did so, the farmers voiced an object to their being congregated on public property.

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