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The pathogenesis of a disease is the biological mechanism progress of disease showing its morphological features or that leads to the diseased state. The term can describe the origin and development of the disease, whether it is acute, chronic, or recurrent; the word comes from γένεσις genesis. Types of pathogenesis include microbial infection, inflammation and tissue breakdown. For example, bacterial pathogenesis is the mechanism. Most diseases are caused by multiple processes. For example, certain cancers arise from dysfunction of the immune system; the pathogenic mechanisms of a disease are set in motion by the underlying causes, which if controlled would allow the disease to be prevented. A potential cause is identified by epidemiological observations before a pathological link can be drawn between the cause and the disease; the pathological perspective can be directly integrated into an epidemiological approach in the interdisciplinary field of molecular pathological epidemiology. Molecular pathological epidemiology can help to assess pathogenesis and causality by means of linking a potential risk factor to molecular pathologic signatures of a disease.

Thus, the molecular pathological epidemiology paradigm can advance the area of causal inference. Blood pathology Haugan S, Bjornson W. Avian influenza: etiology and interventions. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. ISBN 978-1-60741-846-7


Moritzheim is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Cochem-Zell district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Zell; the municipality lies in the Hunsrück at an elevation of some 500 m above sea level. The river Moselle lies 12 km away. After a great fire in Senheim on 13 August 1839, thirty families, left homeless founded the Kolonie Hoch-Senheim; the new village was given a new name soon. It was named after Moritz. Soon thereafter came lean years, between 1846 and 1852, 23 families from the municipality emigrated to the United States for a better life, leaving only five people living in Moritzheim. Since 1946, it has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Under the Verwaltungsvereinfachungsgesetz of 28 July 1970, with effect from 7 November 1970, the municipality was grouped into the Verbandsgemeinde of Zell; the council is made up of 6 council members, who were elected by majority vote at the municipal election held on 7 June 2009, the honorary mayor as chairman.

Moritzheim's mayor is Adelbert Reis, his deputies are Dieter Schug and Alfred Kaspari. The municipality's arms might be described thus: Per fess sable two lions rampant argent armed and langued gules and Or in base gules emerging from which four flames of the same. Volunteer fire brigade Hunsrückreise: Moritzheim

Bill Davis

William Grenville "Bill" Davis, is a Canadian former politician who served as the 18th Premier of Ontario from 1971 to 1985. Davis was first elected as the MPP for Peel in the 1959 provincial election where he was a backbencher in Leslie Frost's government. Under John Robarts, he was minister of education, he succeeded Robarts as Premier of Ontario and held the position until resigning in 1985. In a 2012 edition, the Institute for Research on Public Policy's magazine, Policy Options, named Davis the second-best Canadian premier of the last forty years, beaten only by Peter Lougheed. Davis was born in Toronto General Hospital, Ontario, the son of Vera and Albert Grenville Davis, his father was a successful local lawyer. He married twice, first to Helen MacPhee, with whom he had four children, before marrying Kathleen MacKay. Davis was politically active from a young age. Local Progressive Conservative Member of Parliament Gordon Graydon was a frequent guest at his parents' house, Davis himself became the first delegate younger than seventeen years to attend a national Progressive Conservative convention in Canada.

He campaigned for local Member of Provincial Parliament Thomas Laird Kennedy, who served as Premier of Ontario in 1949. He attended Osgoode Hall Law School. Davis was a football player during his university years, his teammates included Roy McMurtry and Thomas Leonard Wells, both of whom would serve in his cabinet. Davis was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in the 1959 provincial election, for the southern Ontario constituency of Peel, he was only 29 years old. Although Peel was an safe Conservative seat for most of its history, Davis won by a narrow 1,203 votes; the election took place soon after the federal Progressive Conservative government of John Diefenbaker had cancelled the Avro Arrow program. Most of the 14,000 Canadians put out of work by this decision were residents of Peel, many cast protest ballots against Diefenbaker by supporting Bill Brydon, the provincial Liberal candidate. Davis served for two years as a backbench supporter of Leslie Frost's government; when Frost announced his retirement in 1961, Davis became the chief organizer of Robert Macaulay's campaign to succeed him as premier and party leader.

Macaulay was eliminated on the next-to-last ballot, with Davis, delivered crucial support for John Robarts to defeat Kelso Roberts on the final vote. Davis was appointed to Robarts' cabinet as Minister of Education on October 25, 1962, was re-elected by a increased margin in the 1963 provincial election. Davis was given additional responsibilities as Ontario's Minister of University Affairs on May 14, 1964, held both portfolios until 1971, he soon developed a reputation as a interventionist minister, oversaw a dramatic increase in education expenditures throughout the 1960s. He established many new public schools in centralized locations to accommodate larger numbers of students. Davis undertook dramatic and, at the time, controversial revisions of Ontario's outdated and inefficient school board system, he reduced the number of boards from 3,676 in 1962 to only 192 by 1967. Davis established new public universities as minister, including Trent University and Brock University, established the province's community college system.

He was responsible for the establishment of Canada's first educational research institute, the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education in 1965 and the establishment of the Ontario Educational Communications Authority educational television network in 1970. Davis' handling of the education portfolio made him a high-profile minister, there was little surprise when he entered the leadership contest to succeed Robarts in 1971, he was dubbed as the frontrunner, though his awkward speaking style and image as an "establishment" candidate hindered his campaign. He defeated rival candidate Allan Lawrence by only 44 votes on the final ballot, after receiving support from third-place candidate Darcy McKeough. Shortly after the convention, Davis invited Lawrence's campaign team to join his inner circle of advisors; this group became known as the Big Blue Machine, remained the dominant organizational force in the Progressive Conservative Party until the 1980s. Shortly after taking office as premier, Davis announced that his government would not permit continuing construction of the rest of the Spadina Expressway into downtown Toronto.

The "Davis ditch", the section of Allen Road south of Lawrence Avenue was nicknamed in his honour. He rejected a proposal to grant full funding to Ontario's Catholic high schools, which some regarded as an appeal to the Progressive Conservative Party's rural Protestant base. Davis's team ran a professional campaign in the 1971 provincial election, was rewarded with an increased majority government. Davis's first full term as premier was by most accounts his least successful, with public confidence in his government weakened by a series of scandals. There were allegations that the Fidinam company had received special consideration for a Toronto development program in return for donations to the Progressive Conservative Party. In 1973, it was revealed that Davis' friend Gerhard Moog had received a valuable untendered contract for the construction of Ontario Hydro's new head office and related projects. Attorney General Dalton Bales, Solicitor General John Yaremko a

House of the Seven Gables

The House of the Seven Gables, made famous by American author Nathaniel Hawthorne's novel The House of the Seven Gables, is a 1668 colonial mansion in Salem, named for its gables. The house is now a non-profit museum, with an admission fee charged for tours, as well as an active settlement house with programs for children, it was stayed with the family for three generations. The earliest section of the House of the Seven Gables was built in 1668 for Capt. John Turner, it remained in his family for three generations, descending from John Turner II to John Turner III. Facing south towards Salem Harbor, it was a two-room, ​2 1⁄2-story house with a projecting front porch and a massive central chimney; this portion now forms the middle of the house. Four windows of the original ground-floor room remain in the house's side wall. A few years a kitchen lean-to and a new north kitchen ell to the rear of the house were added. By 1676, Turner had added a spacious south extension with its own chimney, containing a parlor on the ground floor, with a large bed chamber above it.

Ceilings in this new wing are higher than the low ceilings in older parts of the house. The new wing featured an overhang with carved pendants. In the first half of the 18th century, John Turner II remodeled the house in the new Georgian style, adding wood paneling and sash windows; these alterations are preserved early examples of Georgian decor. The House of the Seven Gables is one of the oldest surviving timber-framed mansion houses in continental North America, with 17 rooms and over 8,000 square feet including its large cellars. After John Turner III lost the family fortune, the house was acquired by the Ingersolls, who remodeled it again. Gables were removed, porches replaced, Georgian trim added. Nathaniel Hawthorne, a relative of the Ingersolls, was infamous for being reclusive during his time living in Salem, in part because Hawthorne himself exaggerated his reputation, he played whist, for example, with his sister Louisa, his second cousin Susannah Ingersoll, Ingersoll's adopted son Horace Connolly.

Hawthorne was entertained in the house by Susannah but, by Hawthorne's time, the house had only three gables after a renovation to match more current architectural trends. His cousin told him the house's history, showed him beams and mortises in the attic indicating locations of former gables. Hawthorne was more inspired by the way; as he wrote in a letter, "The expression was new and struck me forcibly... I think I shall make something of it." The idea inspired Hawthorne's novel The House of the Seven Gables. Hawthorne wrote of the house, it is described as such in the novel: "The aspect of the venerable mansion has always affected me like a human countenance... It was itself like a great human heart, with a life of its own, full of rich and sombre reminisces; the deep projection of the section story gave the house a meditative look, that you could not pass it without the idea that it had secret to keep." In writing the book, Hawthorne compared the process to constructing an actual house. In January 1851, he wrote to his publisher James Thomas Fields that the book was nearly finished, "only I am hammering away a little on the roof, doing a few odd jobs that were left incomplete."

He sent the finished manuscript to Fields by the end of the month. The House of the Seven Gables was published in April 1851. Horace Ingersoll, Susanna's adopted son, told Hawthorne a story of Acadian lovers that inspired Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 1847 poem Evangeline. In 1908, the house was purchased by Caroline O. Emmerton, founder of the House of Seven Gables Settlement Association, she restored it from 1908 to 1910 as a museum whose admission fees would support the association. Boston architect Joseph Everett Chandler supervised the restoration, which among other alterations reconstructed missing gables. In some cases historical authenticity was sacrificed in the interest of appealing to visitors, who expected the house to match the one Hawthorne described in his romantic novel. Thus, for example, Emmerton added a "cent-shop" resembling that operated by the author's fictional character Hepzibah Pyncheon. A representation of "Maule's Well" was added to the garden, she added what looks like a wood closet but has a false back.

When opened, the back leads to a secret staircase. Many interesting features of the original mansion remain, including unusual forms of wall insulation, original beams and rafters, extensive Georgian paneling; the Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace is now adjacent to the House of the Seven Gables, access to it is granted with the regular admission fee. Although it is indeed the house in which Hawthorne was born and lived to the age of four, the house was sited a few blocks away on Union Street when he inhabited it. On March 29, 2007, the House of the Seven Gables Historic District was designated a National Historic Landmark District. List of historic houses in Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in the United States List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Salem, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts Notes Further reading Goodwin, Lorinda B. R. "Salem's House of Seven Gables as Historic Site."

In Salem: Place and Memory, edited by Dane Anthony Morrison and Nancy Lusignan Schultz. UPNE, 2005. House of the Sev

EdineČ› District

Edineț is a district in the north-west of Moldova, with the administrative center at Edineț. The other major city is Cupcini; as of 1 January 2011, its population was 82,900. The district is bordered by Briceni District to the north, Ocnița District to the northeast, Dondușeni District to the east, Rîșcani District to the south, Romania to the west across the Prut river. Most important rivers crossing the district are: Ciuhur, Racovăț and Draghiște the latter being the main Racovăț's tributary. All rivers of district flowing into the Prut; the Moldavian Plateau occupies the majority district territory. It has a flat relief and less fragmented. Highest point of Edineț District is located near the village Clișcăuți in northeast of district, reaching 275 meters. In the central western part of district covers a strip of coral, which called toltre, they are composed of limestone organogenous formed on the bottom of former Sarmatian sea having an age of 15–20 million years. In now coming to the surface like massive reefs with maximum height of 80–100 meters.

In these rocks are many caves. The fauna is characteristic of both Eastern Europe and the central ones is represented by: fox, boar, raccoon dog, rabbit. Marten, wild cat. Of birds: woodpecker, cuckoo, sparrow. Quail and marsh hawk. Forests occupy 8.5% of the district territory and is characterized by common oak, maple, wild cherry. Of plants can include fescue, ramsons, singer. District has no natural resources except against Internet national silurene shale and sandstone complex disaggregated. Here is a compact shale industry amber. Here are represented by limestone silica. District as northern Moldova has a temperate continental climate with an annual temperature of 8–9 C, the average temperature in July is 20.5 C and −5 C in average annual wind January. In some years rainfall reached 850 mm majure cause damage, while in other years rainfall 300 mm fail causing droughts. Yearly precipitation is 550–750 mm. Average wind speed of the district is 3–5 m\s. Brînzeni Reefs and Caves Buzdugeni Gorge Burlănești Gorge Fetești Landscape Reserve La Castel Landscape Reserve Trinca Gorge Zabriceni reserve Localities: 49 Administrative Center: Edineț Cities: Cupcini, Edineț Villages: 17 Common: 30 1 January 2012 the district population was 82,500 of which 31.5% urban and 68.5% rural population.

Births: 888 Deaths: 1345 Growth rate: -457 Christians 91.0% Orthodox Christians – 87.5% Protestant – 3.3% Seventh-day Adventists – 1.1% Pentecostal – 1.1% Evangelicals – 0.7% Baptists – 0.4% Old Believers – 0.2% Other – 7.3% No Religion – 1.5% Atheists – 0.2% Edineț district in Moldova's National Development Complex, is presented as an agrarian-industrial district. Agricultural area is 74 556 ha of the district. Economy, industry on the district 20,946 active traders. Industrial output in the previous year's average prices, manufactured by enterprises of all types of property in the territory in 2005, was 377,41 mill. Lei or 135 percent from 2004; the volume index of industrial production in current prices compared with the previous year, accounted for 131.1%. If in 2004 there was industrial production value of 236,89 mill. Lei in 2005 production volume reached EUR 310,623 mill. Lei, or 73 million lei more than 734,000; the total volume of industrial production and return them 99%. Main enterprises are Cupcini-Cristal, InLac, Natur-Bravo, Apromaș and others.

Agriculture is the main branch in the district economy. In 2005 the overall volume of agricultural production in all categories of households in comparable prices, was 378.3 mill. Lei, exceeding the previous year by 28.3 million or 8%, compared to 2000 production agriculture increased by 18.5%. In 2005 agricultural production amounted to 415.1 mill. Lei, which showed an increase of 8.6% over the previous year and compared to 2000 – by 24.5%. The agricultural production structure has the dominant position in crop production – 75.1%, in 2005 obtained a harvest of cereals and legumes with a quantity of 108235 tons, achieving a yoy increase of 18.4 thousand tons, or 20.4% more. Average yield per hectare was winter wheat – 35 quintals, barley – 31 quintals, peas – 22 quintals, corn – 30 quintals. A significant revival soii attesting to increase the volume of production which increased compared to previous year 5850 tons or more, average productivity per hectare was 19 quintals to 15 quintals in 2004.

Increased by 8.7% potato and vegetables by 11.3%. In district are open 53 regular passenger routes, of which 9 – Chișinău, 15 – interdistrict, 3 – International, 26 – rural. Maintenance have been met roads the local district funded. Of the total planned maintenance and repair of 493,3 thousands lei roads this chapter have been assessed 493,3 thousands, of which 160,7 thousands lei were used to maintain winter 2005; as in other districts of "North Red" Communist Party dominates politics in 2001 when the Communists gather over 50%. But in the last two years the Communists are in a continuous decrease in the 2010 adding together 52.52% of votes. While the AEI during the last three elections has increased the result by 55.7%. The district operates 38 kindergartens and 44 undergraduate institutions, of which 8 schools, 8 middle schools, 28 secondary schools. In pre-school children to educate 3008, 61.2%, in 4815 the number of preschool children in the district. Preparatory working group 38 with a contingent of 835 children.


Oude Bildtdijk

The Oude Bildtdijk, "Ouwe dyk" in the local dialect "Het Bildts" was the first dike in the Dutch county Het Bildt, built in the 16th century, to protect the new lands from flooding. Het Bildt once was part of the Middelzee and until this day land silts up and new lands are being given by the Waddenzee; this dike was the first barrier to protect the Bildt area from the sea. The Nieuwe Bildtdijk, built in the 17th century made the Oude Bildtijk lose its protective function; the Nieuwe Bildtdijk lost its function when an higher and stronger dike was thrown up in the 20th century. Nowadays, a narrow road runs over the dike and many houses and farmhouses are situated along and of this dike. From the year 1546, under the rule of emperor Carl V, it was only allowed to build houses on the northern side of the dikes. Only with approval of the emperor was it allowed to build on the south side. Not more than two houses have been built on the south side, of which only one still exists this day, number 237.

This rule was to protect the precious land from housing, so it would be used for farming only. With a distance of 14 kilometers, the Oude Bildtdijk is the longest street of Friesland