Rose spots are red macules 2-4 millimeters in diameter occurring in patients with enteric fever. These fevers occur following infection by Salmonella Salmonella paratyphi respectively. Rose spots may occur following invasive non-typhoid salmonellosis. Rose spots are bacterial emboli to the skin and occur in 1/3 of cases of typhoid fever, they are one of the classic signs of untreated disease, but can be seen in other illnesses as well including shigellosis and nontyphoidal salmonellosis. They appear as a rash between the twelfth day from the onset of symptoms, they occur in groups of five to ten lesions on the lower chest and upper abdomen, they are more numerous following paratyphoid infection. Rose spots last three to four days. Gale's Encyclopedia of Medicine, published by Thomas Gale in 1999, ISBN 978-0-7876-1868-1 "www.healthatoz.com". Typhoid fever article which includes information on rose spots. Archived from the original on 21 February 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2006. "Organizational home".
Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 17 February 2006
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Inclusion bodies, sometimes called elementary bodies, are nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of stable substances proteins. They represent sites of viral multiplication in a bacterium or a eukaryotic cell and consist of viral capsid proteins. Inclusion bodies can be hallmarks of genetic diseases, as in the case of neuronal inclusion bodies in disorders like frontotemporal dementia and Parkinson's disease. Inclusion bodies contain little host protein, ribosomal components or DNA/RNA fragments, they almost contain the over expressed protein and aggregation in inclusion bodies has been reported to be reversible. It has been suggested that inclusion bodies are dynamic structures formed by an unbalanced equilibrium between aggregated and soluble proteins of Escherichia coli. There is a growing body of information indicating that formation of inclusion bodies occurs as a result of intracellular accumulation of folded expressed proteins which aggregate through non-covalent hydrophobic or ionic interactions or a combination of both.
Inclusion bodies are dense electron-refractile particles of aggregated protein found in both the cytoplasmic and periplasmic spaces of E. coli during high-level expression of heterologous protein. It is assumed that high level expression of non-native protein and hydrophobic protein is more prone to lead to accumulation as inclusion bodies in E. coli. In the case of proteins having disulfide bonds, formation of protein aggregates as inclusion bodies is anticipated since the reducing environment of bacterial cytosol inhibits the formation of disulfide bonds; the diameter of spherical bacterial inclusion bodies varies from 0.5–1.3 μm and the protein aggregates have either an amorphous or paracrystalline nature depending on the localization. Inclusion bodies have higher density than many of the cellular components, thus can be separated by high-speed centrifugation after cell disruption. Inclusion bodies despite being dense particles are hydrated and have a porous architecture. Inclusion bodies have a non-unit lipid membrane.
Protein inclusion bodies are classically thought to contain misfolded protein. However, this has been contested, as green fluorescent protein will sometimes fluoresce in inclusion bodies, which indicates some resemblance of the native structure and researchers have recovered folded protein from inclusion bodies; when genes from one organism are expressed in another organism the resulting protein sometimes forms inclusion bodies. This is true when large evolutionary distances are crossed: a cDNA isolated from Eukarya for example, expressed as a recombinant gene in a prokaryote risks the formation of the inactive aggregates of protein known as inclusion bodies. While the cDNA may properly code for a translatable mRNA, the protein that results will emerge in a foreign microenvironment; this has fatal effects if the intent of cloning is to produce a biologically active protein. For example, eukaryotic systems for carbohydrate modification and membrane transport are not found in prokaryotes; the internal microenvironment of a prokaryotic cell may differ from that of the original source of the gene.
Mechanisms for folding a protein may be absent, hydrophobic residues that would remain buried may be exposed and available for interaction with similar exposed sites on other ectopic proteins. Processing systems for the cleavage and removal of internal peptides would be absent in bacteria; the initial attempts to clone insulin in a bacterium suffered all of these deficits. In addition, the fine controls that may keep the concentration of a protein low will be missing in a prokaryotic cell, overexpression can result in filling a cell with ectopic protein that if it were properly folded, would precipitate by saturating its environment. Examples of viral inclusion bodies in animals are Intracytoplasmic eosinophilic - Negri bodies in Rabies Guarnieri bodies in vaccinia, variola Paschen bodies in variola Bollinger bodies in fowlpox Henderson-Patterson bodies in Molluscum contagiosum Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in boid inclusion body diseaseIntranuclear eosinophilic - Cowdry type A in Herpes simplex virus and Varicella zoster virus Torres bodies in Yellow fever Cowdry type B in Polio and adenovirusIntranuclear basophilic- Cowdry type B in Adenovirus "Owl's eye appearance" in cytomegalovirusBoth intranuclear and intracytoplasmic- Warthin–Finkeldey bodies in MeaslesExamples of viral inclusion bodies in plants include aggregations of virus particles and aggregations of viral proteins.
Depending on the plant and the plant virus family these inclusions can be found in epidermal cells, mesophyll cells, stomatal cells when plant tissue is properly stained. A red blood cell does not contain inclusions in the cytoplasm. However, it may be seen because of certain hematologic disorders. There are three kinds of erythrocyte inclusions: Developmental Organelles Howell-Jolly bodies: small, round fragments of the nucleus resulting from karyorrhexis or nuclear disintegration of the late reticulocyte and stain reddish-blue with Wright stain. Basophilic stipplings - these stipplings are either fine or coarse, deep blue to purple staining inclusion that appears in erythrocytes on a dried Wright stain. Pappenheimer bodies - are siderotic granules which are small, dark-staining granules that appear near the periphery of a young erythrocyte in a Wright stain. Polychromatophilic red cells - young red cells that no longer have nucleus but still contain some RNA. Cabot R
Negri bodies are eosinophilic outlined, pathognomonic inclusion bodies found in the cytoplasm of certain nerve cells containing the virus of rabies in pyramidal cells within Ammon's horn of the hippocampus. They are often found in the purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex from postmortem brain samples of rabies victims, they consist of ribonuclear proteins produced by the virus. They are named for Adelchi Negri. Adelchi Negri, an assistant pathologist working in the laboratory of Camillo Golgi, observed these inclusions in rabbits and dogs with rabies; these findings were presented in 1903 at a meeting of the Società Medico-Chirurgica of Pavia. The American pathologist Anna Wessels Williams made the same discovery, but because Negri published his results first, the bodies bear his name. Negri was convinced the inclusions were the etiologic agent of rabies; that same year, Paul Remlinger and Rifat-Bey Frasheri in Constantinople and, Alfonso di Vestea in Naples showed that the etiologic agent of rabies is a filterable virus.
Negri continued until 1909 to try to prove that the intraneuronal inclusions named after him corresponded to steps in the developmental cycle of a protozoan. In spite of his incorrect etiologic hypothesis, Negri’s discovery represented a breakthrough in the rapid diagnosis of rabies, the detection of Negri bodies, using a method developed by Anna Wessels Williams, remained the primary way to detect rabies for the next thirty years. Slide at pathmicro.med.sc.edu – see bottom See pathology video of Negri bodies
Risus sardonicus or rictus grin is a characteristic, sustained spasm of the facial muscles that appears to produce grinning. Risus sardonicus may be caused by strychnine poisoning or Wilson's disease; the name of the condition, which has its roots in the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, derives from the appearance of raised eyebrows and an open "grin" – which can appear sardonic or malevolent to the lay observer – displayed by those experiencing these muscle spasms. It is most observed as a sign of tetanus, it can be caused by poisoning with strychnine or Wilson's disease. In 2009 scientists at the University of Eastern Piedmont in Italy wrote that they had identified hemlock water dropwort as the plant responsible for producing the sardonic grin; this plant is the most candidate for the "sardonic herb", a neurotoxic plant used for the ritual killing of elderly people in pre-Roman, Nuragic Sardinia. Sardonicism Trismus Mr. Sardonicus Twelve Dreams of Dr. Sardonicus, a 1970 music album by Spirit Joker
In animal anatomy, the mouth known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds. It is the cavity lying at the upper end of the alimentary canal, bounded on the outside by the lips and inside by the pharynx and containing in higher vertebrates the tongue and teeth; this cavity is known as the buccal cavity, from the Latin bucca. Some animal phyla, including vertebrates, have a complete digestive system, with a mouth at one end and an anus at the other. Which end forms first in ontogeny is a criterion used to classify animals into protostomes and deuterostomes. In the first multicellular animals, there was no mouth or gut and food particles were engulfed by the cells on the exterior surface by a process known as endocytosis; the particles became enclosed in vacuoles into which enzymes were secreted and digestion took place intracellularly. The digestive products were diffused into other cells; this form of digestion is used nowadays by simple organisms such as Amoeba and Paramecium and by sponges which, despite their large size, have no mouth or gut and capture their food by endocytosis.
The vast majority of other multicellular organisms have a mouth and a gut, the lining of, continuous with the epithelial cells on the surface of the body. A few animals which live parasitically had guts but have secondarily lost these structures; the original gut of multicellular organisms consisted of a simple sac with a single opening, the mouth. Many modern invertebrates have such a system, food being ingested through the mouth broken down by enzymes secreted in the gut, the resulting particles engulfed by the other cells in the gut lining. Indigestible waste is ejected through the mouth. In animals at least as complex as an earthworm, the embryo forms a dent on one side, the blastopore, which deepens to become the archenteron, the first phase in the formation of the gut. In deuterostomes, the blastopore becomes the anus while the gut tunnels through to make another opening, which forms the mouth. In the protostomes, it used to be thought that the blastopore formed the mouth while the anus formed as an opening made by the other end of the gut.
More recent research, shows that in protostomes the edges of the slit-like blastopore close up in the middle, leaving openings at both ends that become the mouth and anus. Apart from sponges and placozoans all animals have an internal gut cavity, lined with gastrodermal cells. In less advanced invertebrates such as the sea anemone, the mouth acts as an anus. Circular muscles around the mouth are able to contract in order to open or close it. A fringe of tentacles thrusts food into the cavity and it can gape enough to accommodate large prey items. Food passes first into a pharynx and digestion occurs extracellularly in the gastrovascular cavity. Annelids have simple tube-like gets and the possession of an anus allows them to separate the digestion of their foodstuffs from the absorption of the nutrients. Many molluscs have a radula, used to scrape microscopic particles off surfaces. In invertebrates with hard exoskeletons, various mouthparts may be involved in feeding behaviour. Insects have a range of mouthparts suited to their mode of feeding.
These include mandibles and labium and can be modified into suitable appendages for chewing, piercing and sucking. Decapods have six pairs of mouth appendages, one pair of mandibles, two pairs of maxillae and three of maxillipeds. Sea urchins have a set of five sharp calcareous plates which are used as jaws and are known as Aristotle's lantern. In vertebrates, the first part of the digestive system is the buccal cavity known as the mouth; the buccal cavity of a fish is separated from the opercular cavity by the gills. Water flows in through passes over the gills and exits via the operculum or gill slits. Nearly all fish have jaws and may seize food with them but most feed by opening their jaws, expanding their pharynx and sucking in food items; the food may be held or chewed by teeth located in the jaws, on the roof of the mouth, on the pharynx or on the gill arches. Nearly all amphibians are carnivorous as adults. Many catch their prey by flicking out an elongated tongue with a sticky tip and drawing it back into the mouth where they hold the prey with their jaws.
They swallow their food whole without much chewing. They have many small hinged pedicellate teeth, the bases of which are attached to the jaws while the crowns break off at intervals and are replaced. Most amphibians have one or two rows of teeth in both jaws but some frogs lack teeth in the lower jaw. In many amphibians there are vomerine teeth attached to the bone in the roof of the mouth; the mouths of reptiles are similar to those of mammals. The crocodilians are the only reptiles to have teeth anchored in sockets in their jaws, they are able to replace each of their 80 teeth up to 50 times during their lives. Most reptiles are either carnivorous or insectivorous but turtles are herbivorous. Lacking teeth that are suitable for efficiently chewing of their food, turtles have gastroliths in their stomach to further grind the plant material. Snakes have a flexible lower jaw, the two halves of which are not rigidly attached, numerous other joints in their skull; these modifications allow them to open their mouths wide enough to swallow their prey whole if it is wider than they are.
Birds do not have teeth, macerating their food. Their beaks have a range of sizes and shapes according to their diet and are compose
Koplik spots are a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting two to three days before the measles rash itself. They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa and are pathognomonic for measles; the textbook description of Koplik spots is ulcerated mucosal lesions marked by necrosis, neutrophilic exudate, neovascularization. They are described as appearing like "grains of salt on a wet background", fade as the maculopapular rash develops; as well as their diagnostic significance they are important in the control of outbreaks. Their appearance, in context of a diagnosed case, before they reach maximum infectivity, permits isolation of the contacts and aids control of this infectious disease. Nobel laureate John F. Enders and Thomas Peebles, who first isolated measles virus were careful to collect their samples from patients showing Koplik's spots. Koplik's spots are named after Henry Koplik, an American pediatrician who published a short description of them in 1896, emphasising their appearance before the skin rash and their value in the differential diagnosis of diseases with which measles might be mistaken.
He published two further papers including one with a colour illustration. An anonymous reviewer of Koplik's The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood refers to the illustration as "the now famous coloured plate"; some authors ascribe the first written description of these spots to Reubold, Würzburg 1854, others to Johann Andreas Murray. Before Koplik, the German internist Carl Jakob Adolf Christian Gerhardt in 1874, the Danish physician N. Flindt in 1879, the Russian Nil Filatov in 1895, had observed equivalent phenomena. Koplik was aware of Filatov's work, thought his evidence insufficient and rejected his claim for priority. Steichen, O. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. 180: 583. Doi:10.1503/cmaj.080724. PMC 2645467. PMID 19255085. Koplik spots in early measles - Canadian Medical Association Journal