George Campbell (minister)
Rev George Campbell DD FRSE was a figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, known as a philosopher and professor of divinity. Campbell was primarily interested in rhetoric, since he believed that its study would enable his students to become better preachers and he became a philosopher of rhetoric because he took it that the philosophical changes of the Age of Enlightenment would have implications for rhetoric. Campbell was born on 25 December 1719 in Aberdeen, at the age of fifteen, Campbell attended Marischal College where he studied logic, pneumatology and natural philosophy. After graduating with his M. A. in 1738, Campbell decided to study law and he began gravitating towards theology after attending lectures at the University of Edinburgh. After serving out his term as an apprentice, he returned to Aberdeen, because of the tumultuous political landscape in Scotland, Campbells divinity examinations were delayed until 1746 when he received his licence to preach. Within two years, he received ordination at the parish of Banchory Ternan, the origin of Campbells scholarly career can be traced back to his years at the parish.
He established himself as a critic, and lecturer of holy writ. Campbell began his lifelong ambition of translating the gospels, and around 1750, Campbells growing reputation impressed the magistrates of the city of Aberdeen and he was offered a ministerial position in 1757. His return brought him to the core of the intellectual community in northeast Scotland. In 1759, Campbell was offered the position of principal at Marischal College, during his time at Marischal, Campbell was a founding member of the Aberdeen Philosophical Society along with philosopher Thomas Reid, John Gregory, David Skene, John Stewart and Robert Trail. Many members of the Society, including Reid and Gregory, were great admirers of Francis Bacon, Campbells work was very much influenced by the groups members. The Philosophy of Rhetoric was originally read in discourses before this Society, Campbells first major publication, A Dissertation in Miracles, was directed against David Humes attack on miracles in An Enquiry concerning Human Understanding.
Campbell was influenced by Hume, but took issue with his philosophical strictures. Even though both were in opposition over almost every point of philosophy and Hume shared a mutual respect. Thanks in part to the success of Miracles, Campbell became a Professor of Divinity at Marischal in 1770 and he lectured to students to prepare them for the demands of the ministry, both practical and spiritual. Campbell gave lectures on Church history, published as Lectures on Ecclesiastical History, after completing The Philosophy of Rhetoric, Campbell published several sermons and finished his lifelong ambition, The Four Gospels, Translated from the Greek. In December 1793 he was a Founder Member of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Campbell continued lecturing until ill health forced him into retirement in 1795 and he died on 6 April 1796. He is buried in St Nicholas Churchyard in Aberdeen, while Campbells literary life was dominated by pedagogical and pastoral concerns, it is apparent that his mind was tempered by the values of the Enlightenment
Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece. His father, died when Aristotle was a child, at seventeen or eighteen years of age, he joined Platos Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of thirty-seven. Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, teaching Alexander the Great gave Aristotle many opportunities and an abundance of supplies. He established a library in the Lyceum which aided in the production of many of his hundreds of books and he believed all peoples concepts and all of their knowledge was ultimately based on perception. Aristotles views on natural sciences represent the groundwork underlying many of his works, Aristotles views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, some of Aristotles zoological observations, such as on the hectocotyl arm of the octopus, were not confirmed or refuted until the 19th century.
His works contain the earliest known study of logic, which was incorporated in the late 19th century into modern formal logic. Aristotle was well known among medieval Muslim intellectuals and revered as The First Teacher and his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics. All aspects of Aristotles philosophy continue to be the object of academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues – Cicero described his style as a river of gold – it is thought that only around a third of his original output has survived. Aristotle, whose means the best purpose, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice. His father Nicomachus was the physician to King Amyntas of Macedon. Aristotle was orphaned at a young age, although there is little information on Aristotles childhood, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy. At the age of seventeen or eighteen, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Platos Academy and he remained there for nearly twenty years before leaving Athens in 348/47 BC.
Aristotle accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor, there, he traveled with Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island. Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermiass adoptive daughter or niece and she bore him a daughter, whom they named Pythias. Soon after Hermias death, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander in 343 BC, Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave not only to Alexander
The phrase pathetic fallacy is a literary term for the attributing of human emotion and conduct to all aspects within nature. It is a kind of personification that is found in writing when, for example, clouds seem sullen. The British cultural critic John Ruskin coined the term in his book, wordsworth supported this use of personification based on emotion by claiming that objects. Derive their influence not from properties inherent in them, but from such as are bestowed upon them by the minds of those who are conversant with or affected by these objects. The old order was beginning to be replaced by the new just as Ruskin addressed the matter, as a critic, Ruskin proved influential and is credited with having helped to refine poetic expression. The meaning of the term has changed significantly from the idea Ruskin had in mind, Ruskins original definition is emotional falseness, or the falseness that occurs to ones perceptions when influenced by violent or heightened emotion. For example, when a person is unhinged by grief, the clouds might seem darker than they are, there have been other changes to Ruskins phrase since he coined it, The particular definition that Ruskin used for the word fallacy has since become obsolete.
The word fallacy nowadays is defined as an example of a flawed logic, in the same way, the word pathetic simply meant for Ruskin emotional or pertaining to emotion. Setting aside Ruskins original intentions, and despite this linguistic rocky road, in his essay, Ruskin demonstrates his original meaning by offering lines of a poem, Ruskin points out that the foam is not cruel, neither does it crawl. Above quoted, not because they fallaciously describe foam, but because they faithfully describe sorrow. Ruskin intended that pathetic fallacy may refer to any untrue quality, as in the description of a crocus as gold, an example is the metaphorical phrase Nature abhors a vacuum, which contains the suggestion that nature is capable of abhorring something. There are more accurate and scientific ways to describe nature and vacuums, another example of a pathetic fallacy is the expression, Air hates to be crowded, when compressed, it will try to escape to an area of lower pressure. It is not accurate to suggest that air hates anything or tries to do anything, anthropomorphism Figure of speech Literary technique Morgans Canon Ruskin, J.
Of the Pathetic Fallacy, Modern Painters III http, //www. ourcivilisation. com/smartboard/shop/ruskinj/ Abrams, a Glossary of Literary Terms, 7th edition. Fort Worth, Harcourt Brace College Publishers,1999, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press,1994
In the Platonic, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for the fashioning and maintenance of the physical universe. The term was adopted by the Gnostics, depending on the system, they may be considered to be either uncreated and eternal, or considered to be the product of some other entity. The philosophical usage and the proper noun derive from Platos Timaeus, written c.360 BC and this is accordingly the definition of the demiurge in the Platonic and Middle Platonic philosophical traditions. In the various branches of the Neoplatonic school, the demiurge is the fashioner of the real, perceptible world after the model of the Ideas, Plato, as the speaker Timaeus, refers to the Demiurge frequently in the Socratic dialogue Timaeus, c.360 BC. The main character refers to the Demiurge as the entity who fashioned and shaped the material world, Timaeus describes the Demiurge as unreservedly benevolent, and hence desirous of a world as good as possible.
The world remains imperfect, because the Demiurge created the world out of a chaotic, Platos work Timaeus is a philosophical reconciliation of Hesiods cosmology in his Theogony, syncretically reconciling Hesiod to Homer. In Numeniuss Neo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonist cosmogony, the Demiurge is second God as the nous or thought of intelligibles and sensibles and the Platonists worked to clarify the Demiurge. To Plotinus, the second emanation represents a second cause. In order to reconcile Aristotelian with Platonian philosophy, Plotinus metaphorically identified the demiurge within the pantheon of the Greek Gods as Zeus, the first and highest aspect of God is described by Plato as the One, the source, or the Monad. This is the God above the Demiurge, and manifests through the work of the Demiurge, the Monad emanated the demiurge or Nous from its indeterminate vitality due to the monad being so abundant that it overflowed back onto itself, causing self-reflection. This self-reflection of the indeterminate vitality was referred to by Plotinus as the Demiurge or creator, the second principle is organization in its reflection of the nonsentient force or dynamis, called the one or the Monad.
Plotinus form of Platonic idealism is to treat the Demiurge, nous as the contemplative faculty within man which orders the force into conscious reality. In this he claimed to reveal Platos true meaning, a doctrine he learned from Platonic tradition that did not appear outside the academy or in Platos text. This tradition of creator God as nous, can be validated in the works of philosophers such as Numenius. Before Numenius of Apamea and Plotinus Enneads, no Platonic works ontologically clarified the Demiurge from the allegory in Platos Timaeus. The idea of Demiurge was, addressed before Plotinus in the works of Christian writer Justin Martyr who built his understanding of the Demiurge on the works of Numenius. The figure of the Demiurge emerges in the theoretic of Iamblichus, here, at the summit of this system, the Source and Demiurge coexist via the process of henosis. The One is further separated into spheres of intelligence, the first and superior sphere is objects of thought, within this intellectual triad Iamblichus assigns the third rank to the Demiurge, identifying it with the perfect or Divine nous with the intellectual triad being promoted to a hebdomad
Passion is a very strong feeling about a person or thing. Passion is an emotion, a compelling enthusiasm or desire for something. It is particularly used in the context of romance or sexual desire though it implies a deeper or more encompassing emotion than that implied by the term lust. They can be so strong as to inhibit all practice of personal freedom and it was only with the Romantic movement that a valorisation of passion over reason took hold in the Western tradition, the more Passion there is, the better the Poetry. Antonio Damasio studied what ensued when something severed ties between the centres of the emotional brain. and the thinking abilities of the neocortex. The passions, he concluded, have a say on how the rest of the brain, a frame of reference – as opposed to Descartes error. the Cartesian idea of a disembodied mind. A tension or dialectic between marriage and passion can be traced back in Western society at least as far as the Middle Ages, denis de Rougemont has argued that since its origins in the twelfth century, passionate love was constituted in opposition to marriage.
There are different reasons individuals are motivated for an occupation, one of these includes passion for the occupation. When an individual is passionate about their occupation they tend to be obsessive about their behavior while on their job, resulting in more work being done. These same individuals have higher levels of psychological well-being, when people genuinely enjoy their profession and are motivated by their passion, they tend to be more satisfied with their work and more psychologically healthy. When individuals are unsatisfied with their profession they tend to be dissatisfied with their family relationships, other reasons people are more satisfied when they are motivated by their passion for their occupation include the effects of intrinsic and external motivations. When an individual is doing the job to satisfy others, they tend to have levels of satisfaction. Also, these individuals have shown they are motivated by several beliefs. Thirdly, though some individuals believe one should not work extreme hours, on the other hand, this may put a strain on family relationships and friendships.
The balance of the two is something that is hard to achieve and it is hard to satisfy both parties. There are different components that qualify as reasons for considering an individual as a workaholic, burke & Fiksenbaum refer to Spence and Robbins by stating two of the three workaholism components that are used to measure workaholism. These include feeling driven to work because of pressure and work enjoyment. Both of these affect an individual differently and each has different outcomes, to begin, work enjoyment brings about more positive work outcomes and is unrelated to health indicators
Emotion, generally speaking, is any relatively brief conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a high degree of pleasure or displeasure. Scientific discourse has drifted to other meanings and there is no consensus on a definition, Emotion is often intertwined with mood, personality and motivation. In some theories, cognition is an important aspect of emotion and those acting primarily on the emotions they are feeling may seem as if they are not thinking, but mental processes are still essential, particularly in the interpretation of events. For example, the realization of our believing that we are in a dangerous situation, other theories, claim that emotion is separate from and can precede cognition. According to some theories, they are states of feeling that result in physical and psychological changes that influence our behavior, the physiology of emotion is closely linked to arousal of the nervous system with various states and strengths of arousal relating, apparently, to particular emotions.
Emotion is linked to behavioral tendency, extroverted people are more likely to be social and express their emotions, while introverted people are more likely to be more socially withdrawn and conceal their emotions. Emotion is often the force behind motivation, positive or negative. Nor is the emotion an entity that causes these components, Emotions involve different components, such as subjective experience, cognitive processes, expressive behavior, psychophysiological changes, and instrumental behavior. More recently, emotion is said to consist of all the components, the different components of emotion are categorized somewhat differently depending on the academic discipline. In psychology and philosophy, emotion typically includes a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psychophysiological expressions, biological reactions, a similar multicomponential description of emotion is found in sociology. For example, Peggy Thoits described emotions as involving physiological components, cultural or emotional labels, expressive body actions, the numerous theories that attempt to explain the origin, neurobiology and function of emotions have only fostered more intense research on this topic.
Current areas of research in the concept of emotion include the development of materials that stimulate, in addition PET scans and fMRI scans help study the affective processes in the brain. Emotions can be defined as a positive or negative experience that is associated with a pattern of physiological activity. Emotions produce different physiological and cognitive changes, the original role of emotions was to motivate adaptive behaviors that in the past would have contributed to the survival of humans. Emotions are responses to significant internal and external events, the word emotion dates back to 1579, when it was adapted from the French word émouvoir, which means to stir up. The term emotion was introduced into academic discussion to replace passion, according to one dictionary, the earliest precursors of the word likely dates back to the very origins of language. The modern word emotion is heterogeneous In some uses of the word, on the other hand, emotion can be used to refer to states that are mild and to states that are not directed at anything.
One line of research looks at the meaning of the word emotion in everyday language
Being is an extremely broad concept encompassing objective and subjective features of reality and existence. Anything that partakes in being is called a being, though often this usage is limited to entities that have subjectivity. The notion of being has, been elusive and controversial in the history of philosophy, as an example of efforts in recent times, Martin Heidegger adopted German terms like Dasein to articulate the topic. Several modern approaches build on such continental European exemplars as Heidegger, and apply metaphysical results to the understanding of human psychology and the human condition generally. By contrast, in mainstream Analytical philosophy the topic is more confined to abstract investigation, in the work of influential theorists as W. V. O. Quine. One most fundamental question that continues to exercise philosophers is put by William James, from nothing to being there is no logical bridge. The deficit of such a bridge was first encountered in history by the Pre-Socratic philosophers during the process of evolving a classification of all beings, who wrote after the Pre-Socratics, applies the term category to ten highest-level classes.
They comprise one category of substance existing independently and nine categories of accidents, in Aristotle, substances are to be clarified by stating their definition, a note expressing a larger class followed by further notes expressing specific differences within the class. The substance so defined was a species, for example, the species, may be defined as an animal that is rational. As the difference is potential within the genus, that is, an animal may or may not be rational, the difference is not identical to, and may be distinct from, the genus. Applied to being, the system fails to arrive at a definition for the reason that no difference can be found. The species, the genus, and the difference are all equally being, the genus cannot be nothing because nothing is not a class of everything. The trivial solution that being is being added to nothing is only a tautology, there is no simpler intermediary between being and non-being that explains and classifies being. Pre-Socratic reaction to this deficit was varied, as substance theorists they accepted a priori the hypothesis that appearances are deceiving, that reality is to be reached through reasoning.
Parmenides reasoned that if everything is identical to being and being is a category of the thing there can be neither differences between things nor any change. To be different, or to change, would amount to becoming or being non-being, being is a homogeneous and non-differentiated sphere and the appearance of beings is illusory. Heraclitus, on the hand, foreshadowed modern thought by denying existence. Reality does not exist, it flows, and beings are an illusion upon the flow, what being is, is just the question, what is substance
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of study and a productive civic practice. Its best known definition comes from Aristotle, who considers it a counterpart of both logic and politics, and calls it the faculty of observing in any case the available means of persuasion. The five canons of rhetoric, which trace the traditional tasks in designing a persuasive speech, were first codified in classical Rome, arrangement, memory, along with grammar and logic, rhetoric is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a part of Western education. Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times, although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times.
Many contemporary approaches treat rhetoric as human communication that includes purposeful, Public relations, law, marketing and technical writing, and advertising are modern professions that employ rhetorical practitioners. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a tool to influence politics. Consequently, rhetoric remains associated with its political origins, even the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric. According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic and this method suggested rhetoric could be a means of communicating any expertise, not just politics. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias even applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his opinions of the art.
He criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth, in Gorgias, one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Platos opinion, is merely a form of flattery and functions similarly to cookery, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, and epideictic, when one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice
Pathology is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Similarly, a condition is one caused by disease, rather than occurring physiologically. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist, as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease, mechanisms of development, structural alterations of cells, and the consequences of changes. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types, the sense of the word pathology as a synonym of disease or pathosis is very common in health care. The persistence of this usage despite attempted proscription is discussed elsewhere, the study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Notably, many advances were made in the era of Islam, during which numerous texts of complex pathologies were developed. By the 17th century, the study of microscopy was underway and examination of tissues had led British Royal Society member Robert Hooke to coin the word cell, setting the stage for germ theory.
However, pathology as an area of specialty was not fully developed until the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This realization led to the understanding that diseases are able to replicate themselves. To determine causes of diseases, medical experts used the most common and widely accepted assumptions or symptoms of their times, by the late 1920s to early 1930s pathology was deemed a medical specialty. The modern practice of pathology is divided into a number of subdisciplines within the discrete but deeply interconnected aims of biological research, anatomical pathology is itself divided into subfields, the main divisions being surgical pathology and forensic pathology. Sometimes, pathologists practice both anatomical and clinical pathology, a known as general pathology. Cytopathology is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level, cytology samples may be prepared in other ways, including cytocentrifugation. Dermatopathology is a subspecialty of pathology that focuses on the skin.
It is unique, in there are two paths a physician can take to obtain the specialization. The completion of this allows one to take a subspecialty board examination. Dermatologists are able to recognize most skin diseases based on their appearances, anatomic distributions, however, those criteria do not lead to a conclusive diagnosis, and a skin biopsy is taken to be examined under the microscope using usual histological tests. One of the greatest challenges of dermatopathology is its scope, more than 1500 different disorders of the skin exist, including cutaneous eruptions and neoplasms
Ancient Greek philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire. Philosophy was used to sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a variety of subjects, including political philosophy, metaphysics, logic, rhetoric. Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception, alfred North Whitehead once noted, The safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. Clear, unbroken lines of lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers to Early Islamic philosophy, the European Renaissance. Some claim that Greek philosophy, in turn, was influenced by the wisdom literature. But they taught themselves to reason, Philosophy as we understand it is a Greek creation. Subsequent philosophic tradition was so influenced by Socrates as presented by Plato that it is conventional to refer to philosophy developed prior to Socrates as pre-Socratic philosophy.
The periods following this, up to and after the wars of Alexander the Great, are those of classical Greek, the pre-Socratics were primarily concerned with cosmology and mathematics. They were distinguished from non-philosophers insofar as they rejected mythological explanations in favor of reasoned discourse, Thales of Miletus, regarded by Aristotle as the first philosopher, held that all things arise from water. It is not because he gave a cosmogony that John Burnet calls him the first man of science, according to tradition, Thales was able to predict an eclipse and taught the Egyptians how to measure the height of the pyramids. He began from the observation that the world seems to consist of opposites, they cannot truly be opposites but rather must both be manifestations of some underlying unity that is neither. This underlying unity could not be any of the classical elements, for example, water is wet, the opposite of dry, while fire is dry, the opposite of wet. Anaximenes in turn held that the arche was air, although John Burnet argues that by this he meant that it was a transparent mist, the aether.
Xenophanes was born in Ionia, where the Milesian school was at its most powerful, Burnet says that Xenophanes was not, however, a scientific man, with many of his naturalistic explanations having no further support than that they render the Homeric gods superfluous or foolish. He has been claimed as an influence on Eleatic philosophy, although that is disputed, and a precursor to Epicurus, a representative of a total break between science and religion. Pythagoras lived at roughly the time that Xenophanes did and, in contrast to the latter. Parmenides of Elea cast his philosophy against those who held it is and is not the same, and all travel in opposite directions, —presumably referring to Heraclitus
Ethos is a Greek word meaning character that is used to describe the guiding beliefs or ideals that characterize a community, nation, or ideology. The Greeks used this word to refer to the power of music to influence emotions, Early Greek stories of Orpheus exhibit this idea in a compelling way. The words use in rhetoric is closely based on the Greek terminology used by Aristotle in his concept of the three artistic proofs, Ethos is a Greek word originally meaning accustomed place, habit, equivalent to Latin mores. Ethos forms the root of ethikos, meaning moral, showing moral character, used as a verb in the neuter plural form ta ethika, used for the study of morals, it is the origin of the modern English word ethics. In modern usage, ethos denotes the disposition, character, or fundamental values particular to a person, corporation, culture. For example, the poet and critic T. S. Eliot wrote in 1940 that the ethos of the people they have to govern determines the behaviour of politicians. Similarly the historian Orlando Figes wrote in 1996 that in Soviet Russia of the 1920s the ethos of the Communist party dominated every aspect of public life, Ethos may change in response to new ideas or forces. the ethos of rapid development.
In rhetoric, ethos is one of the three artistic proofs or modes of persuasion discussed by Aristotle in Rhetoric as a component of argument, speakers must establish ethos from the start. This can involve moral competence only, Aristotle however broadens the concept to include expertise, Ethos is limited, in his view, by what the speaker says. According to Aristotle, there are three categories of ethos, phronesis – practical skills & wisdom arete – virtue, goodness eunoia – goodwill towards the audience In a sense, ethos does not belong to the speaker but to the audience. Thus, it is the audience that determines whether a speaker is a high- or a low-ethos speaker, completely dismissing an argument based on any of the above violations of ethos is an informal fallacy. The argument may indeed be suspect, but is not, in itself, for Aristotle, a speakers ethos was a rhetorical strategy employed by an orator whose purpose was to inspire trust in his audience. While moral virtue comes about as a result of habit, whence its name ethike is one that is formed by a variation from the word ethos.
Crafting an ethos within such restrictive moral codes, meant adhering to membership of what Nancy Fraser, rather they are deceptions in the sophistic sense, recognitions of the ways one is positioned multiply differently. Rhetorical scholar Michael Halloran has argued that the understanding of ethos emphasizes the conventional rather than the idiosyncratic. According to Nedra Reynolds, like postmodern subjectivity and changes over time, across texts, Reynolds additionally discusses how one might clarify the meaning of ethos within rhetoric as expressing inherently communal roots. Rhetorical scholar John Oddo suggests that ethos is negotiated across a community, in the era of mass-mediated communication, Oddo contends, ones ethos is often created by journalists and dispersed over multiple news texts. With this in mind, Oddo coins the term intertextual ethos, pittman writes, Unfortunately, in the history of race relations in America, black Americans ethos ranks low among other racial and ethnic groups in the United States