American Red Cross
The American Red Cross known as The American National Red Cross, is a humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, disaster preparedness education in the United States. It is the designated US affiliate of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and the United States movement to the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement; the organization offers services and development programs. ARC was established in Washington, D. C. on May 21, 1881, by Clara Barton. She became its first president. Barton organized a meeting on May 12 of that year at the home of Senator Omar D. Conger. Fifteen people were present at this first meeting, including Barton and Representative William Lawrence; the first local chapter was established in 1881 at the English Evangelical Lutheran Church of Dansville, New York. Jane Delano founded the American Red Cross Nursing Service on January 20, 1910. Clara Barton founded the American chapter after learning of the Red Cross in Switzerland.
In 1869, she went to Europe and became involved in the work of the International Red Cross during the Franco-Prussian War. She was determined to bring the organization to America. Barton became President of the American branch of the society, known as the American National Red Cross in May 1881 in Washington; the first chapters opened in upstate New York. John D. Rockefeller and four others donated money to help create a national headquarters near the White House. Frederick Douglass, famed abolitionist and friend of Clara Barton offered advice and support as Barton sought to establish the American chapter or the global Red Cross network; as Register of Deeds for the District of Columbia, Douglass signed the original Articles of Incorporation for the American Red Cross. Barton led one of the group's first major relief efforts, a response to the September 4–6, 1881 Great Fire of 1881 in the Thumb region of Michigan. Over 5,000 people were left homeless; the next major disaster was the Johnstown Flood, which occurred on May 31, 1889.
Over 2,209 people died and thousands more were injured in or near Johnstown, Pennsylvania in one of the worst disasters in United States history. Barton was unable to build up a staff she trusted and her fundraising was lackluster, she was forced out in 1904. Professional social work experts took control and made the group a model of Progressive Era scientific reform. New leader Mabel Thorp Boardman consulted with senior government officials, military officers, social workers, financiers. William Howard Taft was influential, they imposed an ethos of "managerialism", transforming the agency from Barton's cult of personality to an "organizational humanitarianism" ready for expansion. ARC is a nationwide network of 36 blood service regions. 166,000 Red Cross volunteers, including FemaCorps and AmeriCorps members, 30,000 employees annually mobilize relief to people affected by more than 67,000 disasters, train 4 million people in necessary medical skills and exchange more than a million emergency messages for U.
S. military service personnel and their family members. ARC is the largest supplier of blood products in the US, supplying 2,600 hospitals; the charity assists victims of international disasters and conflicts worldwide, connecting separated family members. In 2006, the organization had over $6 billion in total revenues, though revenues have fallen since Katrina. At that time, revenue from blood and blood products alone was over $2 billion - biological services represents about 63% of total operating expenses, though the unit operates at a deficit; the American Red Cross is divided into five divisions: Disaster Services, Blood Services, Training Services, International Services, Service to the Armed Forces. William K. Van Reypen 1905–06 Robert Maitland O'Reilly 1906 George Whitefield Davis 1906–15 William Howard Taft 1915–19 Livingston Farrand 1919–21 John Barton Payne 1921–35 Cary T. Grayson 1935–38 Norman Davis 1938–44 Basil O'Connor 1944–47, title changed to President, 1947–49 George Marshall 1949–1950 E. Roland Harriman 1950–1953, title changed to Chairman, 1954–73 Frank Stanton 1973–79 Jerome H. Holland 1979–85 George F.
Moody 1985–92 Norman Ralph Augustine 1992–2001 David T. McLaughlin 2001–04 Bonnie McElveen-Hunter 2004–present Recent presidents and CEOs include Gail McGovern, Elizabeth Dole, Bernadine Healy, Mary S. Elcano, Mark W. Everson and John F. McGuire. In 2007, U. S. legislation clarified the role for the Board of Governors and that of the senior management in the wake of difficulties following Hurricane Katrina. As of November 2017, the American Red Cross scores three out of four stars in Charity Navigator and B+ at CharityWatch. In 1996, the Chronicle of Philanthropy, an industry magazine, released the results of the largest study of charitable and non-profit organization popularity and credibility; the study showed that ARC was ranked as the third "most popular charity/non-profit in America" of over 100 charities researched with 48% of Americans over the age of 12 choosing "Love", "Like A lot" to describe the Red Cross. Cora L. Abbott, organizer of Turlock Red Cross Chapter Minnie C. Benson, American Red Cross Reserve alist Inez Mee Boren, organizing chairwoman of the Lindsay Strathmore Branch of the American Red Cross Emily M. Bruen, member of Committee for Red Cross Emilie Henry Burcham, treasurer Spokane Chapter American Red Cross Euna Pearl Burke, member of Board of Directors of Red Cross Emma P. Chadwick, member Executive Board of Red Cross Louise Keller Cherry, on
The doctor–patient relationship is a central part of health care and the practice of medicine. The doctor–patient relationship forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics. A patient must have confidence in the competence of their physician and must feel that they can confide in him or her. For most physicians, the establishment of good rapport with a patient is important; some medical specialties, such as psychiatry and family medicine, emphasize the physician–patient relationship more than others, such as pathology or radiology, which have little contact with patients. The quality of the patient–physician relationship is important to both parties; the doctor and patient's values and perspectives about disease and time available play a role in building up this relationship. A strong relationship between the doctor and patient will lead to frequent, quality information about the patient's disease and better health care for the patient and their family. Enhancing the accuracy of the diagnosis and increasing the patient's knowledge about the disease all come with a good relationship between the doctor and the patient.
Where such a relationship is poor the physician's ability to make a full assessment is compromised and the patient is more to distrust the diagnosis and proposed treatment, causing decreased compliance to follow the medical advice which results in bad health outcomes. In these circumstances and in cases where there is genuine divergence of medical opinions, a second opinion from another physician may be sought or the patient may choose to go to another physician that they trust more. Additionally, the benefits of any placebo effect are based upon the patient's subjective assessment of the physician's credibility and skills. Michael and Enid Balint together pioneered the study of the physician patient relationship in the UK. Michael Balint's "The Doctor, His Patient and the Illness" outlined several case histories in detail and became a seminal text, their work is continued by the Balint Society, The International Balint Federation and other national Balint societies in other countries. It is one of the most influential works on the topic of doctor-patient relationships.
In addition, a Canadian physician known as Sir William Osler was known as one of the "Big Four" professors at the time that the Johns Hopkins Hospital was first founded. At the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Osler had invented the world's first medical residency system. In terms of efficacy, the doctor–patient relationship seems to have a "small, but statistically significant impact on healthcare outcomes". However, due to a small sample size and a minimally effective test, researchers concluded additional research on this topic is necessary. Recognizing that patients receive the best care when they work in partnership with doctors, the UK General Medical Council issued guidance for patients "What to expect from your doctor" in April 2013; the following aspects of the doctor–patient relationship are the subject of commentary and discussion. The default medical practice for showing respect to patients and their families is for the doctor to be truthful in informing the patient of their health and to be direct in asking for the patient's consent before giving treatment.
In many cultures there has been a shift from paternalism, the view that the "doctor always knows best," to the idea that patients must have a choice in the provision of their care and be given the right to provide informed consent to medical procedures. There can be issues with. Furthermore, there are ethical concerns regarding the use of placebo. Does giving a sugar pill lead to an undermining of trust between doctor and patient? Is deceiving a patient for his or her own good compatible with a respectful and consent-based doctor–patient relationship? These types of questions come up in the healthcare system and the answers to all of these questions are far from clear but should be informed by medical ethics. Shared decision making is the idea that as a patient gives informed consent to treatment, that patient is given an opportunity to choose among the treatment options provided by the physician, responsible for their healthcare; this means the doctor does not recommend what the patient should do, rather the patient's autonomy is respected and they choose what medical treatment they want to have done.
A practice, an alternative to this is for the doctor to make a person's health decisions without considering that person's treatment goals or having that person's input into the decision-making process is grossly unethical and against the idea of personal autonomy and freedom. The spectrum of a physician’s inclusion of a patient into treatment decisions is well represented in Ulrich Beck’s World at Risk. At one end of this spectrum is Beck’s Negotiated Approach to risk communication, in which the communicator maintains an open dialogue with the patient and settles on a compromise on which both patient and physician agree. A majority of physicians employ a variation of this communication model to some degree, as it is only with this technique that a doctor can maintain the open cooperation of his or her patient. At the opposite end of this spectrum is the Technocratic Approach to risk communication, in which the physician exerts authoritarian control over the patient’s treatment and pushes the patient to accept the treatment plan with which they are presented in a paternalistic manner.
This communication model places the physician in a position of omniscience and omnipotence over the patient and leaves little room for patient cont
Veterinary medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and treatment of disease and injury in non-human animals. The scope of veterinary medicine is wide, covering all animal species, both domesticated and wild, with a wide range of conditions which can affect different species. Veterinary medicine is practiced, both with and without professional supervision. Professional care is most led by a veterinary physician, but by paraveterinary workers such as veterinary nurses or technicians; this can be augmented by other paraprofessionals with specific specialisms such as animal physiotherapy or dentistry, species relevant roles such as farriers. Veterinary science helps human health through the monitoring and control of zoonotic disease, food safety, indirectly through human applications from basic medical research, they help to maintain food supply through livestock health monitoring and treatment, mental health by keeping pets healthy and long living. Veterinary scientists collaborate with epidemiologists, other health or natural scientists depending on type of work.
Ethically, veterinarians are obliged to look after animal welfare. Archeological evidence, in the form of a cow skull upon which trepanation had been performed, shows that people were performing veterinary procedures in the Neolithic; the Egyptian Papyrus of Kahun is the first extant record of veterinary medicine. The Shalihotra Samhita, dating from the time of Ashoka, is an early Indian veterinary treatise; the edicts of Asoka read: "Everywhere King Piyadasi made two kinds of medicine available, medicine for people and medicine for animals. Where there were no healing herbs for people and animals, he ordered that they be bought and planted."Hippiatrica is a Byzantine compilation of hippiatrics, dated to the 5th or 6th century. The first attempts to organize and regulate the practice of treating animals tended to focus on horses because of their economic significance. In the Middle Ages, farriers combined their work in horseshoeing with the more general task of "horse doctoring"; the Arabic tradition of Bayṭara, or Shiyāt al-Khayl, originates with the treatise of Ibn Akhī Hizām.
In 1356, the Lord Mayor of London, concerned at the poor standard of care given to horses in the city, requested that all farriers operating within a seven-mile radius of the City of London form a "fellowship" to regulate and improve their practices. This led to the establishment of the Worshipful Company of Farriers in 1674. Meanwhile, Carlo Ruini's book Anatomia del Cavallo, was published in 1598, it was the first comprehensive treatise on the anatomy of a non-human species. The first veterinary school was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary school in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The school received immediate international recognition in the eighteenth century and its pedagogical model drew on the existing fields of human medicine, natural history, comparative anatomy.
The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain. A founding member, Thomas Burgess, began to take up the cause of animal welfare and campaign for the more humane treatment of sick animals. A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The physician James Clark wrote a treatise entitled Prevention of Disease in which he argued for the professionalization of the veterinary trade, the establishment of veterinary colleges. This was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman, Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research.
In the United States, the first schools were established in the early 19th century in Boston, New York and Philadelphia. In 1879, Iowa Agricultural College became the first land grant college to establish a school of veterinary medicine. Veterinary care and management is led by a veterinary physician; this role is the equivalent of a doctor in human medicine, involves post-graduate study and qualification. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a vet is a protected term, meaning that people without the prerequisite qualifications and/or registration are not able to use the title, in many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a vet are restricted only to those people who are registered as vet. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered vets, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a vet or perform any treatment. Most vets work in clinical s
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Stafford Hospital scandal
The Stafford Hospital scandal concerns poor care and high mortality rates amongst patients at the Stafford Hospital, England, in the late 2000s. The hospital was run by the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, supervised by the West Midlands Strategic Health Authority, it has been renamed County Hospital. Julie Bailey, whose mother died in her home, in 2007, started a campaign called Cure the NHS to demand changes in the hospital, she was supported by the Staffordshire Newsletter, but the Public and Patient Involvement Forum and the Governors of the Trust were defensive. The scandal came to national attention because of an investigation by the Healthcare Commission in 2008 into the operation of Stafford Hospital in Stafford, England; the commission was first alerted by the "apparently high mortality rates in patients admitted as emergencies". When the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust, responsible for running the hospital, failed to provide what the commission considered an adequate explanation, a full-scale investigation was carried out between March and October 2008.
Released in March 2009, the commission's report criticised the Foundation Trust's management and detailed the appalling conditions and inadequacies at the hospital. Many press reports suggested that because of the substandard care between 400 and 1200 more patients died between 2005 and 2008 than would be expected for the type of hospital, based on figures from a mortality model, but the final Healthcare Commission report concluded it would be misleading to link the inadequate care to a specific number or range of numbers of deaths. An independent 2008 study into hospital standardised mortality ratios found that this measure, as developed by the Dr Foster Unit at Imperial College, is prone to methodological bias, that it was not credible to claim that variation in mortality ratios reflects differences in quality of care. In 2015, The Guardian amended an article from 2013:...subsequent investigations into the poor care at Stafford hospital, including the two reports by Sir Robert Francis QC, said that this disputed estimate, which appeared only in a draft report from 2009 by the Healthcare commission and was based on mortality statistics, was an unreliable measure of avoidable deaths.
The Francis report of February 2013 concluded that it would be unsafe to infer from these statistics that there was any particular number of avoidable or unnecessary deaths at the trust. As a result, the trust's chief executive, Martin Yeates, was suspended, while its chairman, Toni Brisby, resigned. Both Prime Minister Gordon Brown and Health Secretary Alan Johnson apologised to those who suffered at the hospital. In response to the scandal, the mortality rates of all National Health Service hospitals have been made accessible on a website, it emerged that a "compromise agreement" had been agreed with Martin Yeates whereby he left the NHS with a large sum of money. He did not give evidence at any of the enquiries because of health problems, but he was appointed to be Chief Executive of Impact Alcohol and Addiction Services in 2012; some executives, responsible for the trust at the time received promotions within the health service and were loudly criticised. Cynthia Bower, from 2006 chief executive of NHS West Midlands, was recruited to run the Care Quality Commission quango.
Sir David Nicholson was in charge of the regional health authority responsible for the hospital at the height of the failings between 2005 and 2006. On 21 July 2009, the Secretary of State for Health, Andy Burnham, announced a further independent inquiry into care provided by Mid Staffordshire Foundation Trust; the critical inquiry report was published on 24 February 2010. The report made 18 local and national recommendations, including that the regulator, Monitor, de-authorise the Foundation Trust. Compensation payments averaging £11,000 were paid to some of the families involved. In February 2010, Burnham agreed to a further independent inquiry of the commissioning and regulatory bodies for Foundation Trusts. In June 2010, the new government announced; the inquiry began on 8 November 2010 chaired by Robert Francis QC, who had chaired the fourth inquiry which he had criticised for its narrow remit. The inquiry considered more than a million pages of previous evidence as well as hearing from witnesses.
UK expert medical lawyers offered their assistance to distraught and angry families who waited for proof that lessons had been learned. Many families of the victims felt; the final report was published on 6 February 2013. Academics at the University of Oxford and King's College London have criticised its recommendations to enforce a new duty of openness and candour amongst NHS staff, arguing that increasing'micro-regulation' may produce serious unintended consequences; the revelations of the neglect to patients at Stafford hospital were considered to be shocking by all sections of the mainstream UK press. The Nursing and Midwifery Council, the UK’s regulator of nurses and midwives, has held hearings about nurses working in the trust following allegations that they were not fit to practise. Acting to protect the public, the NMC has struck off from their register and suspended 2 nurses as a result of these hearings; this includes two nurses who falsified accident and emergency discharge times, two nurses involved in the death of a diabetic patient and a nurse who physically and verbally abused a dementia patient.
On 30 January 2019, Channel 4 announced that they had commissioned a drama of the Stafford Hospital scandal from the
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states, cognitive and social processes and behavior by observing and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments. To become a psychologist, a person completes a graduate university degree in psychology, but in most jurisdictions, members of other behavioral professions can evaluate, diagnose and study mental processes. Psychologists can be seen as practicing within two general categories of psychology: applied psychology which includes "practitioners" or "professionals", research-orientated psychology which includes "scientists", or "scholars"; the training models endorsed by the American Psychological Association require that applied psychologists be trained as both researchers and practitioners, that they possess advanced degrees. Psychologists have one of two degrees; the PhD prepares a psychologist to conduct scientific research for a career in academia. Both PsyD and PhD programs can prepare students to be licensed psychologists, training in these types of programs prepares graduates to take state licensing exams.
Within the two main categories are many further types of psychologists as reflected by the 56 professional classifications recognized by the APA, including clinical and educational psychologists. Such professionals work with persons in a variety of therapeutic contexts. People think of the discipline as involving only such clinical or counseling psychologists. While counseling and psychotherapy are common activities for psychologists, these applied fields are just two branches in the larger domain of psychology. There are other classifications such as industrial and community psychologists, whose professionals apply psychological research and techniques to "real-world" problems of business, social benefit organizations and academia. Clinical and counseling psychologists can offer a range of professional services, including: Providing psychological treatment Administering and interpreting psychological assessment and testing Conducting psychological research Teaching Developing prevention programs Consulting Program administration Providing expert testimony In practice and counseling psychologists might work with individuals, families, or groups in a variety of settings, including private practices, mental health organizations, schools and non-profit agencies.
Most clinical and counseling who engage in research and teaching do so within a college or university setting. Clinical and counseling psychologists may choose to specialize in a particular field. Common areas of specialization, some of which can earn board certification, include: Specific disorders Neuropsychological disorders Child and adolescent psychology Family and relationship counseling Health psychology Sport psychology Forensic psychology Industrial and organizational psychology Educational psychologyClinical and counseling psychologists receive training in a number of psychological therapies, including behavioral, humanistic, existential and systemic approaches, as well as in-depth training in psychological testing, to some extent, neuropsychological testing. Although clinical and counseling psychologists and psychiatrists share the same fundamental aim—the alleviation of mental distress—their training and methodologies are different; the most significant difference is that psychiatrists are licensed physicians, and, as such, psychiatrists are apt to use the medical model to assess mental health problems and to employ psychotropic medications as a method of addressing mental health problems.
Psychologists do not prescribe medication, although in some jurisdictions they do have prescription privileges. In five US states, psychologists with post-doctoral clinical psychopharmacology training have been granted prescriptive authority for mental health disorders. Clinical and counseling psychologists receive extensive training in psychological test administration, scoring and reporting, while psychiatrists are not trained in psychological testing; such tests help to inform treatment planning. For example, in a medical center, a patient with a complicated clinical presentation, being seen by a psychiatrist might be referred to a clinical psychologist for psychological testing to help the psychiatrist determine the diagnosis and treatment. In addition, psychologists spend several years in graduate school being trained to conduct behavioral research. While this training is available for physicians via dual MD/Ph. D. programs, it is not included in standard medical education, although psychiatrists may develop research skills during their residency or a psychiatry fellowship.
Psychologists from Psy. D. Programs tend to have more training and experience in clinical practice than those from Ph. D. programs. Psychiatrists, as licensed physicians, have been trained more intensively in other areas, such as internal medicine and neurology, may bring this knowledge to bear in identifying and treating medical or neurological conditions that present with psychological symptoms such as depression, anxiety, or
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention and treatment of disease, illness and other physical and mental impairments in people. Health care is delivered by health professionals in allied health fields. Physicians and physician associates are a part of these health professionals. Dentistry, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physical therapy and other health professions are all part of health care, it includes work done in providing primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, as well as in public health. Access to health care may vary across countries and individuals influenced by social and economic conditions as well as health policies. Health care systems are organizations established to meet the health needs of targeted populations. According to the World Health Organization, a well-functioning health care system requires a financing mechanism, a well-trained and adequately paid workforce, reliable information on which to base decisions and policies, well maintained health facilities to deliver quality medicines and technologies.
An efficient health care system can contribute to a significant part of a country's economy and industrialization. Health care is conventionally regarded as an important determinant in promoting the general physical and mental health and well-being of people around the world. An example of this was the worldwide eradication of smallpox in 1980, declared by the WHO as the first disease in human history to be eliminated by deliberate health care interventions; the delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. This includes professionals in medicine, physiotherapy, dentistry and allied health, along with many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive and rehabilitative care services. While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process and may include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care.
Health care can be defined as either private. Primary care refers to the work of health professionals who act as a first point of consultation for all patients within the health care system; such a professional would be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician. Another professional would be a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. Depending on the locality, health system organization the patient may see another health care professional first, such as a pharmacist or nurse. Depending on the nature of the health condition, patients may be referred for secondary or tertiary care. Primary care is used as the term for the health care services that play a role in the local community, it can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centers which provide same day appointments or services on a walk-in basis. Primary care involves the widest scope of health care, including all ages of patients, patients of all socioeconomic and geographic origins, patients seeking to maintain optimal health, patients with all types of acute and chronic physical and social health issues, including multiple chronic diseases.
A primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem; the International Classification of Primary Care is a standardized tool for understanding and analyzing information on interventions in primary care based on the reason for the patient's visit. Common chronic illnesses treated in primary care may include, for example: hypertension, asthma, COPD, depression and anxiety, back pain, arthritis or thyroid dysfunction. Primary care includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. In the United States, the 2013 National Health Interview Survey found that skin disorders and joint disorders, back problems, disorders of lipid metabolism, upper respiratory tract disease were the most common reasons for accessing a physician.
In the United States, primary care physicians have begun to deliver primary care outside of the managed care system through direct primary care, a subset of the more familiar concierge medicine. Physicians in this model bill patients directly for services, either on a pre-paid monthly, quarterly, or annual basis, or bill for each service in the office. Examples of direct primary care practices include Foundation Health in Colorado and Qliance in Washington. In context of global population aging, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chronic non-communicable diseases increasing demand for primary care services is expected in both developed and developing countries; the World Health Organization attributes the provision of essential primary care as an integral component of an inclusive primary health care strategy. Secondary care includes acute care: nec