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John Rudyard

John Rudyard was contracted to build the second Eddystone Lighthouse, following the destruction of the original building in the Great Storm of 1703. He was neither a silk merchant and a property developer. Rudyard owned a silk-merchanting shop on Ludgate Hill in London, had substantial interests in a variety of properties. A full biographical account of Rudyard's family background and career is contained in the second edition of Mike Palmer's account of the Eddystone Lighthouse. John Rudyard, the correct original spelling of the family name, was born in the village of Leek and baptised on 22 April 1650; the name is spelt Rudyerd in the Leek baptismal register. He was a son of the 2nd wife of Anthony Rudyard of Delacres Abbey, earlier known as Dieulacres Abbey; the Rudyard family at this time were wealthy landowners. They owned a well-respected silk trading business, which employed many people of the local area. John Rudyard was brought into the family trade by starting his training in London at the age of 16, working for the next seven years, until 1673, for a Master named Robert Morris, engaged in the importing of furs and silks, in tailoring.

On completion of his apprenticeship with the Skinners Company, he married a woman named Sarah Jackman on 14 December 1674, at St Andrew's Church, London. John and Sarah ran a shop on Ludgate Hill, provided for them by Sarah's father, they had a daughter, named Sarah, in 1677. Records during the late 17th century show that John Rudyard was in a variety of legal partnerships with Thomas Jackman, relating to properties in and around London. In a document of contract between John Lovett and John Rudyard and Skinner of London, dated 19 June 1706, it is stated that Rudyard was to have sole management and building of the proposed new Eddystone Lighthouse, that he was to receive £250 pa from the dues for his lifetime, that of his wife Sarah. Rudyard surrendered all claims in a document dated 17 November 1709. John Lovett died on 24 April 1710, it is clear that many financial problems in connection with the building of the lighthouse remained unresolved at this time; the evidence is that John Rudyard was still alive in 1716, since he was named as a lease owner of a syndicate headed by Robert Harcourt Weston, who purchased the Lovett Eddystone lease at auction in that year for £8000.

It is probable that Rudyard died on 20 November 1718, his widow the following year, that both were buried in St Andrew's Church, Holborn. The account of John Rudyard as a poverty-stricken Cornish youth is a fiction, uncritically repeated in many reference books. Parish Register Collection of the Latter Day Saints Dieulacres Abbey. Wikipedia

Pallisa District

Pallisa District is a district in Eastern Uganda. Like most other Ugandan districts, it is named after its chief town, where the district headquarters are located. Pallisa District is bordered to the north by: Serere District, Ngora District, Kumi District and Bukedea District. Mbale District lies to the east. Budaka District lies to the southeast, Kibuku District to the southwest and Kaliro District to the west. Pallisa, the'chief town' of the district, is located 65 kilometres, by road, west of Mbale, the largest city in the sub-region; the coordinates of the district are: 01 01N, 33 43E. During the 1991 national population census, the district population was put at about 166,100; the 2002 national census estimated the population of the district at 255,900. In 2012, the population of Pallisa District was estimated at about 362,600. Subsistence crop agriculture and animal husbandry are the two major economic activities in the district. To a lesser extent, fish farming and bee keeping are practiced in Pallisa District.

The major crops include: Cattle, sheep, pigs, are some of the animals raised in the district. The district is further blessed with nine minor lakes; the following are the nine lakes: There are nine stocked fish farms in the district. Fish farming offers a big potential to increase the supply of fish for the population and hence improve on the nutrition of the population. Fish species include: Pallisa District has 14 sub counties. Pallisa, Uganda

Disease model of addiction

The disease model of addiction describes an addiction as a disease with biological, neurological and environmental sources of origin. The traditional medical model of disease requires only that an abnormal condition be present that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the individual afflicted; the contemporary medical model attributes addiction, in part, to changes in the brain's mesolimbic pathway. The medical model takes into consideration that such disease may be the result of other biological, psychological or sociological entities despite an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of these entities; the common biomolecular mechanisms underlying all forms of addiction – CREB and ΔFosB – were reviewed by Eric J. Nestler in a 2013 review. Genetic factors and mental disorders can contribute to the severity of drug addiction. Fifty percent of the chance a person will develop an addiction can be attributed to genetic factors. Critics of the disease model those who subscribe to the life-process model of addiction argue that labeling people as addicts keeps them from developing self-control and stigmatizes them.

As noted by the harm reduction specialist Andrew Tatarsky: The essence of this model is the pragmatic recognition that treatment must meet active substance users ‘‘where they are’’ in terms of their needs and personal goals. Thus, harm reduction approaches embrace the full range of harm-reducing goals including, but not limited to, abstinence. Harm reduction Substance dependence Addiction psychology

Julia (mother of Mark Antony)

Julia or Julia Antonia was a daughter of Lucius Julius Caesar, the consul of 90 BC, mother of the future triumvir and deputy of Caesar, Mark Antony. She was a sister of the Lucius Julius Caesar, consul in 64 BC, her mother is unknown. She was raised in Rome. Julia was a third-cousin of Julius Caesar. Julia married a man of a senatorial family, their sons were the triumvir Mark Gaius Antonius and Lucius Antonius. Because of their kinship through her, Gaius Julius Caesar was obliged to promote the political careers of her sons, despite his distaste for their father and his low opinion of their abilities. After Julia’s first husband died in 74 BC, she married Publius Cornelius Lentulus, a politician who in 63 BC was involved in the Catilinarian conspiracy and was executed on the orders of Cicero. Julia had raised her sons through her marriages. Plutarch describes her as one of “most nobly born and admirable women of her time”, though most other sources are less flattering; the following clause from Plutarch describes her relationship with her first husband: His father was Antony, surnamed of Crete, not famous or distinguished in public life, but a worthy good man, remarkable for his liberality, as may appear from a single example.

He was not rich, was for that reason checked in the exercise of his good nature by his wife. A friend that stood in need of money came to borrow of him. Money he had none, but he bade a servant bring him water in a silver basin, with which, when it was brought, he wetted his face, as if he meant to shave, sending away the servant upon another errand, gave his friend the basin, desiring him to turn it to his purpose, and when there was afterwards a great inquiry for it in the house, his wife was in a ill humour, was going to put the servants one by one to the search, he acknowledged what he had done, begged her pardon. Elsewhere Plutarch illustrates her character with an episode from the proscription of 43 BC, during the Second Triumvirate: His uncle, Lucius Caesar, being pursued, took refuge with his sister, when the murderers had broken into her house and were pressing into her chamber, met them at the door, spreading out hands, cried out several times. "You shall not kill Lucius Caesar till you first dispatch me who gave your general his birth!" and in this manner she succeeded in getting her brother out of the way, saving his life.

During the Perusine War between 41 BC-40 BC, Julia left Rome, although Octavian treated her with kindness. She never trusted Sextus Pompeius; when Sextus Pompeius was in Sicily, Julia had sent to Greece for Antony, a distinguished escort and convoy of triremes. After the reconciliation of the triumvirs, Julia returned with Antony to Italy in 39 BC and was present at the meeting with Sextus Pompeius at Misenum. Plutarch's biography of Antony William Smith. "Julia" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. John Murray, London

First a Girl

First a Girl is a 1935 British comedy film directed by Victor Saville and starring Jessie Matthews. First a Girl was adapted from the 1933 German film Viktor und Viktoria written and directed by Reinhold Schünzel, it was remade as the 1982 American musical comedy Victor Victoria starring Julie Andrews. Fashion designer Madame Seraphina stages an elaborate catwalk show for a specially invited audience, including Princess Miranoff. Watching the fashion parade are the designer's shop girls, including Elizabeth, who dances for the amusement of her colleagues and impersonates the Princess. Madame Seraphina asks Elizabeth to deliver some purchases to Princess Miranoff but she is distracted on the way by a theatrical audition. Despite borrowing Princess Miranoff's glamorous clothes, she does not get a part, it is pouring with rain as she leaves her borrowed clothes get drenched. Going into a café to dry off she finds herself sitting opposite an actor called Victor, whom she met earlier at the audition.

He confides in her that although he performs in drag as music hall act'Victoria', he dreams of being a Shakespearean actor. Elizabeth begins to cry when she realises that she will lose her job after failing to deliver Princess Miranoff's purchases. Victor takes her back to his boarding house and she irons the dress to make it look as if it hasn't been worn. Victor receives a letter asking him to perform his drag act but he has lost his voice due to being caught in the rain; as Elizabeth consoles him she realises that she has forgotten the iron - it has burned a hole in Princess Miranoff's dress. Elizabeth begins to laugh at their misfortune and Victor has a brainwave: Elizabeth could stand in for him and pose as a female impersonator. Elizabeth's first music hall performance is a great success, despite runaway geese storming the stage and spilt milk causing her to slip over several times. Music hall promoter McLintock offers Elizabeth a contract. Elizabeth begins touring Europe as female impersonator'Bill' using Victor's stage name'Victoria'.

Princess Miranoff and her fiancé Robert attend one of'Bill's' performances. Robert makes it clear that he is attracted to the woman on stage and when she takes off her wig to reveal boyishly cropped hair he is shocked and embarrassed. At a nightclub after the show Victor attempts to charm Princess Miranoff with Shakespeare recitations as Robert has a manly chat with'Bill'. Elizabeth is forced to smoke a cigar and drink large whiskeys as she attempts to maintain the pretence that she is a man; when Princess Miranoff finds a feminine hair comb under a chair she begins to suspect that'Bill' is indeed a woman. She and Robert invite their new friends to travel with them to the South of France with the intention of tricking'Bill' into revealing his true gender; the three'men' are forced to share a room in a guesthouse for a night but Elizabeth manages to maintain her disguise. At the villa she has rented with Victor, Elizabeth revels in the chance to wear women's clothes again. Swimming in the sea, she gets into trouble.

In a tight fitting swimsuit there is no doubt that she is a woman and Robert is tempted to kiss her but he apologises and swims away. Tired of pretending to be a man, Elizabeth tells the Princess she is in love with Robert and will fight for him; the Princess vows to expose Elizabeth as a fraud. Robert, believing that Victor and Elizabeth are lovers, punches Victor and spurns Elizabeth when she approaches him dressed in her own, feminine clothes; when Victor explains that they are just good friends, Robert chases Elizabeth in his car so that he can express his love for her. They kiss but Elizabeth has to cut their romantic interlude short in order to drive to the theatre for a performance. A newspaper reporter who has caught a glimpse of Elizabeth in women's clothing arrives at the theatre with two Gendarmes in order to expose her deception. Victor saves the day by performing'Everything's in Rhythm With My Heart' in drag to amusing effect. Princess Miranoff pledges to fund Victor in Shakespearean theatre and despite Elizabeth having a man's passport, she is waved across the French border to begin her new life with Robert.

BFI Screenonline wrote, "Of all the Matthews/Hale collaborations, this one seems the most polished and even-handed. A huge success at the time it was released, First a Girl is the quintessential Jessie Matthews musical and the most enduringly amusing for a modern audience." First a Girl on IMDb First a Girl at the BFI's Screenonline