Bill of rights
A bill of rights, sometimes called a declaration of rights or a charter of rights, is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose is to protect those rights against infringement from public officials and private citizens. Bills of rights may be unentrenched. An entrenched bill of rights cannot be amended or repealed by a country's legislature through regular procedure, instead requiring a supermajority or referendum. A bill of rights, not entrenched is a normal statute law and as such can be modified or repealed by the legislature at will. In practice, not every jurisdiction enforces the protection of the rights articulated in its bill of rights; the history of legal charters asserting certain rights for particular groups goes back to the Middle Ages and earlier. An example is Magna Carta, an English legal charter agreed between the King and his barons in 1215. In the early modern period, there was renewed interest in Magna Carta. English common law judge Sir Edward Coke revived the idea of rights based on citizenship by arguing that Englishmen had enjoyed such rights.
The Petition of Right 1628, the Habeas Corpus Act 1679 and the Bill of Rights 1689 established certain rights in statute. In America, the English Bill of Rights was one of the influences on the 1776 Virginia Declaration of Rights, which in turn influenced the United States Declaration of Independence that year. Inspired by the Age of Enlightenment, the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen asserted the universality of rights, it was adopted in 1789 by France's National Constituent Assembly, during the period of the French Revolution. After the Constitution of the United States was adopted in 1789, the United States Bill of Rights was ratified in 1791; the 20th century saw different groups draw on these earlier documents for influence when drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The constitution of the United Kingdom remains uncodified, however the Human Rights Act 1998 incorporates the rights contained in the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law.
Australia is the only common law country with neither a constitutional nor federal legislative bill of rights to protect its citizens, although there is ongoing debate in many of Australia's states. In 1973, Federal Attorney-General Lionel Murphy introduced a human rights Bill into parliament, although it was never passed. In 1984, Senator Stephen Bunce drafted a Bill of Rights, but it was never introduced into parliament, in 1985, Senator Lionel Bowen introduced a bill of rights, passed by the House of Representatives, but failed to pass the Senate. Former Australian Prime Minister John Howard has argued against a bill of rights for Australia on the grounds it would transfer power from elected politicians to unelected judges and bureaucrats. Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory are the only states and territories to have a human rights Act. However, the principle of legality present in the Australian judicial system, seeks to ensure that legislation is interpreted so as not to interfere with basic human rights, unless legislation expressly intends to interfere.
Charter of Liberties rights of inheritance and marriage and environmental protection Magna Carta rights for barons Great Charter of Ireland rights for barons Golden Bull of 1222 rights for nobles Statute of Kalisz Jewish residents' rights Charter of Kortenberg rights for all citizens "rich and poor" Dušan's Code Twelve Articles Pacta conventa Henrician Articles Petition of Right Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689 This applied to all British Colonies of the time, was entrenched in the laws of those colonies that became nations - for instance in Australia with the Colonial Laws Validity Act 1865 and reconfirmed by the Statute of Westminster 1931 Virginia Declaration of Rights Preamble to the United States Declaration of Independence Chapter 1 of the Pennsylvania Constitution Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution Declaration of the Rights of the People Article I of the Constitution of Connecticut Constitution of Greece Hatt-ı Hümayun Article I of the Constitution of Texas Basic rights and liberties in Finland Articles 13-28 of the Constitution of Italy Universal Declaration of Human Rights Fundamental rights and duties of citizens in People's Republic of China European Convention on Human Rights Fundamental Rights of Indian citizens Implied Bill of Rights Canadian Bill of Rights International Bill of Human Rights Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Article III of the Constitution of the Philippines Article 5 of the Constitution of Brazil New Zealand Bill of Rights Act Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms of the Czech Republic Hong Kong Bill of Rights Ordinance Chapter 2 of the Constitution of South Africa Human Rights Act 1998 Human Rights Act 2004
Rights are legal, social, or ethical principles of freedom or entitlement. Rights are of essential importance in such disciplines as law and ethics theories of justice and deontology. Rights are considered fundamental to civilization, for they are regarded as established pillars of society and culture, the history of social conflicts can be found in the history of each right and its development. According to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "rights structure the form of governments, the content of laws, the shape of morality as it is perceived". There is considerable disagreement about what is meant by the term rights, it has been used by different groups and thinkers for different purposes, with different and sometimes opposing definitions, the precise definition of this principle, beyond having something to do with normative rules of some sort or another, is controversial. One way to get an idea of the multiple understandings and senses of the term is to consider different ways it is used.
Many diverse things are claimed as rights: There are diverse possible ways to categorize rights, such as: There has been considerable debate about what this term means within the academic community within fields such as philosophy, deontology, political science, religion. Natural rights are rights which are "natural" in the sense of "not artificial, not man-made", as in rights deriving from human nature or from the edicts of a god, they are universal. They exist inhere in every individual, can't be taken away. For example, it has been argued; these are sometimes called inalienable rights. Legal rights, in contrast, are based on a society's customs, statutes or actions by legislatures. An example of a legal right is the right to vote of citizens. Citizenship, itself, is considered as the basis for having legal rights, has been defined as the "right to have rights". Legal rights are sometimes called civil rights or statutory rights and are culturally and politically relative since they depend on a specific societal context to have meaning.
Some thinkers see rights in only one sense while others accept that both senses have a measure of validity. There has been considerable philosophical debate about these senses throughout history. For example, Jeremy Bentham believed that legal rights were the essence of rights, he denied the existence of natural rights. A claim right is a right. Somebody else must do or refrain from doing something to or for the claim holder, such as perform a service or supply a product for him or her. In logic, this idea can be expressed as: "Person A has a claim that person B do something if and only if B has a duty to A to do that something." Every claim-right entails that some other duty-bearer must do some duty for the claim to be satisfied. This duty can be to refrain from acting. For example, many jurisdictions recognize broad claim rights to things like "life and property". In jurisdictions where social welfare services are provided, citizens have legal claim rights to be provided with those services. A liberty right or privilege, in contrast, is a freedom or permission for the right-holder to do something, there are no obligations on other parties to do or not do anything.
This can be expressed in logic as: "Person A has a privilege to do something if and only if A has no duty not to do that something." For example, if a person has a legal liberty right to free speech, that means that it is not forbidden for them to speak freely: it does not mean that anyone has to help enable their speech, or to listen to their speech. Liberty rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so. If a person has a claim right against someone else that other person's liberty is limited. For example, a person has a liberty right to walk down a sidewalk and can decide whether or not to do so, since there is no obligation either to do so or to refrain from doing so, but pedestrians may have an obligation not to walk on certain lands, such as other people's private property, to which those other people have a claim right. So a person's liberty right of walking extends to the point where another's claim right limits his or her freedom.
In one sense, a right is a permission to do something or an entitlement to a specific service or treatment from others, these rights have been called positive rights. However, in another sense, rights may allow or require inaction, these are called negative rights. For example, in some countries, e.g. the United States, citizens have the positive right to vote and they have the negative right to no
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
William Jefferson Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, again from 1983 to 1992, the attorney general of Arkansas from 1977 to 1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy. Clinton was born and raised in Arkansas and attended Georgetown University, University College and Yale Law School, he met Hillary Rodham at Yale and married her in 1975. After graduating, Clinton returned to Arkansas and won election as the Attorney General of Arkansas, serving from 1977 to 1979; as Governor of Arkansas, he overhauled the state's education system and served as chairman of the National Governors Association. Clinton was elected president in 1992. At age 46, he became the first from the Baby Boomer generation. Clinton presided over the longest period of peacetime economic expansion in American history.
He signed into law the North American Free Trade Agreement but failed to pass his plan for national health care reform. In the 1994 elections, the Republican Party won unified control of the Congress for the first time in 40 years. In 1996, Clinton became the first Democrat since Franklin D. Roosevelt to be elected to a second full term, he passed welfare reform and the State Children's Health Insurance Program, as well as financial deregulation measures, including the Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act and the Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000. In 1998, Clinton was impeached by the House of Representatives for perjury and obstruction of justice following allegations that he committed perjury and obstructed justice to conceal an affair that he had with Monica Lewinsky, a 22-year old White House Intern. Clinton was completed his term in office, he is only the second U. S. president—following Andrew Johnson 131 years earlier—to be impeached. During the last three years of Clinton's presidency, the Congressional Budget Office reported a budget surplus, the first such surplus since 1969.
In foreign policy, Clinton ordered U. S. military intervention in the Bosnian and Kosovo wars, signed the Iraq Liberation Act in opposition to Saddam Hussein, participated in the 2000 Camp David Summit to advance the Israeli–Palestinian peace process, assisted the Northern Ireland peace process. Clinton left office with the highest end-of-office approval rating of any U. S. president since World War II, has continually scored high in the historical rankings of U. S. presidents placing in the top third. Since leaving office, he has been involved in humanitarian work, he created the William J. Clinton Foundation to address international causes such as the prevention of AIDS and global warming, he has remained active in politics by campaigning for Democratic candidates, including the presidential campaigns of his wife and Barack Obama. In 2004, Clinton published My Life. In 2009, he was named the United Nations Special Envoy to Haiti and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, he teamed with George W. Bush to form the Clinton Bush Haiti Fund.
In addition, he secured the release of two American journalists imprisoned by North Korea, visiting the capital Pyongyang and negotiating their release with Kim Jong-il. Clinton was born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946, at Julia Chester Hospital in Hope, Arkansas, he is the son of William Jefferson Blythe Jr. a traveling salesman who had died in an automobile accident three months before his birth, Virginia Dell Cassidy. His parents had married on September 4, 1943, but this union proved to be bigamous, as Blythe was still married to his third wife. Virginia traveled to New Orleans to study nursing soon after Bill was born, leaving him in Hope with her parents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who owned and ran a small grocery store. At a time when the southern United States was racially segregated, Clinton's grandparents sold goods on credit to people of all races. In 1950, Bill's mother returned from nursing school and married Roger Clinton Sr. who co-owned an automobile dealership in Hot Springs, Arkansas with his brother and Earl T. Ricks.
The family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. Although he assumed use of his stepfather's surname, it was not until Clinton turned 15 that he formally adopted the surname Clinton as a gesture toward his stepfather. Clinton said that he remembered his stepfather as a gambler and an alcoholic who abused his mother and half-brother, Roger Clinton Jr. to the point where he intervened multiple times with the threat of violence to protect them. In Hot Springs, Clinton attended St. John's Catholic Elementary School, Ramble Elementary School, Hot Springs High School, where he was an active student leader, avid reader, musician. Clinton was in the chorus and played the tenor saxophone, winning first chair in the state band's saxophone section, he considered dedicating his life to music, but as he noted in his autobiography My Life: Clinton began an interest in law at Hot Springs High, when he took up the challenge to argue the defense of the ancient Roman Senator Catiline in a mock trial in his Latin class.
After a vigorous defense that made use of his "budding rhetorical and political skills", he told the Latin teacher Elizabeth Buck that it "made him realize that someday he would study law". Clinton has identified two influential moments in his life, both occurring in 1963, that contributed to his decision to become a public figure. One was his visit as a Boys Nation senator to
Women's rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls worldwide, formed the basis for the women's rights movement in the nineteenth century and feminist movement during the 20th century. In some countries, these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, behavior, whereas in others they are ignored and suppressed, they differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise of rights by women and girls, in favor of men and boys. Issues associated with notions of women's rights include the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy. Women in ancient Sumer could buy, own and inherit property, they could engage in commerce, testify in court as witnesses. Nonetheless, their husbands could divorce them for mild infractions, a divorced husband could remarry another woman, provided that his first wife had borne him no offspring. Female deities, such as Inanna, were worshipped; the Akkadian poetess Enheduanna, the priestess of Inanna and daughter of Sargon, is the earliest known poet whose name has been recorded.
Old Babylonian law codes permitted a husband to divorce his wife under any circumstances, but doing so required him to return all of her property and sometimes pay her a fine. Most law codes forbade a woman to request her husband for a divorce and enforced the same penalties on a woman asking for divorce as on a woman caught in the act of adultery; the majority of East Semitic deities were male. In ancient Egypt women enjoyed the same rights under the law as a men, however rightful entitlements depended upon social class. Landed property descended in the female line from mother to daughter, women were entitled to administer their own property. Women in ancient Egypt could buy, sell, be a partner in legal contracts, be executor in wills and witness to legal documents, bring court action, adopt children. Women during the early Vedic period enjoyed equal status with men in all aspects of life. Works by ancient Indian grammarians such as Patanjali and Katyayana suggest that women were educated in the early Vedic period.
Rigvedic verses suggest that women married at a mature age and were free to select their own husbands in a practice called swayamvar or live-in relationship called Gandharva marriage. Although most women lacked political and equal rights in the city states of ancient Greece, they enjoyed a certain freedom of movement until the Archaic age. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Thessaly and Sparta owning land, the most prestigious form of private property at the time. However, after the Archaic age, legislators began to enact laws enforcing gender segregation, resulting in decreased rights for women. Women in Classical Athens had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part of the oikos headed by the male kyrios; until marriage, women were under the guardianship of other male relative. Once married, the husband became a woman's kyrios; as women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf. Athenian women could only acquire rights over property through gifts and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman's property.
Athenian women could only enter into a contract worth less than the value of a "medimnos of barley", allowing women to engage in petty trading. Women were excluded both in principle and in practice. Slaves could become Athenian citizens after being freed, but no woman acquired citizenship in ancient Athens. In classical Athens women were barred from becoming poets, politicians, or artists. During the Hellenistic period in Athens, the philosopher Aristotle thought that women would bring disorder and evil, therefore it was best to keep women separate from the rest of the society; this separation would entail living in a room called a gynaikeion, while looking after the duties in the home and having little exposure with the male world. This was to ensure that wives only had legitimate children from their husbands. Athenian women received little education, except home tutorship for basic skills such as spin, weave and some knowledge of money. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothers of Spartan warriors.
As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women owned between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property. By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women. Spartan women controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army. Girls as well as boys received an education, but despite greater freedom of movement for Spartan women, their role in politics was just as the same as Athenian women. Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state. Aristotle, taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought", he argued that women's main economic activity is that of safeguarding the household property created by men.
According to Aristotle the la
Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors. The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as "any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier." Children's rights includes their right to association with both parents, human identity as well as the basic needs for physical protection, universal state-paid education, health care, criminal laws appropriate for the age and development of the child, equal protection of the child's civil rights, freedom from discrimination on the basis of the child's race, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability, ethnicity, or other characteristics. Interpretations of children's rights range from allowing children the capacity for autonomous action to the enforcement of children being physically and free from abuse, though what constitutes "abuse" is a matter of debate.
Other definitions include the rights to nurturing. There are no definitions of other terms used to describe young people such as "adolescents", "teenagers", or "youth" in international law, but the children's rights movement is considered distinct from the youth rights movement; the field of children's rights spans the fields of law, politics and morality. Is a mass of human rights law, both treaty and'soft law', both general and child-specific, which recognises the distinct status and particular requirements of children. Owing to their particular vulnerability and their significance as the future generation, are entitled to special treatment and, in situations of danger, to priority in the receipt of assistance and protection; as minors by law, children do not have autonomy or the right to make decisions on their own for themselves in any known jurisdiction of the world. Instead their adult caregivers, including parents, social workers, youth workers, others, are vested with that authority, depending on the circumstances.
Some believe that this state of affairs gives children insufficient control over their own lives and causes them to be vulnerable. Louis Althusser has gone so far as to describe this legal machinery, as it applies to children, as "repressive state apparatuses". Structures such as government policy have been held by some commentators to mask the ways adults abuse and exploit children, resulting in child poverty, lack of educational opportunities, child labour. On this view, children are to be regarded as a minority group towards whom society needs to reconsider the way it behaves. Researchers have identified children as needing to be recognized as participants in society whose rights and responsibilities need to be recognized at all ages. Sir William Blackstone recognized three parental duties to the child: maintenance and education. In modern language, the child has a right to receive these from the parent; the League of Nations adopted the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which enunciated the child's right to receive the requirements for normal development, the right of the hungry child to be fed, the right of the sick child to receive health care, the right of the backward child to be reclaimed, the right of orphans to shelter, the right to protection from exploitation.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Article 25 recognized the need of motherhood and childhood to "special protection and assistance" and the right of all children to "social protection."The United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, which enunciated ten principles for the protection of children's rights, including the universality of rights, the right to special protection, the right to protection from discrimination, among other rights. Consensus on defining children's rights has become clearer in the last fifty years. A 1973 publication by Hillary Clinton stated that children's rights were a "slogan in need of a definition". According to some researchers, the notion of children’s rights is still not well defined, with at least one proposing that there is no singularly accepted definition or theory of the rights held by children. Children's rights law is defined as the point; that includes juvenile delinquency, due process for children involved in the criminal justice system, appropriate representation, effective rehabilitative services.
Children have two types of human rights under international human rights law. They have the same fundamental general human rights as adults, although some human rights, such as the right to marry, are dormant until they are of age, they have special human rights that are necessary to protect them during their minority. General rights operative in childhood include the right to security of the person, to freedom from inhuman, cruel, or degrading treatment, the right to special protection during childhood. Particular human rights of children include, among other rights, the right to life, the right to a name, the right to express his views in matters concerning the child, the right to freedom of thought and religion, the right to health care, the right to protection from economic and sexual exploitation, the right to education. Children's rights are defined in numerous ways, including a wide spectrum of civil, economic
Human right to water and sanitation
The Human Right to Water and Sanitation was recognised as a human right by the United Nations General Assembly on 28 July 2010. The HRWS has been recognized in international law through human rights treaties and other standards; some commentators have derived the human right to water beyond the General Assembly resolution from Article 11.1 of the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, making it binding under international law. Other treaties that explicitly recognize the HRWS include the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child; the first resolutions about the HRWS were passed by the UN General Assembly and the UN Human Rights Council in 2010. They acknowledged that there was a human right to sanitation connected to the human right to water, since the lack of sanitation reduces the quality of water downstream, so subsequent discussions have continued emphasising both rights together. A revised UN resolution in 2015 highlighted that the two rights were equal.
The clearest definition of the human right to water was issued by the United Nations Committee on Economic and Cultural Rights in General Comment 15 drafted in 2002. It was a non-binding interpretation that access to water was a condition for the enjoyment of the right to an adequate standard of living, inextricably related to the right to the highest attainable standard of health, therefore a human right, it stated: "The human right to water entitles everyone to sufficient, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses." The HRWS obliges governments to ensure that people can enjoy clean, acceptable and affordable water and sanitation. The ICESCR requires signatory countries to progressively achieve and respect all human rights, including those of water and sanitation, they should work and efficiently to increase access and improve service. All states have ratified either a human rights convention or a political declaration which recognizes the HRWS; the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation reported that 663 million people did not have access to improved sources of drinking water and more than 2.4 billion people lacked access to basic sanitation services in 2015.
Access to clean water is a major problem for many parts of the world. Acceptable sources include “household connections, public standpipes, protected dug wells, protected springs and rainwater collections”. Although 9 percent of the global population lacks access to water, there are “regions delayed, such as Sub-Saharan Africa.” The UN further emphasizes that “about 1.5 million children under the age of five die each year and 443 million school days are lost because of water- and sanitation-related diseases”. The International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 codified the economic and cultural rights found within the Universal Declaration on Human Rights of 1948. Neither of these early documents explicitly recognized human rights to sanitation. Several international human rights conventions, had provisions that explicitly recognized rights to water and sanitation; the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women has Article 14.2 that states that "parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, that they participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular shall ensure to women the right:… To enjoy adequate living conditions in relation to housing, sanitation and water supply and communications."
The 1989 Convention on the Rights of the Child has Article 24 that provides that "parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health … 2. States parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures... To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, inter alia… the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking water... ". The 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has Article 28 that requires that "parties recognize the right of persons with disabilities to social protection and to the enjoyment of that right without discrimination on the basis of disability, shall take appropriate steps to safeguard and promote the realization of this right, including measures to ensure equal access by persons with disabilities to clean water services, to ensure access to appropriate and affordable services and other assistance for disability-related needs."Scholars called attention to the importance of possible UN recognition of human rights to water and sanitation at the end of the twentieth century.
Two early efforts to define the human right to water came from law professor Stephen McCaffrey of the University of the Pacific in 1992 and Dr. Peter Gleick in 1999. McCaffrey stated that "Such a right could be envisaged as part and parcel of the right to food or sustenance, the right to health, or most fundamentally, the right to life. Gleick added: "that access to a basic water requirement is a fundamental human right implicitly and explicitly supported by international law and State practice."The UN Committee for Economic and Cultural Rights overseeing ICESCR compliance came to similar conclusions as these scholars with General Comment 15 in 2002. It found that a right to water was impli