Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service. It refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, document, or communications security programs. Modern tactics of espionage and dedicated government intelligence agencies were developed over the course of the late 19th century. A key background to this development was The Great Game, a period denoting the strategic rivalry and conflict that existed between the British Empire and the Russian Empire throughout Central Asia. To counter Russian ambitions in the region and the potential threat it posed to the British position in India, a system of surveillance and counterintelligence was built up in the Indian Civil Service; the existence of this shadowy conflict was popularised in Rudyard Kipling's famous spy book, where he portrayed the Great Game as an espionage and intelligence conflict that "never ceases, day or night".
The establishment of dedicated intelligence and counterintelligence organizations was directly linked to the colonial rivalries between the major European powers and the accelerating development of military technology. As espionage became more used, it became imperative to expand the role of existing police and internal security forces into a role of detecting and countering foreign spies; the Austro-Hungarian Evidenzbureau was entrusted with the role from the late 19th century to counter the actions of the Pan-Slavist movement operating out of Serbia. As mentioned above, after the fallout from the Dreyfus Affair in France, responsibility for military counter-espionage was passed in 1899 to the Sûreté générale—an agency responsible for order enforcement and public safety—and overseen by the Ministry of the Interior; the Okhrana was formed in 1880 to combat political terrorism and left-wing revolutionary activity throughout the Russian Empire, but was tasked with countering enemy espionage.
Its main concern was the activities of revolutionaries, who worked and plotted subversive actions from abroad. It created an antenna in Paris run by Pyotr Rachkovsky to monitor their activities; the agency used many methods to achieve its goals, including covert operations, undercover agents, "perlustration"—the interception and reading of private correspondence. The Okhrana became notorious for its use of agents provocateurs who succeeded in penetrating the activities of revolutionary groups including the Bolsheviks. Integrated counterintelligence agencies run directly by governments were established; the British Secret Service Bureau was founded in 1909 as the first independent and interdepartmental agency in control over all government counterintelligence activities. Due to intense lobbying from William Melville and after he obtained German mobilization plans and proof of their financial support to the Boers, the government authorized the creation of a new intelligence section in the War Office, MO3 headed by Melville, in 1903.
Working under cover from a flat in London, Melville ran both counterintelligence and foreign intelligence operations, capitalizing on the knowledge and foreign contacts he had accumulated during his years running Special Branch. Due to its success, the Government Committee on Intelligence, with support from Richard Haldane and Winston Churchill, established the Secret Service Bureau in 1909 as a joint initiative of the Admiralty, the War Office and the Foreign Office to control secret intelligence operations in the UK and overseas concentrating on the activities of the Imperial German Government, its first director was Captain Sir George Mansfield Smith-Cumming alias "C". The Secret Service Bureau was split into a foreign and counter intelligence domestic service in 1910; the latter was headed by Sir Vernon Kell and was aimed at calming public fears of large scale German espionage. As the Service was not authorized with police powers, Kell liaised extensively with the Special Branch of Scotland Yard, succeeded in disrupting the work of Indian revolutionaries collaborating with the Germans during the war.
Instead of a system whereby rival departments and military services would work on their own priorities with little to no consultation or cooperation with each other, the newly established Secret Intelligence Service was interdepartmental, submitted its intelligence reports to all relevant government departments. For the first time, governments had access to peacetime, centralized independent intelligence and counterintelligence bureaucracy with indexed registries and defined procedures, as opposed to the more ad hoc methods used previously. Collective counterintelligence is gaining information about an opponent's intelligence collection capabilities whose aim is at an entity. Defensive counterintelligence is thwarting efforts by hostile intelligence services to penetrate the service. Offensive counterintelligence is having identified an opponent's efforts against the system, trying to manipulate these attacks by either "turning" the opponent's agents into double agents or feeding them false information to report.
Many governments organize counterintelligence agencies separate and distinct from their intelligence collection services for specialized purposes. In most countries the counterintelligence mission is spread over multiple organizations, though one predominates. There is a domestic counterintelligence service part of a larger law enforcement organization such as the
Intelligence has been defined in many ways, including: the capacity for logic, self-awareness, emotional knowledge, planning, critical thinking, problem solving. More it can be described as the ability to perceive or infer information, to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Intelligence is most studied in humans but has been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. Intelligence in machines is called artificial intelligence, implemented in computer systems using programs and, appropriate hardware; the word "intelligence" derives from the Latin nouns intelligentia or intellēctus, which in turn stem from the verb intelligere, to comprehend or perceive. In the Middle Ages, the word intellectus became the scholarly technical term for understanding, a translation for the Greek philosophical term nous; this term, was linked to the metaphysical and cosmological theories of teleological scholasticism, including theories of the immortality of the soul, the concept of the Active Intellect.
This entire approach to the study of nature was rejected by the early modern philosophers such as Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, David Hume, all of whom preferred the word "understanding" in their English philosophical works. Hobbes for example, in his Latin De Corpore, used "intellectus intelligit", translated in the English version as "the understanding understandeth", as a typical example of a logical absurdity; the term "intelligence" has therefore become less common in English language philosophy, but it has been taken up in more contemporary psychology. The definition of intelligence is controversial; some groups of psychologists have suggested the following definitions: From "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", an op-ed statement in the Wall Street Journal signed by fifty-two researchers: A general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas and learn from experience. It is not book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.
Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do. From Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns, a report published by the Board of Scientific Affairs of the American Psychological Association: Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never consistent: a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria. Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions, none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen, somewhat different, definitions.
Besides those definitions and learning researchers have suggested definitions of intelligence such as: Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors, it is a cognitive process. It gives humans the cognitive abilities to learn, form concepts and reason, including the capacities to recognize patterns, comprehend ideas, solve problems, use language to communicate. Intelligence enables humans to think. Note that much of the above definition applies to the intelligence of non-human animals. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition; these researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, comparing abilities between species. They study various measures of problem solving, as well as verbal reasoning abilities.
Some challenges in this area are defining intelligence so that it has the same meaning across species, operationalizing a measure that compares mental ability across different species and contexts. Wolfgang Köhler's research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren's book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. Non-human animals noted and studied for their intelligence include chimpanzees and other great apes, elephants and to some extent parrots and ravens. Cephalopod intelligence provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Vertebrates such as mammals, birds and fish have shown a high degree of intellect that varies according to each species; the same is true with arthropods. Evidence of a general factor of intell
Israel the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west and Egypt to the southwest; the country contains geographically diverse features within its small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition. Israel has evidence of the earliest migration of hominids out of Africa. Canaanite tribes are archaeologically attested since the Middle Bronze Age, while the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah emerged during the Iron Age; the Neo-Assyrian Empire destroyed Israel around 720 BCE. Judah was conquered by the Babylonian and Hellenistic empires and had existed as Jewish autonomous provinces.
The successful Maccabean Revolt led to an independent Hasmonean kingdom by 110 BCE, which in 63 BCE however became a client state of the Roman Republic that subsequently installed the Herodian dynasty in 37 BCE, in 6 CE created the Roman province of Judea. Judea lasted as a Roman province until the failed Jewish revolts resulted in widespread destruction, expulsion of Jewish population and the renaming of the region from Iudaea to Syria Palaestina. Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries. In the 7th century CE, the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade of 1099, followed by the Ayyubid conquest of 1187; the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517. During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman Syria and British Mandate Palestine.
In 1947, the United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. The plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency, rejected by Arab leaders; the following year, the Jewish Agency declared the independence of the State of Israel, the subsequent 1948 Arab–Israeli War saw Israel's establishment over most of the former Mandate territory, while the West Bank and Gaza were held by neighboring Arab states. Israel has since fought several wars with Arab countries, since the Six-Day War in 1967 held occupied territories including the West Bank, Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip, it extended its laws to the Golan East Jerusalem, but not the West Bank. Israel's occupation of the Palestinian territories is the world's longest military occupation in modern times. Efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not resulted in a final peace agreement. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed.
In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a democratic state. The country has a liberal democracy, with a parliamentary system, proportional representation, universal suffrage; the prime minister is head of government and the Knesset is the legislature. Israel is a developed country and an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member, with the 32nd-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of 2017; the country benefits from a skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages of its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Israel has the highest standard of living in the Middle East, has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. Furthermore, Israel ranked 11th in the UN's 2018 World Happiness Report. Upon independence in 1948, the country formally adopted the name "State of Israel" after other proposed historical and religious names including Eretz Israel and Judea, were considered but rejected.
In the early weeks of independence, the government chose the term "Israeli" to denote a citizen of Israel, with the formal announcement made by Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett. The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively; the name "Israel" in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he wrestled with the angel of the Lord. Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years, until Moses, a great-great grandson of Jacob, led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus"; the earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt. The area is known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity and the Bahá'í Faith.
Under British Mandate, the whole region was known as Palestine (Hebre
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
The AMIA bombing was an attack on the Asociación Mutual Israelita Argentina building. It occurred in Buenos Aires on 18 July 1994, injuring hundreds. It's Argentina's deadliest terrorist attack to date. Argentina is home to a Jewish community of 230,000, the largest in Latin America and sixth in the world outside Israel. Over the years, the case has been marked by accusations of cover-ups. All suspects in the "local connection" were found to be not guilty in September 2004. In August 2005, federal judge Juan José Galeano, in charge of the case, was impeached and removed from his post on a charge of "serious" irregularities due to mishandling of the investigation. In 2005, Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who would become Pope Francis, was the first public personality to sign a petition for justice in the AMIA bombing case, he was one of the signatories on a document called "85 victims, 85 signatures" as part of the bombing's 11th anniversary. On 25 October 2006, Argentine prosecutors Alberto Nisman and Marcelo Martínez Burgos formally accused the government of Iran of directing the bombing, the Hezbollah militia of carrying it out.
According to the prosecution's claims in 2006, Argentina had been targeted by Iran after Buenos Aires' decision to suspend a nuclear technology transfer contract to Tehran. This has been disputed because the contract was never terminated and Iran and Argentina were negotiating on restoration of full cooperation on all agreements from early 1992 until 1994, when the bombing occurred. In 2015 Alberto Nisman filed a 300-page document accusing Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner of covering up Iran's role in the incident. Nisman was murdered hours before he was due to testify against the former president, which the Federal Court of Buenos Aires ruled was a “direct consequence” of Nisman's accusations against Kirchner. In 2017, Judge Claudio Bonadio accused Kirchner of treason and called on the country's senate to permit her arrest and trial for covering up Iranian involvement in the 1994 bomb attack. Kirchner is referred for public trial over alleged cover-up of Iranian involvement in the bombing; the thirteenth anniversary of the bombing was commemorated on 18 July 2007.
In addition to nationwide exhibitions and ceremonies and television stations and police cars all across Argentina sounded sirens at 9:53 am, the time of the bombing. On 18 July 1994, a suicide bomber drove a Renault Trafic van bomb loaded with about 275 kilograms of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil explosive mixture, into the Jewish Community Center building located in a densely constructed commercial area of Buenos Aires; the explosive is thought to have been arranged to focus the blast on the building 3 to 5 metres away, exhibiting a shaped charge or explosively formed penetrator effect. The exterior walls of this five story building were of brick masonry construction, which supported the floor slabs; the air blast from the bomb destroyed the exposed load-bearing walls which, in turn, led to progressive failure of the floor slabs and total collapse of the building. Such bearing-wall buildings are notable for their tendency to be brought down in this manner by localized damage. In the days following the bombing, Israel sent Mossad agents to Argentina to investigate.
The Israeli Police sent a team of four forensic scientists to assist with the building of ante mortem files and victim identification. Argentina closed its borders after the attack, it was thought possible that the bombers entered Argentina through the Triple Frontier, where the borders of Argentina and Paraguay meet. Argentina's intelligence agency, the Secretaría de Inteligencia, is said to have set up a network of surveillance called "Centauro" in Paraguay; the bombing came two years after the 17 March 1992 bombing of the Israeli Embassy in Buenos Aires which killed 29 and wounded 242, was Argentina's deadliest attack until the AMIA bombing. The Islamic Jihad Organization, which according to Robert Baer operates under the umbrella of Hezbollah and is linked to Iran, claimed responsibility for that bombing; some suspect. To date, authorities have been unable to locate those responsible for either of the two bombings; the day after the AMIA attack, a suicide bombing on a Panamanian commuter plane killed all 21 passengers, 12 of whom were Jews.
Investigators determined that the bombing was perpetrated by a "Lya Jamal" – thought to be "an Arab traveling under an alias, using fraudulently obtained Colombian documents."Eight days after the AMIA attack, the Israeli embassy in London was car-bombed, thirteen hours a similar car bomb exploded outside a Jewish community centre in London. No one was killed but 22 were injured and "millions of pounds of damage" was done. Five Palestinians were arrested in London and two convicted and sentenced to 20 years in prison in connection with the bombings. In 2018 judicial authorities announced that former President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner would face trial on charges she covered up the role of Iranians in bombing. Federal Judge Claudio Bonadio said that eleven other former officials and people close to Kirchner's government will be tried on charges of cover-up and abuse of power. Kirchner has denied the charges. No suspects have been convicted for the bombing and there have been a number of allegations made, with investigations charging the government of Iran.
The investigations were marred by incompetence. In 1999 an arrest warrant was issued
Secretariat of Intelligence
Secretariat of Intelligence was the premier intelligence agency of the Argentine Republic and head of its National Intelligence System. Chaired by the Secretary of State Intelligence, a special member of the Cabinet of Ministers, the Secretariat of Intelligence was a technical and operational service charged with the collection and production of intelligence and counterintelligence in internal and foreign areas, as well as the analysis and formation of a national intelligence strategy in order to handle state affairs; the Secretariat was charged with the duty of producing a complete intelligence cycle for the government. Structurally, S. I. had the biggest intelligence gathering capabilities in Argentina, as it counts with numerous delegations within Argentina as well as foreign operational bases and delegations. Under the law, the Secretariat was subordinated to the Presidency and is ruled by secret decrees and laws. Though the official acronym was renamed to S. I. as the new intelligence system became active, during most of its history it was called Secretaría de Inteligencia de Estado and it still is referred to as SIDE by the public.
On January 26, 2015, after the case of the prosecutor Alberto Nisman's death, President Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner announced she was proposing legislation that would dissolve the and opening a new intelligence agency called the Federal Intelligence Agency. The Secretariat of Intelligence was created in 1946 when Juan Perón's first presidency established it by Executive Decree 337/46 under the denomination of Coordinación de Informaciones de Estado, its mission was to act as a national intelligence agency to be run by civilian personnel and to handle foreign and domestic intelligence operations for the federal government. Before CIDE was established, national intelligence was jointly handled by the División de Informaciones of the Presidency, the military intelligence services such as the Servicio de Inteligencia del Ejército and the Servicio de Inteligencia Naval. Though throughout Argentina's history military intelligence organs have been involved in handling both internal and external intelligence, reforms enacted in the last few decades have given them a role alongside civilian managed services in the National Intelligence System.
The Secretariat had its first structural and functional reform in 1956, under the Pedro Aramburu government when by Executive Decree 776/56 of January 20, CIDE adopted the name Secretaría de Informaciones de Estado, the subsequent famous acronym "SIDE". The newly restructured agency was modeled on the British intelligence system. During Juan Carlos Onganía's government, SIDE was under the administration of Gral. Señorans, one of the most well regarded Secretaries of Intelligence of all time. During those years, SIDE started to orchestrate its first complex foreign espionage missions, the staff was increased to about 1,200, the knowledge and operational capabilities were improved. During Señorans administration, many Argentine women began participating in what was a male-only field; the Secretariat began appreciating certain advantages of the female sex when operations required the exploitation of human weaknesses. However, in 1966, Señorans restructured the Secretariat, expelling 900 employees, including all of the female intelligence operatives contracted at the time.
It has been noted that Señorans had a phobia of females, would not tolerate women working in administrative positions. In that same year, a failed kidnapping attempt of the Soviet Consul in Buenos Aires, led the USSR to enact a formal protest, threatening to take the matters to international organizations. Onganía, against his will, had no other choice but to ask Señorans to resign, the Secretary in his final statement exposed that "Consul Petrov commands a group of spies of the KGB in Argentina". After Señorans departure, women regained their positions in the civil intelligence community, but it was at that time, with the onset of the Cold War, that the CIA began taking special interest in SIDE; the growth of communist groups and guerrillas in Latin America, backed by Fidel Castro's regime, as well as the special interest the Soviet Union began to take in Latin America, made the American intelligence community influence what was thought as an area of minor concern to American interests in the war.
The Secretariat of Intelligence was no exception, the'communist problem' was made a priority, surveillance of foreign embassies and delegations of communist countries became common. Secret law Nº 20.195/73 came into effect on February 28, 1973 during the government of Gral. Lanusse establishing the mission, functions and other important aspects of the agency. During the de facto government of Jorge Rafael Videla, on May 13, 1976, by Executive Decree 416 it adopted the name Secretaría de Inteligencia de Estado. Under the National Reorganization Process, SIDE transformed itself into a secret police conducting espionage on guerrilla organizations, labor unions, or any other organization or person considered subversive, or a supporter of subversive activities. SIDE took part in coordinating Operation Condor with other Latin American intelligence services. After the return of democracy in 1983, during Raúl Alfonsín's government, SIDE began renewing its staff, thus becoming a civilian intelligence agency focusing its activities on national interests.