Order of Saint John (chartered 1888)
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem and known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria. The Order traces its origins back to the Knights Hospitaller in the Middle Ages, known as the Order of Malta. A faction of them emerged in France in the 1820s and moved to Britain in the early 1830s, after operating under a succession of grand priors and different names, it became associated with the founding in 1882 of the St John Ophthalmic Hospital near the old city of Jerusalem and the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887; the order is found throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, the United States of America, with the worldwide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and injury, to act to enhance the health and well-being of people anywhere in the world." The order's 25,000 members, known as confrères, are of the Protestant faith, though those of other Christian denominations or other religions are accepted into the order.
Except via appointment to certain government or ecclesiastical offices in some realms, membership is by invitation only and individuals may not petition for admission. The Order of St John is best known for the health organisations it founded and continues to run, including St John Ambulance and St John Eye Hospital Group; as with the Order, the memberships and work of these organizations are not constricted by denomination or religion. The Order is a constituent member of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem, its headquarters are in London and it is a registered charity under English law. In 1823, the Council of the French Langues—a French state-backed and hosted faction of the Order of Malta —sought to raise through private subscription sufficient money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta and aid the Greek War of Independence; this was to be achieved by issuing bonds in London to form a mercenary army of demobilized British soldiers using available, cheap war surplus.
A deal transferring various islands to the Order of Malta, including Rhodes when captured, was struck with the Greek rebels, but the attempt to raise money failed when details leaked to the press, the French monarchy withdrew its backing of the council, the bankers refused the loan. The council was reorganised and the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In June 1826, a second attempt was made to raise money to restore a Mediterranean homeland for the order when Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, was appointed by the council to negotiate with supportive persons in Britain. Scotsman Donald Currie was in 1827 given the authority to raise £240,000. Anyone who subscribed to the project and all commissioned officers of the mercenary army were offered the opportunity of being appointed knights of the order. Few donations were attracted and the Greek War of Independence was won without the help of the knights of the Council of the French Langues. De Castellane and Currie were allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue, inaugurated on 12 January 1831, under the executive control of Alejandro, conde de Mortara, a Spanish aristocrat.
It was headquartered at what Mortara called the "Auberge of St John", Clerkenwell. This was the Old Jerusalem Tavern, a public house occupying what had once been a gatehouse to the ancient Clerkenwell Priory, the medieval Grand Priory of the Knights Hospitaller, otherwise known as the Knights of Saint John; the creation of the langue has been regarded either as a revival of the Knights Hospitaller or the establishment of a new order. The Reverend Sir Robert Peat, the absentee perpetual curate of St Lawrence, Brentford, in Middlesex, one of the many former chaplains to Prince George, had been recruited by the council as a member of the society in 1830. On 29 January 1831, in the presence of Philip de Castellane and the Agent-General of the French Langues, Peat was elected Prior ad interim, he and other British members of the organisation, with the backing of the Council of the French Langues on the grounds that he had been selling knighthoods, expelled Mortara, leading to two competing English chivalric groups between early 1832 and Mortara's disappearance in 1837.
On 24 February 1834, three years after becoming prior ad interim, in order to publicly reaffirm his claim to the office of prior and in the hope of reviving a charter of Queen Mary I dealing with the original English branch of the Order of Malta, took the oath de fideli administratione in the Court of the King's Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice. Peat was thus credited as being the first grand prior of the association, however, "W. B. H." wrote in January 1919 to the journal Notes & Queries: "His name is not in the knights' lists, he was never'Prior in the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem': he became an ordinary member of that Order on Nov. 11, 1830." Sir Robert Peat died in April 1837 and Sir Henry Dymoke was appointed grand prior and re-established contact with the knights in France and Germany, into which the group had by that time expanded. However, until the late 1830s, the British arm of the organisation had only considered itself to be a grand priory and langue of the Order of St John, having never been recognized as such by the established order.
Dymoke sought to rectify this by seeking acknowledgement fro
Seventh-day Adventist theology
The theology of the Seventh-day Adventist Church resembles that of Protestant Christianity, combining elements from Lutheran, Wesleyan/Arminian, Anabaptist branches of Protestantism. Adventists believe in the infallibility of Scripture and teach that salvation comes through faith in Jesus Christ; the 28 fundamental beliefs constitute the church's official doctrinal position. The denomination has a number of distinctive doctrines which differentiate it from other Christian churches. There are few teachings held by Seventh-day Adventists; some of their views which differ from most Christian churches include: the perpetuity of the seventh-day Sabbath, the unconsciousness of man in death, conditional immortality, an atoning ministry of Jesus Christ in the heavenly sanctuary, an “investigative judgment” that commenced in 1844. Furthermore, a traditionally historicist approach to prophecy has led Adventists to develop a unique system of eschatological beliefs which incorporates a commandment-keeping "remnant", a universal end-time crisis revolving around the law of God, the visible return of Jesus Christ prior to a millennial reign of believers in heaven.
The Seventh-day Adventist denomination expresses its official teachings in a formal statement known as the 28 Fundamental Beliefs. This statement of beliefs was adopted by the church's General Conference in 1980, with an additional belief being added in 2005; the General Conference session in San Antonio 2015 made some changes to the wording of several fundamental beliefs. Significant are the baptismal vows, of which there are two versions. In addition to the fundamental beliefs, a number of "Official Statements" have been voted on by the church leadership, although only some of these are doctrinal in nature; the Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary is a significant expression of Adventist theological thought. The first fundamental belief of the church stated that "The Holy Scriptures are the infallible revelation of will." Adventist theologians reject the "verbal inspiration" position on Scripture held by many conservative evangelical Christians. They believe instead that God inspired the thoughts of the biblical authors, that the authors expressed these thoughts in their own words.
This view is popularly known as "thought inspiration", most Adventist members hold to that view. According to Ed Christian, former JATS editor, "few if any ATS members believe in verbal inerrancy". Adventists reject higher critical approaches to Scripture; the 1986 statement Methods of Bible Study, "urge Adventist Bible students to avoid relying on the use of the presuppositions and the resultant deductions associated with the historical-critical method." Seventh-day Adventist approaches to theology are affected by the level of authority accorded the writings of Ellen White. Mainstream Adventists believe that White had the spiritual gift of prophecy, but that her writings are subject to testing by the Bible, which has ultimate authority. According to one church document, "her expositions on any given Bible passage offer an inspired guide to the meaning of texts without exhausting their meaning or preempting the task of exegesis". "The Inspiration and Authority of the Ellen G. White Writings", document was issued by the Biblical Research Institute of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists.
It has received worldwide input, although is not an official statement. It concludes that a proper understanding will avoid the two extremes of regarding her "writings as functioning on a canonical level identical with Scripture, or considering them as ordinary Christian literature." Adventist theology is distinctly Protestant, holds much in common with Evangelicalism in particular. However, in common with many restorationist groups, Adventists have traditionally taught that the majority of Protestant churches have failed to "complete" the Reformation by overturning the errors of Roman Catholicism and "restoring" the beliefs and practices of the primitive church—including Sabbath keeping, adult baptism and conditional immortality. Adventists do not consider themselves part of the Fundamentalist Christianity community: "Theologically, Seventh-day Adventists have a number of beliefs in common with Fundamentalists, but for various reasons have never been identified with the movement... On their part, Adventists reject as unbiblical a number of teachings held by many Fundamentalists..."
Seventh-day Adventist theology has undergone development from the beginnings of the movement. Doctrinal development has been associated with significant events, including the 1888 Minneapolis General Conference and discussions with evangelicals in the middle of the 20th century which prompted the publication of Seventh-day Adventists Answer Questions on Doctrine; as a consequence of these developments, different theological streams have emerged which today exist alongside the mainstream of the Church. The early Adventists emphasized the concept of "present truth"—see 2 Peter 1:12. James White explained, “The church had a present truth; the present truth now, is that which shows present duty, the right position for us…” ”Present truth is present truth, not future truth, the Word as a lamp shines brightly where we stand, not so plainly on the path in the distance.” Ellen White pointed out that “present truth, a test to the people of this generation, was not a test to the people of generations far back.”
The founders of the SDA church had a dynamic concept of what they called present truth, opposed to
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website
South Pacific Division of Seventh-day Adventists
The South Pacific Division of Seventh-day Adventists is a sub-entity of the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, which oversees the Church's work in the South Pacific nations of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and the islands of the South Pacific. Its headquarters is in Australia, it is made up of four regional offices. They are the Australian Union Conference, New Zealand Pacific Union Conference, Papua New Guinea Union Mission and Trans-Pacific Union Mission; the Division membership as of June 30, 2018 is 522,523. The South Pacific Division is divided into Union Conferences & Union Missions; these are divided into Local Conferences. Australian Union Conference website Greater Sydney Conference website North New South Wales Conference website Northern Australian Conference website South Australian Conference South New South Wales Conference website South Queensland Conference website Tasmanian Conference website Victorian Conference website Western Australian Conference website New Zealand Pacific Union Conference website Cook Islands Mission French Polynesia Mission website New Caledonia Mission Pitcairn Field Station North New Zealand Conference website South New Zealand Conference Papua New Guinea Union Mission website Bougainville Mission Central Papua Conference Eastern Highlands Simbu Mission website Madang Manus Mission website Morobe Mission website New Britain New Ireland Mission website Northern and Milne Bay Mission website Sepik Mission South West Papua Mission Western Highlands Mission website Trans Pacific Union Mission website American Samoa Region Fiji Mission website Kiribati Mission Niue Field Station Samoas-Tokelau Mission Solomon Islands Mission Tonga Mission Tuvalu Region Vanuatu Mission website On May 10, 1885, 11 Americans set sail on the Australia from San Francisco with hopes to “open up a mission in Australia”.
The following people became the pioneers of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the South Pacific: Pastor Stephen Haskell Pastor Mendel Israel, accompanied by his wife and two daughters Pastor John Corliss, accompanied by his wife and two children Henry Scott, a printer from Pacific Press William Arnold, an Adventist booksellerThey arrived in Sydney on June 6, 1885. While Haskell and Israel stayed in Sydney, the others went on a three-day ride in a small coastal steamer to Melbourne, the city selected to be the base for the Church’s Australian activities; the first Seventh-day Adventist church in Australia was the Melbourne Seventh-day Adventist Church, which formed on January 10, 1886, with 29 members. Pastor Stephen N. Haskell, one of the pioneer missionaries to Australia, was keen to spread the message throughout New Zealand, which he had visited on his initial voyage to Australia, he returned to Auckland four months to begin marketing the soon-to-be-released religious paper, The Bible Echo and Signs of the Times, now the Signs of the Times.
Reports of Haskell's early success in New Zealand caused the leaders of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in America to delegate A. G. Daniells, an evangelist and former school teacher, along with his wife to travel to New Zealand to develop the work further in that country. Daniells had astounding success through his dynamic preaching and on October 15, 1887, he opened the first Seventh-day Adventist church in New Zealand at Ponsonby. Daniells would go on to become the world president of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. John Tay, an American, was the first Seventh-day Adventist to visit the Cook Islands. During his visit in 1886 Tay sold Adventist literature to the people there. Another missionary voyage to the Pitcairn Islands provided a second opportunity to sell literature and offer medical services to the Cook Islanders. Dr Joseph Caldwell and his wife Julia accepted a request to stay on the island as permanent doctor. Julia, a schoolteacher, opened an English-language school. Along with them remained Dudley and Sarah Owen and Maud Young, a Pitcairner who came as a student nurse.
The five Adventists worshipped with the London Missionary Society believers in their church in Avarua. The services were conducted in English; the first Adventist contact in Fiji was the arrival of the ship the Pitcairn in 1891. The Pitcairn missionaries began to conduct meetings for the Fijians. Two of the missionaries and Hannah Tay, remained in Suva while the others journeyed to neighbouring islands to sell books to the Fijians. After six months in Fiji John Tay died, bringing his contribution to Adventist evangelism in the Pacific to a premature end. By 1895, more Adventist missionaries arrived to deliver the Advent message, these included John Fulton and family, Pastor John Cole and his wife. During Fulton's effort to translate books into Fijian, Pauliasi became convinced of the accuracy of the Seventh-day Sabbath, became the first ordained Adventist minister. In those days, Seventh-day Adventists were referred to by Fijian locals as "lotu savasava" or the "clean church"; this was based on the Adventist doctrine emphasising healthy living which includes a ban on the consumption of pork, tobacco, etc.
Four Adventist schools were established to reach the different ethnic and religious divisions of Fiji. Fulton College was founded, its mission was to provide "pastoral training, teacher training and technical instruction, it included Indian and Fijian primary schools". According to the 1996 census around 2.9% of Fijians identify themselves as Adventist. Seventh-day Adven
History of the Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church had its roots in the Millerite movement of the 1830s to the 1840s, during the period of the Second Great Awakening, was founded in 1863. Prominent figures in the early church included Hiram Edson, James Springer White, Joseph Bates, J. N. Andrews. Over the ensuing decades the church expanded from its original base in New England to become an international organization. Significant developments such the reviews initiated by evangelicals Donald Barnhouse and Walter Martin, in the 20th century led to its recognition as a Christian denomination; the Second Great Awakening, a revival movement in the United States, took place in the early 19th century. The Second Great Awakening was stimulated by the foundation of the many Bible Societies which sought to address the problem of a lack of affordable Bibles; the spread of Bibles allowed many who had not had one to be able to purchase and study it themselves rather than just hear it preached, led to the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming of Jesus Christ.
Many religious minority movements formed out of the Congregational and the Baptist and Methodist churches. Some of these movements held beliefs that would be adopted by the Seventh-day Adventists. An interest in prophecy was kindled among some Protestants groups following the arrest of Pope Pius VI in 1798 by the French General Louis Alexandre Berthier. Forerunners of the Adventist movement believed that this event marked the end of the 1260-day prophecy from the Book of Daniel. Certain individuals began to look at the 2300 day prophecy found in Daniel 8:14. Interest in prophecy found its way into the Roman Catholic church when an exiled Jesuit priest by the name of Manuel de Lacunza published a manuscript calling for renewed interest in the Second Coming of Christ, his publication created a stirring but was condemned by Pope Leo XII in 1824. As a result of a pursuit for religious freedom, many revivalists had set foot in the United States, aiming to avoid persecution; the Seventh-day Adventist Church formed out of the movement known today as the Millerites.
In 1831, a Baptist convert, William Miller, was asked by a Baptist to preach in their church and began to preach that the Second Advent of Jesus would occur somewhere between March 1843 and March 1844, based on his interpretation of Daniel 8:14. A following gathered around Miller that included many from the Baptist, Methodist and Christian Connection churches. In the summer of 1844, some of Miller's followers promoted the date of October 22, they linked the cleansing of the sanctuary of Daniel 8:14 with the Jewish Day of Atonement, believed to be October 22 that year. By 1844, over 100,000 people were anticipating what Miller had called the "Blessed Hope". On October 22 many of the believers were up late into the night watching, waiting for Christ to return and found themselves bitterly disappointed when both sunset and midnight passed with their expectations unfulfilled; this event became known as the Great Disappointment. After the disappointment of October 22 many of Miller's followers were left disillusioned.
Most ceased to believe in the imminent return of Jesus. Some believed. A few believed that the date was right but the event expected was wrong; this latter group developed into the Seventh-day Adventist Church. One of the Adventists, Hiram Edson wrote "Our fondest hopes and expectations were blasted, such a spirit of weeping came over us as I never experienced before, it seemed. We wept, wept, till the day dawn." On the morning of October 23, who lived in Port Gibson, New York was passing through his grain field with a friend. He recounted his experience: "We started, while passing through a large field I was stopped about midway of the field. Heaven seemed opened to my view, I saw distinctly and that instead of our High Priest coming out of the Most Holy of the heavenly sanctuary to come to this earth on the tenth day of the seventh month, at the end of the 2300 days, He for the first time entered on that day the second apartment of that sanctuary; as a result, he began studying the bible with two of the other believers in the area, O.
R. L. Crosier and Franklin B. Hahn, who published their findings in a paper called Day-Dawn; this paper explored the biblical parable of the Ten Virgins and attempted to explain why the bridegroom had tarried. The article explored the concept of the day of atonement and what the authors called "our chronology of events"; the findings published by Crosier and Edson led to a new understanding about the sanctuary in heaven. Their paper explained how there was a sanctuary in heaven, that Christ, the High Priest, was to cleanse; the believers understood this cleansing to be. George Knight wrote, "Although the smallest of the post-Millerite groups, it came to see itself as the true successor of the once-powerful Millerite movement." This view was endorsed by Ellen White. However, Seeking a Sanctuary sees it more as an offshoot of the Millerite movement; the "Sabbath and Shut Door" Adventists were disparate, but emerged. Only Joseph Bates had had any prominence in the Millerite movement. Adventists viewed themselves as heirs of earlier outcast believers such as the Waldenses, Protestant Reformers including the Anabaptists and Scottish Puritans, evangelical