Sebastian Browne, 12th Marquess of Sligo
Sebastian Ulick Browne, 12th Marquess of Sligo, is a peer in the Peerage of Ireland. As Baron Monteagle he is a peer in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the Marquess holds the subsidiary titles of Baron Mount Eagle, Viscount Westport, Earl of Altamont, Earl of Clanricarde, all in the Peerage of Ireland. The son of Captain Lord Ulick Browne and his second wife Fiona Glenn, he was educated at Rugby School, he married Christina Maria Suaznabar, of Bolivia, in 1984, by whom he has two children: Lady Camilla Browne Christopher Ulick Browne, Earl of Altamont The couple divorced in 1992. He emigrated to Australia in 1997, he succeeded his first cousin, the 11th Marquess, as 12th Marquess of Sligo in July 2014, although the 11th Marquess had dissolved the entail on the family estate of Westport House and left it to his daughters who sold it in 2017. On 22 January 2016, Lord Sligo married Claire Suzanne van Middelkoop in Wollongong. Corporate profile
Kingdom of Ireland
The Kingdom of Ireland was a client state of England and of Great Britain that existed from 1542 until 1800. It was ruled by the monarchs of England and of Great Britain in personal union with their other realms; the kingdom was administered from Dublin Castle nominally by the King or Queen, who appointed a viceroy to rule in their stead. It had its own legislature, legal system, state church; the territory of the Kingdom had been a lordship ruled by the kings of England, founded in 1177 after the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland. By the 1500s the area of English rule had shrunk and most of Ireland was held by Gaelic Irish chiefdoms. In 1542, King Henry VIII of England was made King of Ireland; the English began establishing control over the island, which sparked the Desmond Rebellions and the Nine Years’ War. It was completed in the 1600s; the conquest involved confiscating land from the native Irish and colonising it with settlers from Britain. In its early years, the Kingdom had limited recognition, as no Catholic countries in Europe recognised Henry and his heir Edward as monarch of Ireland.
Catholics, who made up most of the population, were discriminated against in the Kingdom, which from the late 17th century was dominated by a Protestant Ascendancy. This discrimination was one of the main drivers behind several conflicts which broke out: the Irish Confederate Wars, the Williamite-Jacobite War, the Armagh disturbances and the Irish Rebellion of 1798; the Parliament of Ireland passed the Acts of Union 1800 by which it abolished itself and the Kingdom. The act was passed by the Parliament of Great Britain, it established the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on the first day of 1801 by uniting the Crowns of Ireland and of Great Britain. The papal bull Laudabiliter of Pope Adrian IV was issued in 1155, it granted the Angevin King Henry II of England the title Dominus Hibernae. Laudabiliter authorised the king to invade Ireland. In return, Henry was required to remit a penny per hearth of the tax roll to the Pope; this was reconfirmed by Adrian's successor Pope Alexander III in 1172.
When Pope Clement VII excommunicated the king of England, Henry VIII, in 1533, the constitutional position of the lordship in Ireland became uncertain. Henry declared himself the head of the Church in England, he had petitioned Rome to procure an annulment of his marriage to Queen Catherine. Clement VII refused Henry's request and Henry subsequently refused to recognise the Roman Catholic Church's vestigial sovereignty over Ireland, was excommunicated again in late 1538 by Pope Paul III; the Treason Act 1537 was passed to counteract this. Following the failed revolt of Silken Thomas in 1534–35, the lord deputy, had some military successes against several clans in the late 1530s, took their submissions. By 1540 most of Ireland seemed under the control of the king's Dublin administration. Henry was proclaimed King of Ireland by the Crown of Ireland Act 1542, an Act of the Irish Parliament; the new kingdom was not recognised by the Catholic monarchies in Europe. After the death of King Edward VI, Henry's son, the papal bull of 1555 recognised the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I as Queen of Ireland.
The link of "personal union" of the Crown of Ireland to the Crown of England became enshrined in Catholic canon law. In this fashion, the Kingdom of Ireland was ruled by the reigning monarch of England; this placed the new Kingdom of Ireland in personal union with the Kingdom of England. In line with its expanded role and self-image, the administration established the King's Inns for barristers in 1541, the Ulster King of Arms to regulate heraldry in 1552. Proposals to establish a university in Dublin were delayed until 1592. In 1593 war broke out, as Hugh O'Neill, earl of Tyrone, led a confederation of Irish lords and Spain against the crown, in what became known as the Nine Years' War. A series of stunning Irish victories brought English power in Ireland to the point of collapse by the beginning of 1600, but a renewed campaign under Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy forced Tyrone to submit in 1603, completing the Tudor conquest of Ireland. In 1603 James VI King of Scots became James I of England, uniting the Kingdoms of England and Ireland in a personal union.
The political order of the kingdom was interrupted by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms starting in 1639. During the subsequent interregnum period, England and Ireland were ruled as a republic until 1660; this period saw the rise of the loyalist Irish Catholic Confederation within the kingdom and, from 1653, the creation of the republican Commonwealth of England and Ireland. The kingdom's order was restored 1660 with the restoration of Charles II. Without any public dissent, Charles's reign was backdated to his father's execution in 1649. Poynings' Law was repealed in 1782 in what came to be known as the Constitution of 1782, granting Ireland legislative independence. Parliament in this period came to be known as Grattan's Parliament, after the principal Irish leader of the period, Henry Grattan. Although Ireland had legislative independence, executive administration remained under the control of the executive of the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1788 -- 89 a Regency crisis arose. Grattan wanted to appoint the Prince of Wales George
Arthurstown is a small village in the townland of Coleman in southwest County Wexford, Ireland. It is located along the R733 regional road on the eastern shore of the Waterford Harbour estuary, where The Three Sisters flow into the sea; as of the 2016 Census, the town has a population of 127. Located between Ballyhack and Duncannon, Arthurstown is home to The King's Bay Inn pub, as well as McDermott's Service Station. List of towns and villages in Ireland
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"
Marquess Camden is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1812 for 2nd Earl Camden; the Pratt family descends from Sir John Pratt, Lord Chief Justice from 1718 to 1725. His third son from his second marriage, Sir Charles Pratt, was a prominent lawyer and politician and served as Lord Chancellor between 1766 and 1770. In 1765 he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron Camden, of Camden Place in the County of Kent, in 1786 he was further honoured when he was created Viscount Bayham, of Bayham Abbey in the County of Kent, Earl Camden; these titles are in the Peerage of Great Britain. Lord Camden was married to Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Jeffreys, of The Priory, Brecknockshire, in Wales, their son, the second Earl, was a politician and notably served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and as Lord President of the Council. In 1812 he was created Earl of the County of Marquess Camden, his son, the second Marquess, represented Ludgershall and Dunwich in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Brecknockshire.
In 1835 Lord Camden was called to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Camden. His son, the third Marquess sat as a Member of Parliament for Brecon in 1866, before he succeeded his father and took his seat in the House of Lords. On his early death the titles passed to the fourth Marquess, he was notably Lord Lieutenant of Kent from 1905 to 1943. As of 2017 the peerages are held by his grandson, the sixth Marquess, who succeeded his father in 1983. Lord Michael Pratt was a younger son of the fifth Marquess. Camden Town in London is named for Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, the elephant from the arms of Marquess Camden is therefore present in the crest in the coat of arms of the London Borough of Camden; the family seat is Wherwell House, near Hampshire. Until the early 1980s the family owned the Bayham Abbey Estate, near Lamberhurst, Kent. Charles Pratt, 1st Baron Camden Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden, 1st Viscount Bayham, 1st Baron Camden John Jeffreys Pratt, 2nd Earl Camden, 2nd Viscount Bayham, 2nd Baron Camden John Jeffreys Pratt, 1st Marquess Camden, 2nd Earl Camden, 1st Earl of Brecknock, 2nd Viscount Bayham, 2nd Baron Camden George Charles Pratt, 2nd Marquess Camden, 3rd Earl Camden, 2nd Earl of Brecknock, 3rd Viscount Bayham, 3rd Baron Camden John Charles Pratt, 3rd Marquess Camden, 4th Earl Camden, 3rd Earl of Brecknock, 4th Viscount Bayham, 4th Baron Camden John Charles Pratt, 4th Marquess Camden, 5th Earl Camden, 4th Earl of Brecknock, 5th Viscount Bayham, 5th Baron Camden John Charles Henry Pratt, 5th Marquess Camden, 6th Earl Camden, 5th Earl of Brecknock, 6th Viscount Bayham, 6th Baron Camden David George Edward Henry Pratt, 6th Marquess Camden, 7th Earl Camden, 6th Earl of Brecknock, 7th Viscount Bayham, 7th Baron Camden The heir apparent is the present holder's son James William John Pratt, Earl of Brecknock Kidd, Williamson, David.
Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages The London Gazette, 13 May 1786 The London Gazette, 15 August, 1812 David Pratt, 6th Marquess Camden Genealogics.org Geni.com
David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley
David George Philip Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley,. He acts as Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom, a role he is entitled to hold for the duration of present Queen's reign. Lord Cholmondeley is a descendant of the first Prime Minister of Great Britain, he is the son of Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley, his wife, the former Lavinia Margaret Leslie. He is a descendent of both the Rothschild family and the Sassoon family through his paternal grandmother, Sybil Sassoon, he has three elder sisters: the Ladies Rose and Caroline. Like numerous members of his family, Cholmondeley was educated at Eton College, he took classes at the Sorbonne. Lord Cholmondeley is a filmmaker; as David Rocksavage, he appeared in a small part in Eric Rohmer's 1987 film, 4 aventures de Reinette et Mirabelle. His professional name is derived from his title of Earl of Rocksavage, his chosen career was put on hold when he succeeded to the marquessate in 1990. In 1995, he directed the film adaptation of Truman Capote's novel Other Voices, Other Rooms.
In 2007, he directed The Wreck, starring James Wilby. The film was shot in Norfolk, it was renamed Shadows in the Sun and was released in 2009. Cholmondeley became Marquess of Cholmondeley on 13 March 1990, upon the death of his father. Cholmondeley does not sit in the House of Lords for debates as he is on "leave of absence", although he does attend the House of Lords in his role of Lord Great Chamberlain of England; the family seats are Houghton Hall in Norfolk, Cholmondeley Castle, surrounded by a 7,500-acre estate near Malpas, Cheshire. According to the Sunday Times Rich List in 2008, Cholmondeley has an estimated net worth of £60m, attributed to his inherited landholdings. Houghton Hall, ancestral home of the Marquesses of Cholmondeley since the establishment of the title in 1815, has now opened some of its rooms to the public. In 1974, Cholmondeley was a Page of Honour to the Queen at the age of 14, he relinquished this role upon reaching the age limit of retirement in 1976. One moiety of the ancient office of Lord Great Chamberlain is a Cholmondeley inheritance.
This hereditary honour came into the Cholmondeley family through the marriage of the first Marquess of Cholmondeley to Lady Georgiana Charlotte Bertie, daughter of Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven. The second, fifth and seventh holders of the marquessate have all held this office. Cholmondeley began acting as the hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain to Her Majesty in 1990. In the Queen's Birthday Honours List for 2007, Lord Cholmondeley was made a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order for his 17 years of service as Lord Great Chamberlain. Lord Cholmondeley married Rose Hanbury, a 25-year-old fashion model turned researcher, on 24 June 2009, their engagement having been announced the previous day, she is a daughter of Tim Hanbury, a website designer, his fashion designer wife, Emma. Her maternal grandmother is Lady Elizabeth Lambart, daughter of the 10th Earl of Cavan, one of the bridesmaids at the 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth. On 12 October 2009, the Marchioness gave birth to twin sons, Alexander Hugh George and Oliver Timothy George, who were expected in January.
The birth took place shortly after Lady Cholmondeley was rushed to Queen Charlotte's Hospital in London, where she was monitored for two weeks. The elder son, Alexander, as heir apparent to the Marquessate, bears the courtesy title of Earl of Rocksavage. In March 2016 the Marquess and Marchioness had their third child, a daughter, Lady Iris Marina Aline Cholmondeley; the Marchioness is a patron of the EACH charity, along with the Duchess of Cambridge. 27 June 1960 – 6 September 1968: Viscount Malpas 6 September 1968 – 13 March 1990: Earl of Rocksavage 13 March 1990 – present: The Most Honourable The Marquess of Cholmondeley Debrett, Charles Kidd, David Williamson.. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-38847-1 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Marquess of Cholmondeley David Rocksavage on IMDb Houghton Hall Cholmondeley Castle Photos of Houghton Hall and Cholmondley Castle: As a special Millennium project, Garlinda Birkbeck was commissioned by the Marquis of Cholmondeley to photograph every house and person on his estates in Norfolk and Cheshire, capturing the world of his estates at the turn of the year 1999/2000.
Allen Warren Photographer: Marquis of Cholmondeley in uniform of Lord Great Chamberlain for State Opening of Parliament, standing in front of throne Mitchell Owens's interview with Lord Cholmondeley in The New York Times, 14 December 1997 David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley Pedigree at Genealogics
Lord Great Chamberlain
In the United Kingdom, the Lord Great Chamberlain is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster. On formal state occasions, he wears a distinctive scarlet court uniform and bears a gold key and a white stave as the insignia of his office; the position is a hereditary one, held since 1780 in gross. At any one time, a single person exercises the office of Lord Great Chamberlain; the various individuals who hold fractions of the Lord Great Chamberlainship are technically each Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain, the right to exercise the office for a given reign rotates proportionately to the fraction of the office held. For instance, the Marquesses of Cholmondeley hold one-half of the office, may therefore exercise the office or appoint a deputy every alternate reign.. The office of Lord Great Chamberlain is distinct from the non-hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household, a position in the monarch's household.
This office arose in the 14th century as a deputy of the Lord Great Chamberlain to fulfil the latter's duties in the Royal Household, but now they are quite distinct. The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that a hereditary peer exercising the office of Lord Great Chamberlain be exempt from such a rule, in order to perform ceremonial functions; the office was held by Robert Malet, a son of one of the leading companions of William the Conqueror. In 1133, King Henry I declared Malet's estates and titles forfeit, awarded the office of Lord Great Chamberlain to Aubrey de Vere, whose son was created Earl of Oxford. Thereafter, the Earls of Oxford held the title continuously until 1526, with a few intermissions due to the forfeiture of some Earls for treason. In 1526, the fourteenth Earl of Oxford died, leaving his aunts as his heirs; the earldom was inherited by his second cousin. The Sovereign decreed that the office belonged to The Crown, was not transmitted along with the earldom.
The Sovereign appointed the fifteenth Earl to the office, but the appointment was deemed for life and was not hereditary. The family's association with the office was interrupted in 1540, when the fifteenth earl died and Thomas Cromwell, the King's chief adviser, was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain. After Cromwell's attainder and execution the same year, the office passed through a few more court figures, until 1553, when it was passed back to the De Vere family, the sixteenth Earl of Oxford, again as an uninheritable life appointment. Queen Mary I ruled that the Earls of Oxford were indeed entitled to the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on an hereditary basis. Thus, the sixteenth and eighteenth Earls of Oxford held the position on a hereditary basis until 1626, when the eighteenth Earl died, again leaving a distant relative as heir male, but a closer one as a female heir; the House of Lords ruled that the office belonged to the heir male, Robert Bertie, 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, who became Earl of Lindsey.
The office remained vested in the Earls of Lindsey, who became Dukes of Ancaster and Kesteven. In 1779, the fourth Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven died, leaving two sisters as female heirs, an uncle as an heir male; the uncle became the fifth and last Duke, but the House of Lords ruled that the two sisters were jointly Lord Great Chamberlain and could appoint a Deputy to fulfil the functions of the office. The barony of Willoughby de Eresby went into abeyance between the two sisters, but the Sovereign terminated the abeyance and granted the title to the elder sister, Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby; the younger sister married the first Marquess of Cholmondeley. The office of Lord Great Chamberlain, was divided between Priscilla and her younger sister Georgiana. Priscilla's share was split between two of her granddaughters, has been split several more times since then. By contrast, Georgiana's share has been inherited by a single male heir each time; the Lord Great Chamberlain has a major part to play in royal coronations, having the right to dress the monarch on coronation day and to serve the monarch water before and after the coronation banquet, being involved in investing the monarch with the insignia of rule.
The fractions show the holder's share in the office, the date they held it. The current holders of the office are shown in bold face. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lord Great Chamberlain". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Www.debretts.com 1965 decisions regarding the Lord Great Chamberlain's responsibilities in the Palace of Westminster Planning Act 2008, s. 227 Principal Office Holders in the House of Lords. House of Lords Library Note, includes a brief overview of the Lord Great Chamberlain www.cracroftspeerage.co.uk