Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Batman and Robin (comic book)
Batman and Robin is an American comic book ongoing series, created by Grant Morrison and featuring Batman and Robin. The debut of the series followed the events of "Batman R. I. P.", Final Crisis, "Battle for the Cowl" in which the original Batman, Bruce Wayne died at the hands of DC Comics villain Darkseid and features the winner of the Battle for the Cowl as the new Batman. The conclusion of Battle for the Cowl shows Dick Grayson ascending to the role of Batman, while Damian Wayne becomes the new Robin. Morrison returned to writing the characters after being the ongoing writer on Batman from issues #655–658 and #663–683. While writing for this title, Morrison wrote the miniseries The Return of Bruce Wayne and finished his run on the title with issue #16, before moving onto the next phase of his narrative in Batman Incorporated. Paul Cornell and Scott McDaniel created a three-issue arc before the new ongoing creative team, the former Green Lantern Corps duo of writer Peter Tomasi and artist Patrick Gleason, began their run with February 2011's issue #20.
In an interview with IGN before the release of the first issue, Morrison detailed that the tone of the series would be a "reverse" of the normal dynamic between Batman and Robin, with, "a more light-hearted and spontaneous Batman and a scowling, bad ass Robin." Morrison divulged that this is a continuation of his previous work on the Batman character, although this is a different title than what he wrote previously. "This is the next book in what will be a 5-volume series beginning Batman and Son, but it can be read on its own too. Batman and Robin welcomes new readers!" Morrison said that though the series deals with familiar identities, the series features all new villains and situations, but revealed that some villains were glimpsed in Batman #666. When asked if the series would deal with the new Batman being unable to fill Bruce Wayne's proverbial shoes, Morrison answered, "When I started out I had that in mind, I thought we'd prove that nobody else could be Batman, but I do. I think with it's fun to start by seeing what happens when someone else tries.
Sometimes it goes wrong, sometimes it goes well. Some of the things these guys do are things that Bruce Wayne would never have thought to do." In regards to using Frank Quitely as the opening artist, Morrison described the difference between this particular collaboration with previous ones on JLA Earth-2 and All-Star Superman. For instance, Morrison asked Quitely to choreograph the flow of the action in his own way, rather than through Morrison's heavily detailed scripts. In regards to the style, Morrison said, "I've asked to re-introduce the much-maligned sound effects to superhero comics, but in a way that integrates them more with the art." He described Batman and Robin as, "a shorter, pacier collaboration so we've tried to keep it looser and more open than All-Star Superman. Morrison confirmed that following Quitely's run on the first three issues, Philip Tan would be the artist for the next three issues, an arc entitled "Revenge of the Red Hood," with Cameron Stewart as the artist for "Blackest Knight," the third arc, followed by Andy Clarke drawing the fourth arc titled "Batman vs. Robin" and Quitely coming back to the book sometime after.
Frazer Irving took over for the fifth arc "Batman Must Die" starting in issue #13. In an interview with USA Today, Morrison outlined the future of the titles, saying "I'm doing at least another year of stories with Dick Grayson and Damian Wayne in the Batman and Robin book before that book starts to dovetail with Return and we rush headlong and screaming into the next big, earth-shattering, game-changing twist in the life of Batman."It was announced Peter Tomasi and Patrick Gleason would take over the title after Grant Morrison, while Morrison will go onto a different title. Dick Grayson will continue his role as Batman concurrently with Bruce Wayne, remain the star of Batman and Robin. With this title being Morrison's primary work in the Batman world for nearly two years, the writer has stated that this is a direct continuation of his Batman work: "With the collections out, we’ve got "Batman and Son",' we’ve got The Black Glove, we’ve got "Batman R. I. P.", we’ve got this one and Robin, hopefully, there will be a final volume, a fifth volume."In regards to the fate of Bruce Wayne, Morrison stated that he would be dealing with that in the future.
"Bruce is still out there. Final Crisis revealed Bruce is still out there and he’s got to make his way back in some way." Morrison made the case for fans that disapprove of having a Batman, not Bruce Wayne. "We’re not entertaining the notion that Bruce won’t be back at some time. This isn’t like Captain America with the Winter Soldier story and Cap’s gone; this is an ongoing story, another chapter in the life of Batman, so I think people who are fans of Bruce and who think no one else can be Batman will be entertained by this. And be intrigued to see who it is."Morrison brought Wayne back in a mini-series in which the title promised the character's return, as promised, dovetailed the conclusion of that series with his final issue of the Batman and Robin title, seeing Bruce Wayne create Batman Incorporated. The main story of the comic series was made up of a series of three-issue story arcs; the first one, "Batman: Reborn," was penciled by Frank Quitely. The second arc, "Revenge of the Red Hood," was penciled by Philip Tan.
The third arc, "Blackest Knight," is penciled by Cameron Stewart on issues # 7-9 of Robin. The fourth arc, "Batman vs. Robin," is penciled by Andy Clarke and contains issues #10-12; the fif
Justice Society of America
The Justice Society of America is a superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice Society of America was conceived by writer Gardner Fox; the JSA first appeared in All Star Comics #3, making it the first team of superheroes in comic books. The team was popular, but in the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned, the JSA's adventures ceased with issue #57 of the title. JSA members remained absent from comics until ten years when the original Flash appeared alongside a new character by that name in The Flash #123. During the Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics reinvented several Justice Society members and banded many of them together in the Justice League of America; the Justice Society was established as existing on "Earth-Two" and the Justice League on "Earth-One". This allowed for annual cross-dimensional team-ups of the teams between 1963 and 1985. New series, such as All-Star Squadron, Inc. and a new All-Star Comics featured the JSA, their children and their heirs.
These series explored the issues of aging, generational differences, contrasts between the Golden Age and subsequent eras. The 1985 Crisis on Infinite Earths limited series merged all of the company's various alternate realities into one, placing the JSA as World War II-era predecessors to the company's modern characters. A JSA series was published from 1999 to 2006, a Justice Society of America series ran from 2007 to 2011; as part of DC Comics' 2011 relaunch of its entire line of monthly books an unnamed version of the team appears in the Earth 2 Vol 1, Earth 2 World's End, Earth 2: Society. The Justice Society of America first appeared in All Star Comics #3 written by Gardner Fox and edited by Sheldon Mayer during the Golden Age of Comic Books; the team included: Doctor Fate, Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Sandman, the Atom, the Flash, Green Lantern, Hawkman. Because some of these characters were published by All-American Publications rather than DC Comics, All-Star Comics #3 is the first inter-company superhero title, as well as the first team-up title.
Comics' historian Les Daniels noted that: "This was a great notion, since it offered readers a lot of headliners for a dime, the fun of watching fan favorites interact."The JSA's adventures were written by Gardner Fox as well as by John Broome and Robert Kanigher. The series was illustrated by a legion of artists including: Martin Nodell, Joe Kubert, Jack Kirby, Harry Lampert, Joe Simon, Alex Toth, Sheldon Moldoff, Carmine Infantino, Joe Giella, Win Mortimer, Bernard Baily, Frank Giacoia, H. G. Peter, Jack Burnley, Lee Elias, Irwin Hasen, Bob Oksner, Paul Reinman, Everett E. Hibbard, Bernard Sachs; the first JSA story featured the team's first meeting, with a framing sequence for each member telling a story of an individual exploit. In the next issue, the team worked together on a common case, but each story from there on still featured the members individually on a mission involving part of the case, banding together in the end to wrap things up. An in-house rule explicitly laid out on the last page of All Star Comics #5, reprinted on page 206 of All Star Comics Archives Vol. 1, required that whenever a member received his or her own title, that character would leave All Star Comics, becoming an "honorary member" of the JSA.
Thus, the Flash was replaced by Johnny Thunder after #6, Green Lantern left shortly thereafter for the same reason. For this reason and Batman were established as being "honorary" members prior to All Star Comics #3. How these two heroes helped found the JSA before becoming honorary members was not explained until DC Special #29 in 1977. Hawkman is the only member to appear in every JSA adventure in the original run of All Star Comics. All Star Comics #8 featured the first appearance of Wonder Woman. Unlike the other characters who had their own titles, she was allowed to appear in the series, but only as the JSA's secretary from #11 onward, did not take part in most adventures until much in the series, she was excluded from the title because of the same rules that had excluded the Flash, Green Lantern and Batman from the title, though in #13 it was claimed she had become an active member. A fan club for the team called the "Junior Justice Society of America" was introduced in All Star Comics #14.
The membership kit included a welcome letter, a badge, a decoder, a four-page comic book, a membership certificate. By All Star Comics #24, a real-world schism between National Comics and All-American Publications—a nominally independent company run by Max Gaines and Jack Liebowitz—had occurred, which resulted in the Detective Comics, Inc. heroes being removed from the title. As a result, the Flash and Green Lantern returned to the team. With issue #27, National Comics bought out Max Gaines' share of All-American and the two companies merged to form Detective Comics, Inc; the JSA roster remained the same for the rest of the series. Gardner Fox left the series with issue #34 with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard; the Injustice Society first battled the JSA in issue #37 in a tale written by Robert Kanigher. The team's second female member, Black Canary, first helped the group in All Star Comics #38 and became a full member in #41. All Star Comics and the JSA's Golden Age adventures ended with issue #57, the title becoming All-Star Western, with no superheroes.
A good amount of artwork has survived from an unpublishe
Image Comics is an American comic book publisher. It was founded in 1992 by several high-profile illustrators as a venue for creator-owned properties, in which comics creators could publish material of their own creation without giving up the copyrights to those properties, as is the case in the work for hire-dominated American comics industry, in which the legal author is a publisher, such as Marvel Comics or DC Comics, the creator is an employee of that publisher. Image Comics was successful, remains one of the largest comic book publishers in North America, its output was dominated by superhero and fantasy series from the studios of the founding Image partners, but now includes comics in many genres by numerous independent creators. Its best-known series include The Walking Dead, Savage Dragon, The Darkness, Saga and Bone. In the early 1990s, comics creators Erik Larsen, Rob Liefeld, Jim Valentino had dinner with Malibu Comics editor-in-chief Dave Olbrich. Malibu was a small but established publishing company sympathetic to creator-ownership, Olbrich expressed interest in publishing comics created by them.
These and several other freelance illustrators doing popular work for Marvel Comics were growing frustrated with the company's work for hire policies and practices, which they felt did not sufficiently reward the talent that produced them, as the company merchandised their artwork, compensated them with modest royalties. According to Todd McFarlane, he, Jim Lee and Liefeld met with Marvel president Terry Stewart and editor Tom DeFalco in late December 1991. Larsen and Silvestri, who joined the group the night before, were not present, but the group that met with Stewart indicated that they were representing them as well. Contrary to what has been reported by other sources, McFarlane says that they made no demands of Stewart or Marvel, but informed him that they were leaving, gave their reasons why, cautioned Stewart to heed those reasons, lest the company suffer future exoduses; the creators had the same meeting with DC Comics the next day. After Whilce Portacio returned from his yearly trip to the Philippines, his Homage Studios colleague Lee asked him to join the group.
A group of eight creators announced the founding of Image Comics: illustrators Todd McFarlane, Jim Lee, Rob Liefeld, Marc Silvestri, Erik Larsen, Jim Valentino, Whilce Portacio. This development was nicknamed the "X-odus", because several of the creators involved were famous for their work on the X-Men franchise. Marvel's stock fell $3.25 / share. Image's organizing charter had two key provisions: Image would not own any creator's work. No Image partner would interfere – creatively or financially – with any other partner's work. Image itself would own no intellectual property except the company trademarks: its name and its logo, designed by writer Hank Kanalz; each Image partner founded his own studio, which published under the Image banner but was autonomous from any central editorial control. Claremont was not part of the partnership, Portacio withdrew during the formative stages to deal with his sister's illness, so Image consisted of six studios: Todd McFarlane Productions, owned by Todd McFarlane WildStorm Productions, owned by Jim Lee Highbrow Entertainment, owned by Erik Larsen Shadowline, owned by Jim Valentino Top Cow Productions, owned by Marc Silvestri Extreme Studios, owned by Rob Liefeld Their initial titles were produced under the Image imprint, but published through Malibu Comics, which provided administrative, production and marketing support for the launch of them.
The first Image comic books to arrive in stores were Liefeld's Youngblood, Larsen's The Savage Dragon, McFarlane's Spawn, Lee's WildC. A. T.s. Propelled by the artists' popularity and the eagerness of comic book collectors to get in on the "next big thing", these series sold in numbers that no publisher other than Marvel, DC, or Valiant Comics had achieved in the years since the market's decline in the 1970s. Within a few months, the Image titles' success led to Malibu having 10% of the North American comics market share exceeding that of industry giant DC Comics. By the beginning of 1993, Image's financial situation was secure enough to publish its titles independently, it left Malibu; some of the founders' studios came to resemble separate publishers, each with several ongoing series set in a shared universe. The use of freelancers to write or illustrate series that were owned by the Image partners led to criticism that some of them had reproduced the system they had rebelled against, but with them in charge instead of a corporation.
Image partners such as Larsen and Valentino, who did not take this approach, assumed a neutral position on it, in keeping with the requirement that none of them had any say in how the others' studios were run. Some of the Image partners used their studios to publish new works produced by independent creators, allowing them to retain ownership and editorial control over those series, an arrangement, t
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
The Justice League is a team of fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The Justice League was conceived by writer Gardner Fox, they first appeared together, as Justice League of America in The Brave and the Bold #28; the Justice League is an assemblage of superheroes. The seven original members were Aquaman, The Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman; the team roster has rotated throughout the years, consisting of various superheroes from the DC Universe, such as The Atom, Big Barda, Black Canary, Green Arrow, Elongated Man, the Flash/Wally West, Green Lantern/John Stewart, Hawkman, Plastic Man, Power Girl, Red Tornado, Captain Marvel/Shazam, Zatanna, among many others. The team received its own comic book title called Justice League of America in November 1960. With the 2011 relaunch, DC Comics released a second volume of Justice League. In July 2016, the DC Rebirth initiative again relaunched the Justice League comic book titles with the third volume of Justice League.
Since its inception, the team has been featured in various films, television programs, video games. Various comic book series featuring the Justice League have remained popular with fans since inception and, in most incarnations, its roster includes DC's most popular characters; the Justice League concept has been adapted into various other entertainment media, including various forms of television from the classic Saturday morning Super Friends animated series, a live action series of specials Legends of the Superheroes, an unproduced Justice League of America live-action series, the acclaimed Justice League animated series, its sequel Justice League Unlimited and Justice League Action. A live-action film was in the works around 2008 before being shelved. On June 6, 2012, Warner Bros. announced a new live action Justice League film was in development with Will Beall hired as screenwriter. However, the project was scrapped again. After the success of the Superman reboot Man of Steel, a film titled Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice was released in March 2016, directed by Zack Snyder.
Batman v Superman script writer Chris Terrio has penned the script for Justice League. In a story told in flashback in Justice League of America #9, the Appelaxians infiltrated Earth. Competing alien warriors were sent to see who could conquer Earth first, to determine who will become the new ruler of their home planet; the aliens' attacks drew the attentions of Aquaman, Flash, Green Lantern, Martian Manhunter and Wonder Woman. While the superheroes individually defeated most of the invaders, the heroes fell prey to a single competitor's attack. For many years, the heroes heralded this adventure as the event that prompted them to agree to pool resources when confronted with similar menaces. In Justice League of America #144, Green Arrow uncovered inconsistencies in the team's records and extracted admissions from his colleagues that the seven founders had formed the League after Martian Manhunter was rescued from Martian forces by the other six founders, along with several other heroes including Robin, Congorilla, Rex the Wonder Dog, Lois Lane.
Green Lantern participated in this first adventure as Hal Jordan, as he had yet to become the costumed hero, the biggest inconsistency Arrow found, as they celebrated the earlier incident's date, while recounting only the one's events. When the group formalized their agreement, they suppressed news of it because of anti-Martian hysteria; because the heroes had not revealed their identities to each other at the time, they did not realize that Jordan and Green Lantern were one and the same when he turned up in costume during the event described in #9. While most subsequent accounts of the League have made little mention of this first adventure, the animated Justice League series adapted this tale as the origin of the Justice League as well. Secret Origins vol. 2, #32 updated Justice League of America #9's origin for post-Crisis continuity. Differences included the inclusion of the Silver Age Black Canary as a founding member and the absence of Batman, Wonder Woman and Superman; the JLA: Year One limited series, by Mark Waid, Brian Augustyn and Barry Kitson, further expanded the Secret Origins depiction.
In Justice League Task Force #16, during Zero Hour, a unknown superhuman named Triumph appeared. Triumph was their leader. On his first mission with the Justice League, Triumph "saved the world" but was teleported into a dimensional limbo that affected the timestream, erasing all memory of him. In Infinite Crisis #7, the formation of "New Earth" restored Wonder Woman as a founding member of the Justice League. In Brad Meltzer's Justice League of America #0, it was revealed that Superman and Batman were again founding members as well. 52 #51 confirmed that the 1989 Secret Origins and JLA: Year One origins were still in continuity at that time, with Superman and Wonder Woman joining the team with founding members' status shortly after the group's formation with Aquaman, Black Canary, Green Lantern and Martian Manhunter. In Justice League of America #12, the founding members of the Justice League were shown to be Superman, Wonder Woman, Green Lantern, Aquaman, and
Robin is the name of several fictional superheroes appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by Bob Kane, Bill Finger, Jerry Robinson, to serve as a junior counterpart to the superhero Batman; the character's first incarnation, Dick Grayson, debuted in Detective Comics #38. Conceived as a way to attract young readership, Robin garnered overwhelmingly positive critical reception, doubling the sales of the Batman titles; the early adventures of Robin included Star Spangled Comics #65–130, the character's first solo feature. Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books and other DC Comics publications from 1940 through the early 1980s until the character set aside the Robin identity and became the independent superhero Nightwing; the team of Batman and Robin has been referred to as the Caped Crusaders or Dynamic Duo. The character's second incarnation Jason Todd first appeared in Batman #357; this Robin made regular appearances in Batman related comic books until 1988, when the character was murdered by the Joker in the storyline "A Death in the Family".
Jason would find himself alive after a reality changing incident becoming the Red Hood. The premiere Robin limited series was published in 1991 which featured the character's third incarnation Tim Drake training to earn the role of Batman's vigilante partner. Following two successful sequels, the monthly Robin ongoing series began in 1993 and ended in early 2009, which helped his transition from sidekick to a superhero in his own right. In 2004 storylines, established DC Comics character Stephanie Brown became the fourth Robin for a short duration before the role reverted to Tim Drake. Damian Wayne succeeds Drake as Robin in the 2009 story arc "Battle for the Cowl". Following the 2011 continuity reboot "the New 52", Tim Drake was revised as having assumed the title Red Robin, Jason Todd, operating as the Red Hood, was repairing his relationship with Batman. Dick Grayson resumed his role as Nightwing and Stephanie Brown was introduced anew under her previous moniker Spoiler in the pages of Batman Eternal.
The 2016 DC Rebirth continuity relaunch starts off with Damian Wayne as Robin, Tim Drake as Red Robin, Jason Todd as Red Hood, Dick Grayson as Nightwing. Robins have been featured throughout stories set in parallel worlds, owing to DC Comics' longstanding "Multiverse" concept. For example, in the original Earth-Two, Dick Grayson never adopted the name Nightwing, continues operating as Robin into adulthood. In the New 52's "Earth-2" continuity, Robin is Helena Wayne, daughter of Batman and Catwoman, stranded on the Earth of the main continuity and takes the name Huntress. About a year after Batman's debut, Batman creators Bob Kane and Bill Finger introduced Robin the Boy Wonder in Detective Comics #38; the name "Robin the Boy Wonder" and the medieval look of the original costume were inspired by The Adventures of Robin Hood. Robinson noted he "came up with Robin Hood because The Adventures of Robin Hood were boyhood favorites of mine. I had been given a Robin Hood book illustrated by N. C. Wyeth... and that's what I sketched out when I suggested the name Robin Hood, which they seemed to like, showed them the costume.
And if you look at it, it's Wyeth's costume, from my memory, because I didn't have the book to look at." Although Robin is best known as Batman's sidekick, the Robins have been members of the superhero group the Teen Titans—with the original Robin, Dick Grayson, as a founding member and the group's leader and with Tim Drake as the team leader as of 2012. In Batman stories, the character of Robin was intended to be Batman's Watson: Bill Finger, writer for many early Batman adventures, wrote: "Robin was an outgrowth of a conversation I had with Bob; as I said, Batman was a combination of Sherlock Holmes. Holmes had his Watson; the thing that bothered me was that Batman didn't have anyone to talk to, it got a little tiresome always having him thinking. I found. That's. Bob said he was going to put a boy in the strip to identify with Batman. I thought it was a great idea." The following fictional characters have assumed the Robin role at various times in the main DC Comics Universe continuity: In the comics, Dick Grayson was an 8-year-old acrobat and the youngest of a family act called the "Flying Graysons".
A gangster named Boss Zucco, loosely based on actor Edward G. Robinson's Little Caesar character, had been extorting money from the circus and killed Grayson's parents and Mary, by sabotaging their trapeze equipment as a warning against defiance. Batman investigated the crime and, as his alter ego billionaire Bruce Wayne, had Dick put under his custody as a legal ward. Together they collected the evidence needed to bring him to justice. From his debut appearance in 1940 through 1969, Robin was known as the Boy Wonder. Batman creates a costume for Dick, consisting of a red tunic, yellow cape, green gloves, green boots, green spandex briefs, a utility belt; as he grew older, graduated from high school, enrolled in Hudson University, Robin continued his career as the Teen Wonder, from 1970 into the early 1980s. The character was rediscovered by a new generation of fans during the 1980s because of the success of The New Teen Titans, in which he left Batman's shadow to assume t