Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 150 km southeast of Paris and this area is known as the Champagne region of Northern France. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town, Troyes has been in existence since the Roman era, as Augustobona Tricassium, which stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa. It was the civitas of the Tricasses, who had separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, by the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent, and referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes. In the early cathedral on the present site, Louis the Stammerer in 878 received at Troyes the imperial crown from the hands of Pope John VIII, the Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium. During the Middle Ages, it was an important trading town, the Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade and new extension of coinage and credit were the real engines that drove the medieval economy of Troyes.
In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429. In medieval times Troyes was an important international centre, centring on the Troyes Fair. The name troy weight for gold derives from the standard of measurement evolving here, the great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, in spite of the citys numerous canals. Many half-timbered houses survive in the old town Hôtels Particuliers of the old town The Hôtel de Ville and they include, Saint-Pierre-et-Saint-Paul Cathedral Saint-Nizier Church, in Gothic and Renaissance style, with remarkable sculptures. The Gothic Saint-Urbain Basilica, with a covered by polished tiles. Proclaimed basilica in 1964, it was built by Jacques Pantaléon, elected pope in 1261, under the name of Urbain IV, very early Gothic, with east end rebuilt around 1500. Remarkably elaborate stone screen of 1508-17 in Flamboyant Gothic style, sculpted by Jean Gailde.
The Saint-Jean Church, with a Renaissance chancel, tabernacle of the altar by Giraudon. On the portal, coat of arms of Charles IX, the Gothic Saint-Nicolas Church, dating to the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a calvary chapel shaped rostrum is reached by a monumental staircase. On the south portal, two sculptures by François Gentil and Isaiah, saint-Pantaléon Church, with numerous statuary from the sixteenth century. It includes a spire, from a height of 60 m, its external clock with only one hand
Robert Badinter is a French criminal lawyer, university professor and activist against the death penalty, the abolition of which he successfully sponsored in Parliament in 1981. A member of the Socialist Party, he served as Minister of Justice, in 1965, along with Jean-Denis Bredin, Badinter founded the law firm Badinter, Bredin et partenaires, where he practised until 1981. Badinters struggle against the death penalty began after Roger Bontemss execution, on 28 November 1972, along with Claude Buffet, Bontems had taken a prison guard and a nurse hostage during the 1971 revolt in Clairvaux Prison. While the police were storming the building, Buffet slit the hostages throats, Badinter was the lawyer for Bontems, and although it was established during the trial that Buffet alone was the murderer, the jury sentenced both men to death. Applying the death penalty to the person who had not committed the killing outraged Badinter to the point that he dedicated himself to the abolition of the death penalty, in this context, and as a lawyer, he agreed to defend Patrick Henry.
In January 1976, 8-year-old Philipe Bertrand was kidnapped, Henry was suspected very soon, but released because of a lack of proof. He gave interviews on television, saying that those who kidnapped and killed children deserved death, a few days later, he was again arrested, and shown Bertrands corpse hidden in a blanket under his bed. Badinter and Robert Bocquillon defended Henry, making a case not in favour of Henry, Henry was sentenced to life imprisonment but paroled in 2001. The death penalty was applied in France on a number of occasions. In 1981, François Mitterrand was elected president, and Badinter became the Minister of Justice, among his first actions was a bill to the French Parliament that abolished the death penalty for all crimes, which the Parliament voted after heated debate on 30 September 1981. During his mandate, he passed several laws, such as, Abolition of the juridictions dexception, like the Cour de Sûreté de lÉtat. Consolidation of private freedoms Improvements to the Rights of Victims Development of non-custodial sentences and he remained a minister until 18 February 1986.
From March 1986 to March 1995 he was president of the French Constitutional Council, in 1991, he was appointed by the Council of Ministers of the European Community as a member of the Arbitration Commission of the Peace Conference on Yugoslavia. He was elected as President of the Commission by the four other members, the Arbitration Commission has rendered eleven advices on major legal questions arisen by the split of the SFRY. Badinter continues his struggle against the penalty in China and the United States of America, petitioning officials. In 1989, he participated to the famous French television program Apostrophes, devoted to human rights, discussing the disappearance of Tibetan culture from Tibet, Badinter used the term cultural genocide and lauded the exemplarity of the Tibetan nonviolent resistance. Badinter met the Dalai Lama many times, in particular in 1998 when he greeted the Dalai Lama as the Champion of Human Rights and in 2008. He recently opposed the accession of Turkey to the European Union, on the grounds that Turkey might not be able to follow the rules of the Union, nothing in the project of the founding fathers foresaw such an extension, not to say expansion
WorldCat is a union catalog that itemizes the collections of 72,000 libraries in 170 countries and territories that participate in the Online Computer Library Center global cooperative. It is operated by OCLC Online Computer Library Center, the subscribing member libraries collectively maintain WorldCats database. OCLC was founded in 1967 under the leadership of Fred Kilgour and that same year, OCLC began to develop the union catalog technology that would evolve into WorldCat, the first catalog records were added in 1971. It contains more than 330 million records, representing over 2 billion physical and digital assets in 485 languages and it is the worlds largest bibliographic database. OCLC makes WorldCat itself available free to libraries, but the catalog is the foundation for other subscribtion OCLC services, in 2006, it became possible to search WorldCat directly at its website. In 2007, WorldCat Identities began providing pages for 20 million identities, predominantly authors, WorldCat operates on a batch processing model rather than a real-time model.
That is, WorldCat records are synchronized at intermittent intervals with the library catalogs instead of real-time or every day. Consequently, WorldCat shows that an item is owned by a particular library. WorldCat does not indicate whether or not an item is borrowed, undergoing restoration or repair. Furthermore, WorldCat does not show whether or not a library owns multiple copies of a particular title, copac Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Library and Archives Canada Research Libraries UK Online Computer Library Center Grossman, Wendy M. Why you cant find a book in your search engine. Official website OCLC - Web scale discovery and delivery of library resources OCLC Bibliographic Formats and Standards WorldCat Identities
Child murder or child homicide is the homicide of an individual under the age of 18. In 2008, there were 1,494 child homicides in the United States, of those killed,1,035 were male and 453 were female. Child manslaughter can result in a charge in some jurisdictions such as the State of Florida. In 2011, Texas raised this age from six to 10, in most countries, there are very few cases where children are killed by other young children. According to the U. S. Department of Justice statistics for 1996, several murders by children have gained prominent media exposure. One was the killing on 12 February 1993 of the almost three-year-old boy James Bulger by two boys in Bootle, England, UK. He was beaten and stoned before his unconscious body was left on tracks to give the impression that a train had hit him. Also, in 1968 in Newcastle upon Tyne, England there was the trial of 10-year-old Mary Bell and she was convicted of manslaughter due to diminished responsibility in the deaths of toddlers Martin Brown and Brian Howe.
She was released in 1980 at the age of 23, in 1998,8 -year-old Madelyn Clifton was killed by 14-year-old Josh Phillips. In 1992, after the shooting of 7-year-old Dantrell Davis as he left the Cabrini–Green public housing project for school. 62 child murders were reported that year, the military use of children refers to children being placed in harms way in military actions, in order to protect a location or provide propaganda. This is sometimes referred to as sacrifice, though not equivalent to the religious variety. It may refer to the use of children as soldiers or saboteurs. Red Hand Day on 15 February is a commemoration day to draw public attention to the practice of using children as soldiers in wars. Medicine murder is a practice of sacrifice and mutilation associated with traditional medicinal practices. Victims of muti killings are often children, organs and/or body parts are usually taken while child is still alive. An unknown child, whose decapitated torso was found in the River Thames in London in 2002 is believed to have been the victim of a muti killing.
523-531 Edward V of England, November 2,1470 – c.1483 Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, August 17,1473 – c
In criminal law, kidnapping is the abduction or unlawful transportation of a person, usually to hold the person against his or her will. This may be done for ransom, wikipedia. org/wiki/Stockholm_syndrome Kidnapping that does not result in a homicide is an offence that comes with a maximum possible penalty of life imprisonment. A murder that results from kidnapping is classified as 1st-degree, with a sentence of imprisonment that results from conviction. Part 1 allows sentencing kidnappers to maximum imprisonment of 8 years or a fine of the fifth category, part 2 allows maximum imprisonment of 9 years or a fine of the fifth category if there are serious injuries. Part 3 allows maximum imprisonment of 12 years or a fine of the fifth if the victim has been killed. Part 4 allows sentencing people that collaborate with kidnapping, part 1,2 and 3 will apply to them. Kidnapping is an offence under the law of England and Wales. In R v D, Lord Brandon said, the nature of the offence is an attack on, and infringement of and this is the case regardless of the age of the child. A very small child will not have the understanding or intelligence to consent and this means that absence of consent will be a necessary inference from the age of the child.
It is a question of fact for the jury whether a child has sufficient understanding. Lord Brandon said, I should not expect a jury to find at all frequently that a child under fourteen had sufficient understanding and intelligence to give its consent. If, on the hand, the child did not consent. Mode of trial Kidnapping is an indictable-only offence, sentence Kidnapping is punishable with imprisonment or fine at the discretion of the court. There is no limit on the fine or the term of imprisonment that may be imposed provided the sentence is not inordinate. The use of force to take and detain will be regarded as an assault, law in the United States follows from English common law. The fact that a victim may have been taken across state lines brings the crime within the ambit of federal criminal law. Most states recognize different types of kidnapping and punish accordingly, New York bases its definition of first-degree kidnapping on the duration and purpose. There are several deterrents to kidnapping in the United States of America, among these are, The extreme logistical challenges involved in successfully exchanging the money for the return of the victim without being apprehended or surveiled
A murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, manslaughter is a killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, in most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, possibly a life sentence where permitted. In many common law jurisdictions, a convicted of murder will receive a mandatory life sentence. In jurisdictions where capital punishment exists, the penalty may be imposed for such an act, however. The modern English word murder descends from the Proto-Indo-European mrtró which meant to die, the Middle English mordre is a noun from Anglo-Saxon morðor and Old French murdre.
Middle English mordre is a verb from Anglo-Saxon myrdrian and the Middle English noun, the elements of common law murder are, Unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total, with advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life. Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission. of a human – This element presents the issue of life begins. At common law, a fetus was not a human being, life began when the fetus passed through the vagina and took its first breath. By another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder, the requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate, Murder necessarily required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill.
The courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice, all that was required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes malice. The four states of mind recognized as constituting malice are, Under state of mind, intent to kill, thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill. In other words, intent follows the bullet, examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and even vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. In Australian jurisdictions, the risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death. Under state of mind, the doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape. Importantly, the underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, as with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is usually codified in some form of legislation
Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison for the rest of their lives or until paroled. Life imprisonment can, in cases, be imposed for traffic offenses causing death. Canada and some U. S. states allow judges to impose life imprisonment for such offenses and this sentence does not exist in all countries. Portugal was the first country in the world to life imprisonment by the prison reforms of Sampaio e Melo in 1884. However, where life imprisonment is a sentence, there may be formal mechanisms to request parole after a certain period of imprisonment. This means that a convict could be entitled to spend the rest of the sentence outside prison, early release is usually conditional depending on past and future conduct, possibly with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a term of imprisonment has ended. The United States leads in life sentences, at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 residents imprisoned for life, the length of time and the conditions surrounding parole vary greatly for each jurisdiction.
In some places, convicts are entitled to apply for parole relatively early, in others, the time until being entitled to apply for parole does not necessarily tell anything about the actual date of parole being granted. The highest determined prison sentence that can be imposed in the ICC, after this period, the court will review the sentence to determine whether or not it should be reduced. Some technically finite sentences are handed out, especially in the U. S. that exceed the maximum life span and are therefore seen as de facto life sentences. He committed suicide in his cell one month later. Courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century and were thus symbolic life sentences, unlike other areas of criminal law, sentences handed to minors do not differ from those given to legal adults. A few countries worldwide allow for minors to be given sentences that have no provision for eventual release. Of these, only the United States currently has minors serving such sentences, as of 2009, Human Rights Watch had calculated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life without parole in the United States.
Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice, in Jacksonville, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery one of Grahams accomplices had a bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery, the maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, and the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade is a global black market dedicated to the cultivation, manufacture and sale of drugs that are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of types of drugs through the use of drug prohibition laws. A UN report has stated that the drug trade generated an estimated US$321.6 billion in 2003. With a world GDP of US$36 trillion in the same year, consumption of illegal drugs is widespread globally. Chinese edicts against opium smoking were made in 1729,1796 and 1800, addictive drugs were prohibited in the west in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In the early 19th century, a drug trade in China emerged and as a result. The Chinese government responded by enforcing a ban on the import of opium that led to the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and Qing dynasty China, the United Kingdom won and forced China to allow British merchants to trade opium. Trading in opium was lucrative, and smoking opium had become common in the 19th century, the Second Opium War broke out in 1856, with the British joined this time by the French.
In 1868, as a result of the use of opium. Between 1920 and 1933, by the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the beginning of the 21st century saw a drug use increase in North America and Europe, with a particularly increased demand for marijuana and cocaine. As a result, international organized crime such as the Sinaloa Cartel. Another illicit drug with increased demand in Europe is hashish, Drug trafficking is widely regarded by lawmakers as a serious offense around the world. Penalties often depend on the type of drug, the quantity trafficked, if the drugs are sold to underage people, the penalties for trafficking may be harsher than in other circumstances. Drug smuggling carries severe penalties in many countries, sentencing may include lengthy periods of incarceration and even the death penalty. In December 2005, Van Tuong Nguyen, a 25-year-old Australian drug smuggler, was hanged in Singapore after being convicted in March 2004, in 2010, two people were sentenced to death in Malaysia for trafficking 1 kilogram of cannabis into the country.
The countries of production and transit are some of the most affected by the drug trade. For example, Ecuador has absorbed up to 300,000 refugees from Colombia who are running from guerrillas, while some applied for asylum, others are still illegal immigrants. The drugs that pass from Colombia through Ecuador to other parts of South America create economic, through which an estimated 79% of cocaine passes on its way to the United States, has the highest murder rate in the world
Capital punishment in France
Capital punishment was practised in France from the Middle Ages until 1977, when the last execution took place by guillotine, being the only legal method since the French Revolution. The last person to be executed in France was Hamida Djandoubi, the death penalty was abolished in French law in 1981. It is now forbidden by the French constitution, and by several human rights treaties to which France is a party. Prior to 1791, under the Ancien Régime, there existed a variety of means of punishment in France, depending on the crime. Hanging was the most common punishment, decapitation by sword was reserved for nobles. The convict was occasionally discreetly strangled, breaking wheel for brigands and murderers. The convict could be strangled before having his limbs broken or after, dismemberment for high treason, regicides. The first campaign towards the abolition of the death penalty began on 30 May 1791, they did abolish torture, and declared that there would now be only one method of execution, Tout condamné à mort aura la tête tranchée.
The guillotine had been proposed as a means of execution in 1789 by Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, the French Revolution marked the end of hanging by requiring all executions to be accomplished by means of the blade, rather than reserving it only for nobles. The device was first used on Nicolas Jacques Pelletier on 25 April 1792, guillotine usage spread to other countries such as Germany, Italy and French colonies in Africa, French Guyana and French Indochina. Public executions were the norm and continued until 1939, from the mid-19th century, the usual time of day for executions changed from around 3 pm to morning and to dawn. Executions had been carried out in large public spaces such as market squares. In the early 20th century, the guillotine was set up just outside the prison gates, the last person to be publicly guillotined was six-time murderer Eugen Weidmann who was executed on 17 June 1939 outside the St-Pierre prison. Following the law, the first to be guillotined inside a prison was Jean Dehaene, the 1940s and the wartime period saw an increase in the number of executions, including the first executions of women since the 19th century.
President Valéry Giscard dEstaing oversaw the last executions, up to 1981, the French penal code stated that, Article 12, Any person sentenced to death shall have his head cut off. Article 13, By exception to article 12, when the penalty is handed down for crimes against the safety of the State. Article 14, If the families of the persons wish to reclaim the bodies, they shall have them. The exclusive right to commute the death sentence belonged to the President of the Republic, there were no executions during two-term Interim President Alain Poher, in 1969 and 1974
French Fourth Republic
The French Fourth Republic was the republican government of France between 1946 and 1958, governed by the fourth republican constitution. It was in ways a revival of the Third Republic, which was in place before World War II. France adopted the constitution of the Fourth Republic on 13 October 1946, the greatest accomplishments of the Fourth Republic were in social reform and economic development. In 1946, the government established a social security system that assured unemployment insurance and old-age pensions. Moreover, the government proved unable to make decisions regarding decolonization of the numerous remaining French colonies. After a series of crises, most importantly the Algerian crisis of 1958, wartime leader Charles de Gaulle returned from retirement to preside over a transitional administration which was empowered to design a new French constitution. The Fourth Republic was dissolved by a referendum on 5 October 1958 which established the modern-day Fifth Republic with a strengthened presidency.
After the liberation of France in 1944, the Vichy government was dissolved, Charles de Gaulle led the GPRF from 1944 to 1946. Meanwhile, negotiations took place over the new constitution, which was to be put to a referendum. De Gaulle advocated a system of government, and criticized the reinstatement of what he pejoratively called the parties system. He resigned in January 1946 and was replaced by Félix Gouin, the new constituent assembly included 166 MRP deputies,153 PCF deputies and 128 SFIO deputies, giving the tripartite alliance an absolute majority. Georges Bidault replaced Félix Gouin as the head of government, a new draft of the Constitution was written, which this time proposed the establishment of a bicameral form of government. Léon Blum headed the GPRF from 1946 to 1947, after a new legislative election in June 1946, the Christian democrat Georges Bidault assumed leadership of the Cabinet. This culminated in the establishment in the year of the Fourth Republic. The President of the Republic was given a symbolic role, although he remained chief of the French Army.
The wartime damage was extensive and expectations of large reparations from defeated Germany largely failed, the United States helped revive the French economy with the Marshall Plan, 1948-1951, whereby it gave France $2.3 billion with no repayment. France was the second largest recipient after Britain, the total of all American grants and credits to France from 1946 to 1953, amounted to $4.9 billion. The terms of the Marshall Plan required a modernization of French industrial and managerial systems, free trade, after the expulsion of the Communists from the governing coalition, France joined the Cold War against Stalin, as expressed by becoming a founding member of NATO in April 1949
Lille is a city in northern France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near Frances border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives and Vieux Lille. The legend of Lydéric and Phinaert puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640, in the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research. Lilles Dutch name is Rijsel, which comes from ter ijsel, the French equivalent has the same meaning, Lille comes from lîle. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders, after the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes. The first mention of the dates from 1066, apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders, the County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe.
A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the days political, there was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow, in 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur. Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute, it would be his wife, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople and she was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. He pushed the kingdoms of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land and she called her cousin, Louis VIII. He unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne quickly had hanged, in 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, and his daughter Marie soon after, in 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saints Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler.
On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countesss Hospital, which one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille. It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named Jeanne of Flanders Hospital in the 20th century, the Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette, leaving no heirs. The rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, to Margarets son, Lille fell under the rule of France from 1304 to 1369, after the Franco-Flemish War. The county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said Duchy, along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was even more powerful than the King of France, and made Lille an administrative and financial capital