Teesside University is a public university with its main campus in Middlesbrough, Teesside in North East England. It has 18,576 students, according to the 2015/16 HESA student record. A shortage of funding long proved a barrier to developing the Middlesbrough-based Mechanics' Institute of 1844. With the required funding, the College's launch could have come as early as 1914. After the donation of £40,000 to build the college from local shipping magnate Joseph Constantine in 1916, progress was slow. A Governing Council took place in 1922, followed by a doubling of the original financial offer by the Constantine family in 1924. For the task of constructing the first technical college building, Graham R. Dawbarn was appointed on 29 March 1926. Building work began in 1927, culminating in the beginning of enrolment and teaching on 16 September 1929. Constantine Technical College was formally opened on 2 July 1930 by the future King Edward VIII, the Prince of Wales. Although not yet a university, Constantine was a further and higher education college from the onset.
Students at Constantine could be as young as 15. Degree courses, published in the College's prospectus were validated by the University of London. Disciplines included metallurgy and chemistry. Five rooms were reserved for an art department, until cramped accommodation forced the School of Art to split from its parent site for the 1950s; the 1960s were years of sweeping change – as well as political sting – for the still comparatively fledgling College. By the end of the decade the first two "Teesside University" campaigns had begun: the first, from the early 1960s to 1966, the second, from 1967 to 1972. Spates of enthusiasm were killed off on each occasion by the scepticism of then-Minister of Education, Anthony Crosland, Margaret Thatcher's defining White Paper, respectively; the latter shelved plans for the erection of any new institution in the United Kingdom, until the 1980s at least. On campus, one of the most visible major developments for the College was an extension in 1963 which featured an 11-storey "skyscraper".
The College acquired the neighbouring former High School of 1877. The College restyled itself as Constantine College of Technology, before becoming Teesside Polytechnic in 1969. At that point, the institution ran seventeen degree courses. A merger with Teesside College of Education took place in the 1970s along with the purchase of Flatts Lane; the Clarendon Building was added in 1973, as was the Stephenson Building in 1976. Both of these buildings remained in use for the Polytechnic's long-awaited conversion into a university; that happened on 16 June 1992, when Teesside Polytechnic became the University of Teesside, one of the UK's first new universities following that year's Further and Higher Education Act. By the 1990s, the institution had 8,000 students. In 1997 the old Polytechnic's library was replaced with a Learning Resource Centre. Subsequent additions included the Virtual Reality Centre and Centre for Enterprise, the Phoenix and Athena Buildings by CPMG Architects. Today, historic structures such as the old High School, the Constantine building and Victoria Building of 1891, are all Grade II listed buildings.
In 2009, the University of Teesside changed its name to "Teesside University". It changed its logo and adopted the motto "Inspiring success" as part of a £20,000 rebrand. Alternative names included "Middlesbrough University" and "Tees Valley University". On 15 October 2009, Teesside was named University of the Year and awarded Outstanding Employer Engagement Initiative in the Times Higher Education Awards. In 2010, the £17m Centuria South building for dental training and sports therapy was opened; this continues to provide specialist facilities. A major phase of development known as campus Heart began in 2014; this £22m landmark development created a central focus to the Middlesbrough campus. It brought the iconic building, The Curve, a new £20m teaching building; as part of this £280m investment period, a "living wall" was created around a giant plasma screen on the side of the University's Student Centre. In September 2017, the University unveiled a £300m campus masterplan set to transform its campus across the following decade.
The University was awarded a Queen's Anniversary Prize for outstanding work in the field of enterprise and business engagement. In 2017, Teesside University was awarded a Silver rating in the government’s new Teaching Excellence Framework. In July 2017, it was reported that several professors at Teesside University in the UK have been told they must reapply for their positions over the summer or face redundancy; the university says the purpose of this is to bring all university professors under the same job title by creating a new position, rather than to save costs. Higher education policy watchers warned that this decision is part of a trend of casualising university employees. In August 2017, Teesside University was criticised for misleading adverts, it was ordered to remove claims which were in breach of Advertising Standards Authority rules by stating the University claim that it was a "top university in England for long-term graduate prospects" gave a misleading picture of the reality.
Since its formation as Constantine Technical College in 1930, Teesside University has been located in the borough of Middlesbrough in the North Yorkshire area of England on the south banks of the River Tees. Transport links exist through the A66 roads; the University's main entrance is at the site of the old Constantine College building, fronted by t
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience
The Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience is a research institution dedicated to discovering what causes mental illness and diseases of the brain. In addition, its aim is to help identify new treatments for them and ways to prevent them in the first place; the IoPPN is a school of King's College London, England known as Institute of Psychiatry. The Institute works with South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust. Many senior academic staff work as honorary consultants for the Trust in clinical services such as the National Psychosis Unit at Bethlem Royal Hospital; the impact of the Institute's work was judged to be 100%'world-leading' or'internationally-excellent' in the Research Excellence Framework. The research environment of the Institute was rated 100%'world-leading'. King's College London was rated the second for research in Psychology and Neuroscience in REF 2014. According to the 2016 US News Ranking, King's College London was ranked second in the world in Psychiatry and Psychology.
The IoPPN shares a great deal of its history with the Maudsley Hospital, with which it shares the location of its main building. It was part of the original plans of Frederick Mott and Henry Maudsley—inspired by the Munich institute of Emil Kraepelin—that the hospital would include facilities for teaching and research in 1896. In 1914, London County Council agreed to establish a hospital in Denmark Hill and Mott’s plan began to take shape; the Maudsley Hospital was opened in 1923 as a result of a donation by Henry Maudsley. Established as the "Maudsley Hospital Medical School" in 1924, it changed its name to the Institute of Psychiatry in 1948, with Aubrey Lewis appointed to the inaugural Chair of Psychiatry; the main Institute building was opened in 1967 and contains lecture theatres, administrative offices and canteen. In 1959 a group of genetic researchers led by Eliot Slater were given Medical Research Council funding to establish themselves as the'MRC Psychiatric Genetics Unit'. Although this closed down in 1969, psychiatric genetics continued as the MRC Social and Developmental Psychiatry Centre which moved into new purpose-built building in 2002.
In 1997, the Institute had split from the Maudsley and become instead a school of King's College London. The Henry Wellcome building houses most of the IoPPN's psychology department. In 2004, a new Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences was opened which provides offices, lab space, access to two MRI scanners for neuroimaging research. In 2014 the Institute was renamed to the Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, as the remit of the Institute was broadened to include all brain and behavioural sciences; the Addictions Department specialises in research into tobacco and opiate addiction policy and treatment. In March 2010 the addiction research unit and the sections of alcohol research, tobacco research and behavioral pharmacology were brought together to form the current The Addictions Department known as the National Addiction Centre; this department provides advice in the interpretation and use of statistical techniques in psychological research. They work with members of the Neuroimaging section in their work using brain scanners.
The Biostatistics department opened in 1964 as the Biometrics Unit. The department holds particular expertise in multivariate statistical methods for measurement, life-course epidemiology and the analysis of experimental and neuropsychiatric data; the department provides both introductory and advanced training in applied statistical methodology, collaborate on studies of mental health based here and internationally, undertake research in relevant applied methodology. The department hosts the UKCRN accredited King's Clinical Trials Unit which provides randomisation, data management and trial management - all of which are available to researchers across King's Health Partners; the CTU provides support to both medicinal and non-medicinal clinical trials assisting researchers in the conduct of carrying out clinical trials. The department is dedicated to the study of developmental disorders such as ADHD, clinical depression and learning difficulties; the department has close links with the Michael Rutter Centre for Children and Young People at the Maudsley Hospital which has a number of specialist services for children and adolescents.
Forensic Mental Health Science is the study of antisocial and criminal behaviours among people with mental disorders. The department's research focuses on antisocial behaviour as it appears in people with either major mental disorders or personality disorders; the department is allied to the Forensic Psychiatry Teaching Unit. Researchers in this department carry out a range of studies into diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and motor neuron disease; the Institute of Psychiatry now houses the Medical Research Council Centre for Neurodegeneration Research, where pioneering research is conducted investigating disease of the CNS. The Department of Clinical Neuroscience in Windsor Walk contains the MRC London Neurodegenerative Disease Brain Bank; the Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences is a joint venture of the King's College London Institute of Psychiatry and the South London and Maudsley NHS Trust. Completed in early 2004, the centre provides an interdisciplinary research environment; the Clinical Neuroimaging Department, situated at the Maudsley Hospital, provides a full range of neuroradiographic imaging services, including Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Within the CNS, the academic Department of Neuroimaging's Major Research Facility manages a range
Bad Science (book)
Bad Science is a book by Ben Goldacre, criticising mainstream media reporting on health and science issues. It was published by Fourth Estate in September 2008, it has been positively reviewed by the British Medical Journal and the Daily Telegraph and has reached the Top 10 bestseller list for Amazon Books. It was shortlisted for the 2009 Samuel Johnson Prize. Bad Science or BadScience is the title of Goldacre's column in The Guardian and his website. A brief introduction touching on subjects covered by subsequent chapters, it bemoans the widespread lack of understanding of evidence-based science. Goldacre begins by discussing the alternative medicine phenomenon of detoxification, he looks at three supposed detox treatments: aqua detox, Hopi Ear Candles, detox patches. These are advertised as being able to remove "toxins" and impurities from the body, but can be debunked with a simple science experiment. Goldacre dismisses the idea that the body has toxins that are waiting to be removed by detox treatments.
However, he notes how detox treatments resemble religious rituals of abstinence. Such rituals fill a human need in some way - Goldacre has no problem with that. What is wrong, however, is to pretend that these detox rituals are based in science. Brain Gym is a set of exercises and activities that are supposed to'enhance the experience of whole brain learning'. At the time when Goldacre’s book was written, Brain Gym was promoted by the Department for Education and used in hundreds of state schools across the country. Goldacre dismisses the program's claims as pseudoscience dressed up in clever long phrases and jargon, he goes on to describe a 2008 study that suggested that people will tend to believe a bad explanation written in sciencey terms, rather than a good explanation that isn't decorated with sciencey words. Some of the underlying ideas in Brain Gym are sensible: regular breaks, intermittent light exercise and drinking plenty of water are to help children learn, but Goldacre sees the pseudoscientific explanation around it as an attempt to'proprietorialise' common sense.
That is, turn it into something that you can patent, own and make profit from. He sees this trend strongly among nutritionists; the corrosive side effect of this ‘privatisation of common sense’ is that we become dependent on outside systems and people, instead of taking control ourselves. In this short chapter, Goldacre looks at cosmetics - moisturisers. According to Goldacre, expensive moisturisers tend to contain three groups of ingredients: powerful chemicals that were effective in making skin look younger, before they had to be watered down because of their side effects; the manufacturers are careful to claim only that the moisturiser as a whole will have beneficial effects - they don't make specific claims about their'magic ingredients', because such claims could be challenged by the regulator. Goldacre's main complaint is that the cosmetics companies sell their products by appealing to the misleading idea that science is complicated and impenetrable; this is bad because the target audience who are bombarded with this dubious world view are young women, a group who are under-represented in science.
Goldacre provides an overview of the origins of Homeopathy and the basic theories that characterise it: that ‘like cures like’ and that high dilutions strengthen the treatment. He suggests'conceptual holes' in the theory. Goldacre notes that there some individuals do report feeling better after taking homeopathic remedies, he attributes this regression to the mean. The only way to test if the remedies are effective is a placebo-controlled trial. In fact, such tests have been carried out for homeopathic remedies and it has been shown that they are no better than placebo. Trials that have produced favourable results to homeopathy have tended to have methodological flaws, he discusses what is needed including randomisation and double blinding. He explains the need for meta-analyses to combine the results of smaller studies, how the Cochrane Collaboration was set up to run them. Goldacre criticises the homeopathic community for their lack of understanding of how to carry out high quality research, their lack of openness and transparency, their unwillingness to submit their research to full and proper scrutiny, their rejection of justified academic criticism and their overall aggressiveness.
Using the specific example of an interview with Elizabeth Thompson, he illustrates how homeopaths will use nuanced language to avoid admitting that their pills don’t work. Examples of the power of the mind over pain and depression are presented with studies showing how higher prices, fancy packaging, theatrical procedures and a confident attitude in the doctor all contribute to the relief of symptoms. In patients with no specific diagnosed condition a fake diagnosis and prognosis with no other treatment helps recovery, but ethical and time constraints prevent doctors from giving this reassurance. Exploiting the placebo effect is presented as justifiable if used in conjunction with effective conventional treatments; the author links its use by alternative medicine practitioners with the diversion of patients away from effective treatments and the undermining of public health cam
National Health Service
The NHS in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, the affiliated Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland were established together in 1948 as one of the major social reforms following the Second World War. The founding principles were that services should be comprehensive and free at the point of delivery; each service provides a comprehensive range of health services, free at the point of use for people ordinarily resident in the United Kingdom, apart from dental treatment and optical care. Dr Somerville Hastings, President of the Socialist Medical Association proposed a resolution at the 1934 Labour Party Conference that the party should be committed to the establishment of a State Health Service. Conservative MP and Health Minister, Henry Willink, first proposed the National Health Service in 1944 with the publication of a White Paper "A National Health Service", distributed in full and short versions as well as in newsreel by Henry Willink himself. Henry Willink's National Health Service received cross party support and became Westminster legislation for England and Wales from 1946 and Scotland from 1947, the Northern Ireland Parliament's Public Health Services Act 1947.
NHS Wales was split from NHS in 1969 when control was passed to the Secretary of State for Wales before transferring to the Welsh Executive and Assembly under devolution in 1999. Calls for a "unified medical service" can be dated back to the Minority Report of the Royal Commission on the Poor Law in 1909, but it was following the 1942 Beveridge Report's recommendation to create "comprehensive health and rehabilitation services for prevention and cure of disease" that cross-party consensus emerged on introducing a National Health Service of some description; when Clement Attlee's Labour Party won the 1945 election he appointed Aneurin Bevan as Health Minister. Bevan embarked upon what the official historian of the NHS, Charles Webster, called an "audacious campaign" to take charge of the form the NHS took; the NHS was born out of the ideal that good healthcare should be available to all, regardless of wealth. Although being accessible regardless of wealth maintained Henry Willink's principle of free healthcare for all, Conservative MPs were in favour of maintaining local administration of the NHS through existing arrangements with local authorities fearing that an NHS which owned hospitals on a national scale would lose the personal relationship between doctor and patient.
Conservative MPs voted in favour of their amendment to Bevan's Bill to maintain local control and ownership of hospitals and against Bevan's plan for national ownership of all hospitals. The Labour government defeated Conservative amendments and went ahead with the NHS as it remains today. Bevan's principle of ownership with no private sector involvement has since been diluted, with Labour governments implementing large scale financing arrangements with private builders in private finance initiatives and joint ventures. At its launch by Bevan on 5 July 1948 it had at its heart three core principles: That it meet the needs of everyone, that it be free at the point of delivery, that it be based on clinical need, not ability to pay. Three years after the founding of the NHS, Bevan resigned from the Labour government in opposition to the introduction of charges for the provision of dentures and glasses; the following year, Winston Churchill's Conservative government introduced prescription charges.
These charges were the first of many controversies over reforms to the NHS throughout its history. From its earliest days, the cultural history of the NHS has shown its place in British society reflected and debated in film, TV, cartoons and literature; the NHS had a prominent slot during the 2012 London Summer Olympics opening ceremony directed by Danny Boyle, being described as "the institution which more than any other unites our nation". Each of the UK's health service systems operates independently, is politically accountable to the relevant government: the Scottish Government. NHS Wales was part of the same structure as that of England until powers over the NHS in Wales were firstly transferred to the Secretary of State for Wales in 1969 and thereafter, in 1999, to the Welsh Assembly as part of Welsh devolution; some functions may be performed by one health service on behalf of another. For example, Northern Ireland has no high-security psychiatric hospitals and depends on hospitals in Great Britain at Carstairs hospital in Scotland for male patients and Rampton Secure Hospital in England for female patients.
Patients in North Wales use specialist facilities in Manchester and Liverpool which are much closer than facilities in Cardiff, more routine services at the Countess of Chester Hospital. There have been issues about cross-border payments. Taken together, the four National Health Services in 2015–16 employed around 1.6 million people with a combined budget of £136.7 billion. In 2014 the total health sector workforce across the UK was 2,165,043; this broke down into 1,789,586 in England, 198,368 in Scotland, 110,292 in Wales and 66,797 in Northern Ireland. In 2017, there were 691,000 nurses registered in the UK, down 1,783 from the previous year. However, this is the first time nursing numbers have fallen since 2008. Although there has been increasing policy divergence between the four National Health Services in the UK, it can b
Ben Michael Goldacre is a British physician and science writer. As of March 2015, he is a senior clinical research fellow at the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, part of the University of Oxford's Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, he is a founder of the AllTrials campaign and OpenTrials to require open science practices in clinical trials. Goldacre is known in particular for his Bad Science column in The Guardian, which he wrote between 2003 and 2011, is the author of four books: Bad Science, a critique of irrationality and certain forms of alternative medicine. Goldacre delivers free talks about bad science—he describes himself as a "nerd evangelist". Goldacre is the son of Michael Goldacre, a professor of public health at the University of Oxford, Susan Traynor lead singer of 1970s' pop band Fox, both of whom are Australian, he is the nephew of Robyn Williams, a science journalist, the great-great-grandson of Sir Henry Parkes and journalist, considered the father of the Australian Federation.
He has two children. Goldacre was educated at Oxford, he studied medicine at Magdalen College, where he obtained a first-class Bachelor of Arts honours degree during his preclinical studies in 1995 in Physiological Sciences. He edited Isis. Goldacre was a visiting researcher in cognitive neuroscience at the University of Milan, working on fMRI brain scans of language and executive function. Following his studies at the Universities of Oxford and Milan, Goldacre studied clinical medicine at UCL Medical School, qualifying as a medical doctor in 2000 with a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery degree, he received a Master of Arts degree in philosophy from King's College London in 1997. Goldacre passed the Member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Part II examinations in December 2005 and became a member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, he was made a research fellow at the Institute of Psychiatry in London in 2008, a Guardian research fellow at Nuffield College, Oxford, in 2009. In 2012, Goldacre was appointed a Wellcome Trust Research Fellow in Epidemiology at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine.
In 2015, Goldacre moved to the Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences's Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, joining a project funded by a grant from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. As of 2016, according to Scopus and Google Scholar his most cited articles have been published in NeuroReport, the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, the British Medical Journal, The Lancet, PLOS ONE. Goldacre was known for his weekly column, "Bad Science", which ran in the Saturday edition of The Guardian from 2003 until November 2011; the column focused on the misuse of science. Topics discussed included marketing, the media, problems with the pharmaceutical industry, its relationship with medical journals. Goldacre has criticised anti-immunisation campaigners, Brain Gym, bogus positive MRSA swab stories in tabloid newspapers, publication bias, the makers of the product Penta Water, he has been a hardline critic of the nutritionist Gillian McKeith. While investigating McKeith's membership of the American Association of Nutritional Consultants, Goldacre purchased a "certified professional membership" on behalf of his late cat, from the same institution for $60.
In February 2007, McKeith agreed to stop using the title "Doctor" in her advertising, following a complaint to the Advertising Standards Authority by a "Bad Science" reader. In an interview with Richard Saunders of the podcast Skeptic Zone, Goldacre said, "Nutritionists are toxic because they are the alternative therapists who, more than any other, misrepresent themselves as being men and women of science."In 2008, Matthias Rath, a vitamin entrepreneur, sued Goldacre and The Guardian over three articles, in which Goldacre criticised Rath's promotion of vitamin pills to AIDS sufferers in South African townships. Rath dropped his action in September 2008 and was ordered to pay initial costs of £220,000 to The Guardian; the paper is seeking full costs of £500,000, Goldacre has expressed an interest in writing a book about Rath and South Africa, as a chapter on the subject had to be cut from his book while the litigation proceeded. The chapter was reinstated in a edition of the book, published online.
Goldacre continues to cite Rath as a proponent of harmful pseudoscience. Goldacre's first book, Bad Science, was published by Fourth Estate in September 2008; the book contains revised versions of many of his Guardian columns. It was positively reviewed by the British Medical Journal and The Daily Telegraph, reached the Top 10 bestseller list for Amazon Books, it was nominated for the 2009 Samuel Johnson Prize. In an interview in 2008, Goldacre said that "one of the central themes of my book is that there are no real differences between the $600 billion pharmaceutical industry and the $50 billion food supplement pill industry." His second book, Bad Pharma: How Drug Companies Mislead Doctors and Harm Patients, was published in the UK in September 2012 and in the United States and Canada in February 2013. In the book he argues that: Drugs are tested by the people who manufacture them, in poorly designed trials, on hopeles