Clifford Peter Hansen was an American politician from the state of Wyoming. A Republican, he served as the 26th Governor of Wyoming and subsequently as a United States Senator. Earlier, he was the president of the board of trustees of his alma mater, the University of Wyoming at Laramie in Albany County the state's only four-year institution of higher learning, he was a county commissioner in Jackson, the seat of Teton County in far northwestern Wyoming. Before his death on October 20, 2009, he was the oldest living former U. S. Senator as well as the third oldest living former U. S. Governor. Hansen was born in Zenith, a settlement so small that it is no longer listed on Wyoming road maps, was the son of Sylvia Irene and Peter Christofferson Hansen; the senior Hansens were ranchers from Idaho: Peter, of Danish extraction, came from Soda Springs, Sylvia, of English descent, was born in Blackfoot. Peter Hansen, who had some college training, was a "practical" engineer who did surveying and ditch work on ranch lands.
Clifford Hansen was reared in Jackson Hole, a high-mountain valley that includes what is now Grand Teton National Park. There he attended public schools; as a child, he overcame a serious speech impediment which baffled his teachers, some of whom first thought that he was "uneducable". His problem was not inability to learn but a severe stutter, corrected by his attendance at a special school. Having overcome the speech impediment, Hansen forever stressed the value of an education, once having advised a grandson, "It's the one thing no one can take away from you."In Menor's Cabin, a small museum near the south entrance of Grand Teton National Park and adjacent to the Chapel of the Transfiguration, is a picture of young Cliff Hansen and his mother, taken in the early 1920s. The photograph is posted under the cattle exhibit and is meant to demonstrate the hardiness of early Wyoming pioneers; this is a bit of an irony as in 1943 he was a member of an armed protest of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's designation of the land as Jackson Hole National Monument.
Peter K. Simpson, a University of Wyoming historian and the 1986 Republican gubernatorial nominee, described the importance of the Tetons to the Hansen family: "That country is special, it provides solace and power all at the same time.... There's a specific nurturing quality in it, it has nurtured a specific breed of people -- strong, clear-thinking, trustworthy, authentic Western-types. No-nonsense, good-humored, full of warmth, larger than life. Close enough to creation to be at ease with all mankind, thereby able to serve them better."Hansen obtained his bachelor's degree in animal science from UW in 1934. While at the university he was in the Epsilon Delta Chapter of Sigma Nu fraternity, he was a UW trustee from 1946 to 1966 and was the trustee board president from 1955 until 1962, when he resigned to run for governor. From 1943-1951, he was a Teton county commissioner, he opposed enlarging park lands in Wyoming at the expense of ranchers, who would lose revenue from hunting and guiding if private holdings came under government ownership.
As owner of the Spring Gulch Ranch, Hansen was active in several agricultural and ranching groups, having served from 1953-1955 as president of the influential interest group, the Wyoming Stockgrowers Association. He was a member of the American National Cattlemen's Association. Hansen never tasted beef until he was a student at UW. "Beef is. We ate deer and elk," he recalled. Hansen won the governorship in the 1962 mid-term elections by 10,000 votes, he unseated the Democrat Jack R. Gage. First, Hansen won the GOP primary over two opponents with 57 percent of the ballots. Gage defeated William Jack to secure 55.5-44.5 percent. In the general election, Hansen polled 64,970 votes to Gage's 54,298. Hansen's governorship was characterized by efforts to expand highways and reservoirs throughout Wyoming. Several newspapers in the American West referred to him as Wyoming's "cowboy governor". Hansen's obituary contends that he "brought both the down-to-earth pragmatism of a lifelong cattle rancher and the affability of a small-town politician to Cheyenne and to Washington, he was on friendly and familiar terms throughout his career, not only with those on both sides of the political aisle, but with elevator attendants, cafeteria workers, staff members throughout the Capitol who called him friend."
His personal pilot was Raymond A. Johnson; as Governor, he increased appropriations for state programs to combat alcoholism and mental illness by more than 50 percent. As his gubernatorial term wound down, Hansen decided to run for the U. S. Senate seat, being vacated by the retiring Republican Milward L. Simpson of Cody in Park County, a former Wyoming governor. Hansen said that he believed he could assist the state more from Washington, D. C. than in the state capital in Cheyenne. He won that election with just under 52 percent of the vote. In a Republican year nationally, he defeated popular Representative at-large Teno Roncalio, a Democrat of Italian extraction. Hansen received 63,548 votes to Roncalio's 59,141. In 1972, Hansen was reelected to the Senate over Democrat Mike Vinich: 101,314 votes to 40,753. Twenty-six years Vinich's son, John P. Vinich, was the unsuccessful Democratic nominee for governor against Republican Governor James "Jim" Geringer. Ha
Francis E. Warren
Francis Emroy Warren was an American politician of the Republican Party best known for his years in the United States Senate representing Wyoming and being the first Governor of Wyoming. A soldier in the Union Army during the American Civil War, he was the last veteran of that conflict to serve in the U. S. Senate. Warren was born on June 20, 1844 in Hinsdale, Berkshire County and grew up attending common schools and his local Hinsdale Academy. During the civil war, Warren served in the 49th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry as a noncommissioned officer. At the age of nineteen at the siege of Port Hudson, Warren received the Medal of Honor for battlefield gallantry, his entire platoon was destroyed by Confederate bombardment and Warren, taking a serious scalp wound, disabled the artillery. Warren served as a captain in the Massachusetts Militia. Francis E. Warren married a woman from Massachusetts, although all of their married life until his first election to the United States Senate, in 1890, was spent in Wyoming.
They had two children, a daughter, Helen Frances, a son, Frederick Emory. Helen Warren was the wife of General John J. Pershing. Mrs. Warren was the president of church and charitable societies of Cheyenne, vice-president of the Foundling Hospital, Daughter of the American Revolution. Rank and Organization: Corporal, Company C, 49th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and Date: At Port Hudson, La. 27 May 1863. Entered Service At: Hinsdale, Mass. Birth: Hinsdale, Mass. Date Of Issue: 30 September 1893. Citation: Volunteered in response to a call, took part in the movement, made upon the enemy's works under a heavy fire therefrom in advance of the general assault. Following the civil war, Warren engaged in farming and stock-raising in Massachusetts before moving to Wyoming in 1868. Settling in Cheyenne, Warren engaged in real estate, mercantile business, livestock raising and the establishment of Cheyenne's first lighting system, becoming quite wealthy. Warren's political work included: Wyoming Territorial Senate, serving as senate president.
In February 1885, Warren was appointed Governor of the Territory of Wyoming by President Chester A. Arthur, although he was removed by Democratic President Grover Cleveland in November 1886, he was reappointed by President Benjamin Harrison in April, 1889, served until 1890, when he was elected first Governor of Wyoming. In November 1890, Warren resigned as governor, having been elected to the United States Senate as a Republican, serving until March 4, 1893, he resumed his former business pursuits before returning to the senate. During his long senate service, Mr. Warren was chairman of the several Senate Committees: - Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation of Arid Lands - Committee on Claims - Committee on Irrigation - Committee on Military Affairs - Committee on Public Buildings and Grounds - Committee on Agriculture and Forestry - Committee on Appropriations - Committee on Engrossed BillsSenator Warren died on November 24, 1929 in Washington, D. C, his funeral service was held in the United States Senate chamber.
At the time of his death, Warren had served longer than any other US Senator. F. E. Warren Air Force Base in Cheyenne, Wyoming is named after Warren. Additionally, Warren's daughter married then-Captain John J. Pershing in 1905. Several years President Theodore Roosevelt promoted Pershing from captain to brigadier general over 900 senior officers. Pershing's wife and three daughters were killed during a fire at the Presidio in San Francisco. Warren was the first senator to hire a female staffer and, as appropriations chairman during World War I, he was instrumental in funding the American efforts. Warren and his second wife, Clara LaBarron Morgan, bought the Nagle Warren Mansion in April, 1910, their dining room hosted people such as Presidents Teddy Roosevelt and William Howard Taft; this mansion is now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: T–Z National Irrigation Congress List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress.
"Francis E. Warren". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-01 "Political Graveyard". Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Francis E. Warren". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-01
Republican National Committee
The Republican National Committee is a U. S. political committee that provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. It is responsible for developing and promoting the Republican political platform, as well as coordinating fundraising and election strategy, it is responsible for organizing and running the Republican National Convention. Similar committees exist in every U. S. state and most U. S. counties, although in some states party organization is structured by congressional district, allied campaign organizations being governed by a national committee. Ronna Romney McDaniel is the current committee chairwoman; the RNC's main counterpart is the Democratic National Committee. The 1856 Republican National Convention appointed the first RNC, it consisted of one member from each territory to serve for four years. Each national convention since has followed the precedent of equal representation for each state or territory, regardless of population. From 1924 to 1952, there was a national committeeman and national committeewoman from each state and U.
S. possession, from Washington, D. C.. In 1952, committee membership was expanded to include the state party chairs of states that voted Republican in the preceding presidential election, have a Republican majority in their congressional delegation, or have Republican governors. By 1968, membership reached 145; as of 2011, the RNC has 168 members. The only person to have chaired the RNC and become U. S. president is George H. W. Bush. A number of the chairs of the RNC have been state governors. In 2013, the RNC began an outreach campaign toward American youth and minority voters, after studies showed these groups perceived that the Republican Party did not care about their concerns. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewMerrill and Norcross both dropped out after the fifth round, giving the chairmanship to Nicholson by acclamation.
On November 24, 2008, Steele launched his campaign for the RNC chairmanship with the launching of his website. On January 30, 2009, Steele won the chairmanship of the RNC in the sixth round, with 91 votes to Dawson's 77. Source: CQPolitics, Poll Pundit. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrewOn announcing his candidacy to succeed RNC Chairman Duncan, former Maryland Lt. Gov. Michael Steele described the party as being at a crossroads and not knowing what to do. "I think I may have some keys to open the door, some juice to turn on the lights," he said. Six people ran for the 2009 RNC Chairmanship: Steele, Ken Blackwell, Mike Duncan, Saul Anuzis, Katon Dawson and Chip Saltsman. After Saltsman's withdrawal, there were only five candidates during the hotly contested balloting January 30, 2009. After the third round of balloting that day, Steele held a small lead over incumbent Mike Duncan of Kentucky, with 51 votes to Duncan's 44.
Shortly after the announcement of the standings, Duncan dropped out of contention without endorsing a candidate. Ken Blackwell, the only other African-American candidate, dropped out after the fourth ballot and endorsed Steele, though Blackwell had been the most conservative of the candidates and Steele had been accused of not being "sufficiently conservative." Steele picked up Blackwell's votes. After the fifth round, Steele held a ten-vote lead over Katon Dawson, with 79 votes, Saul Anuzis dropped out. After the sixth vote, he won the chairmanship of the RNC over Dawson by a vote of 91 to 77. Mississippi Governor and former RNC chair Haley Barbour has suggested the party will focus its efforts on congressional and gubernatorial elections in the coming years rather than the next presidential election. "When I was chairman of the Republican National Committee the last time we lost the White House in 1992 we focused on 1993 and 1994. And at the end of that time, we had both houses of Congress with Republican majorities, we'd gone from 17 Republican governors to 31.
So anyone talking about 2012 today doesn't have their eye on the ball. What we ought to worry about is rebuilding our party over the next year and in 2010," Barbour said at the November 2008 Republican Governors conference. Michael Steele ran for re-election at the 2011 RNC winter meeting. Other candidates were Reince Priebus, Republican Party of Wisconsin Chairman, Ann Wagner, former Ambassador to Luxembourg, Saul Anuzis, former Republican Party Chairman of Michigan, Maria Cino, former acting Secretary of Transportation under George W. Bush. Steele's critics called on him to step down as RNC Chair when his term ended in 2011. A debate for Chairman hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3 at the National Press Club; the election for Chairman took place January 14 at the RNC's winter meeting with Reince Priebus winning on the seventh ballot after Steele and Wagner withdrew. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina.
He was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. After winning in November 2016, President-Elect Donald Trump designated Priebus as his White House Chief of Staff, to begin upon his taking office in January 2017. Trump recommended Ronna Romney McDaniel as RNC Chairwoman and she was elected to that role by the RNC
Gale W. McGee
Gale William McGee was a United States Senator of the Democratic Party, United States Ambassador to the Organization of American States. He represented Wyoming in the United States Senate from 1959 until 1977. Since his exit from the Senate, no other Democrat has represented Wyoming in the Senate. McGee was born in Lincoln, Nebraska, on March 17, 1915, he attended public schools, had planned to study law in college, but was forced by the Great Depression to attend the State Teachers College in Wayne, instead. He graduated from the Teachers College in 1936, worked as a high school teacher while studying for a master's degree in history at the University of Colorado, he continued as a college instructor at Nebraska Wesleyan University, Iowa State College, Notre Dame. In 1946 McGee received his Ph. D. in history from the University of Chicago. Shortly after he received his Ph. D, McGee accepted a position as a professor of American history at the University of Wyoming. Soon after, he founded and served as chair of the University's Institute of International Affairs, which brought national dignitaries every summer through a Carnegie Foundation grant.
Twenty-one teachers from Wyoming high schools were selected each summer to participate. For the next 12 years, the Institute brought international foreign policy thinkers such as Eleanor Roosevelt, Hans Morganthau, Henry Kissinger. In 1952, McGee took a one-year leave of absence from the University of Wyoming to serve as a Carnegie Research Fellow in New York with the Council on Foreign Relations, where he was assigned to research the mysteries of Soviet intentions. In 1956, because of the connections he made during his Carnegie fellowship, McGee led a group of teachers on a trip to the Soviet Union. Active in Democratic Party politics, McGee was asked to run for the United States Congress in 1950, but declined, saying he wanted to get more in touch with Wyoming and its people. In 1955–56 he took a leave of absence from the university to work as top aide to Wyoming Democratic Senator Joseph C. O'Mahoney. In 1958 McGee left the university to make his bid for the U. S. Senate, challenging incumbent Frank A. Barrett.
He ran on a program of youth and new ideas. The race between McGee and Barrett attracted the attention of national party leaders on both sides. Senate Majority Leader Lyndon Johnson, Senator John F. Kennedy, Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon, Senator-elect Edmund Muskie of Maine, Congressman Joseph M. Montoya of New Mexico, former President Harry S. Truman came to the state to support McGee, whose campaign slogan was "McGee for Me!". Lyndon Johnson pledged that, if Wyoming sent McGee to Washington, he would appoint him to the prestigious Appropriations Committee. Eleanor Roosevelt conducted a national fund-raising drive for him. Barrett received assistance from national leaders including Vice President Richard Nixon. McGee defeated Barrett by a margin of 1,913 votes out of a total of 116,230 votes cast in the election, he won the majority of the votes in seven of the 23 counties. These were the southern "Union Pacific" counties Platte, just north of Cheyenne, Sheridan in the north. McGee won the endorsement of the Wyoming AFL-CIO Committee on Political Education and the labor vote played an important part in the election.
He became a member of the Democratic class of 1958, elected in the middle of President Eisenhower's second term. After his victory McGee was appointed to the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee and Senate Majority Leader Johnson kept his promise and appointed him to the prestigious Appropriations Committee. McGee and his fellow Senate freshmen, Thomas J. Dodd and Robert C. Byrd, were the first freshmen to receive such an appointment. In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower nominated Lewis Strauss to serve as Secretary of Commerce. Mr. Strauss had served in numerous government positions in the administrations of presidents Truman and Eisenhower. At the time, the 13 previous nominees for this Cabinet position won Senate confirmation in an average of eight days; because of both personal and professional disagreements, Senator Clint Anderson took up the cause to make sure that Mr. Strauss would not be confirmed by the Senate. Senator Anderson found an ally in McGee on the Senate Commerce Committee, which had jurisdiction over Mr. Strauss' confirmation.
During and after the Senate hearings, Senator McGee had charged Mr. Strauss with "a brazen attempt to hoodwink" the committee. After 16 days of hearings the Committee recommended Mr. Strauss' confirmation to the full Senate by a vote of 9-8. In preparation for the floor debate on the nomination, the Democratic majority's main argument against the nomination was that Mr. Strauss' statements before the Committee were "sprinkled with half truths and lies... and that under rough and hostile questioning, can be evasive and quibblesome." Despite an overwhelming Democratic majority, the 86th United States Congress was not able to accomplish much of their agenda since the President had immense popularity and a veto pen. With the 1960 elections nearing, congressional Democrats sought issues on which they could conspicuously oppose the Republican administration; the Strauss nomination proved. On June 19, 1959 just after midnight, the Strauss nomination failed by a vote 46-49. At the time, It marked only the eighth time in U.
S. history. From Harper's Magazine: With Kennedy only eleven votes short of the nomination, Ted Kennedy approached the Wyoming delegation, where Kennedy was known to have eight and a half solid votes, Johnson had six, one-half vote remained loyal to Adlai Stevenson. On
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val
Craig L. Thomas
Craig Lyle Thomas was an American politician who served as United States Senator from Wyoming from 1995 to 2007. He was a member of the Republican Party. In the Senate, Thomas was considered an expert on rural development, he had served in key positions in several state agencies, including a long tenure as Vice President of the Wyoming Farm Bureau from 1965 to 1974. Thomas resided in Casper for twenty-eight years. In 1984, he was elected from Casper to the Wyoming House of Representatives, in which he served until 1989. In 1989, Dick Cheney, who occupied Wyoming's only seat in the House of Representatives, resigned to become Secretary of Defense. Thomas won the April 1989 special election, he was re-elected in 1990 and 1992, in 1994 he ran for and won the Senate seat being vacated by fellow conservative Republican Malcolm Wallop of Sheridan in northeastern Wyoming. He was re-elected in 2000 and 2006, having beaten Democratic candidates in both elections with 70 percent of the vote. Thomas was married to the former Susan Roberts, a public school teacher for special-needs students in Arlington, Virginia.
He had one daughter. Additionally, Thomas has nine grandchildren. Katelynn, Craig, Camryn, Evan and Isabella. Thomas was born and reared in Cody, the seat of Park County in northwestern Wyoming 50 miles east of Yellowstone National Park, his parents were public school teachers who operated a dude ranch business on the edge of Yellowstone during the summers. The family's interest in tourism led Thomas to purchase a small hotel in Torrington. Thomas graduated from the University of Wyoming in Laramie with a degree in animal husbandry. At the University he was a member of the Delta Chi Fraternity. Thereafter, he served as an officer in the United States Marine Corps from 1955 to 1959, he obtained a law degree from La Salle Extension University, though he did not list it on official biographies. In addition to his work with the Farm Bureau, he was general manager of the Wyoming Rural Electrification Administration. After five years in the Wyoming House, Thomas won a special election to replace Dick Cheney as Wyoming's lone member of the United States House of Representatives.
In 1994, he ran for the United States Senate and won, defeating popular Democratic Governor Mike Sullivan by 20 percentage points. He was elected second term in 2000 with a 74 percent majority, one of the largest margins in Wyoming election history. In the 2006 election he was opposed by Democratic engineer Dale Groutage. Thomas was re-elected to a third term with 70 percent of the ballots as Democratic Governor Dave Freudenthal was winning with the same 70 percent margin; as chairman of the National Parks Subcommittee, Thomas authored legislation to provide funding and management reforms to protect America's national parks into the 21st century. For this and other relevant legislation, Thomas was honored by the National Parks Conservation Association with their William Penn Mott, Jr. Park Leadership Award, as well as the National Parks Achievement Award; as the senior member of the Senate's influential Finance Committee, Thomas had been involved in issues such as Social Security, rural health care, tax reform.
As a member of the Senate Finance Committee, Thomas was instrumental in passing the Central America Free Trade Agreement. As co-chair of the Senate Rural Health Caucus, Senator Thomas worked on legislation to improve health care opportunities for rural families. Thomas pushed for the nomination of former State Representative Richard Honaker of Rock Springs to serve as U. S. District Judge in Cheyenne to succeed the retiring Clarence A. Brimmer, an unsuccessful Republican gubernatorial hopeful in 1974; the Honaker nomination, ran into delays when the Senate Judiciary delayed his hearing for eleven months, opposition surface from abortion access advocates and secularists. Thomas sat at a half of his tenure in the senate. Thomas entered the hospital shortly before the balloting occurred in November 2006 and was treated for pneumonia. Two days after the 2006 election, Thomas' diagnosis of leukemia was announced, he underwent treatment in the form of chemotherapy at the hospital and returned to work in December, a month earlier than expected.
In early 2007, Thomas said he was feeling better than he had in a long time, but he returned to the hospital for a second round of chemotherapy a month later. On June 4, 2007, Thomas was reported in serious condition, struggling with an infection while undergoing a second round of chemotherapy at Bethesda Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Thomas was pronounced dead that same day from complications of leukemia at 9:53 PM EST. Thomas' services were held in the Methodist Church in Casper on June 9, 2007; the two Senate leaders, Majority Leader Harry Reid, Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, headed a delegation of some twenty members of Congress who came to pay respects to the deceased senator. Senator Thomas' burial was in Riverside Cemetery in Cody on June 10. Under Wyoming law, Governor Freudenthal was required to appoint a new senator from a list of three submitted by the Wyoming Republican Party's central committee because the seat was vacated by a Republican; the GOP met on June 19, 2007 in Casper to select three candidates from thirty applicants to send to the governor.
Tom Sansonetti, former state Treasurer Cynthia Lummis, State Senator John Barrasso were nominated. On June 22, 2007 Governor Dave Freudenthal appointed Barrasso as Thomas's successor in the U. S. Senate. Senator Tho
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833