Roman Catholic Diocese of Raphoe
See Diocese of Derry and Raphoe for the Anglican counterpartThe Roman Catholic Diocese of Raphoe in County Donegal in Ulster, Ireland, is one of eight Latin rite suffragan dioceses in the inter-Irish primatial Ecclesiastical province of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Armagh. On 9 June 2017, Alan McGuckian was appointed Bishop of Raphoe and was ordained to the episcopate on 5 August 2017. Established circa 700 as Abbacy nullius of Raphoe / Rapoten Promoted in 1111 as Diocese of Raphoe / Rapoten; the bishopric covers most of County Donegal apart from the Inishowen peninsula. The largest towns are Ballyshannon, Donegal and Stranorlar; as per 2014 it pastorally served 82,600 Catholics on 4,030 km² in 33 parishes with 85 priests, 48 lay religious and 5 seminarians. The bishop's residence - Ard Adomnán - is in the town of Letterkenny, it is located beside the Parochial House, near the Episcopal see, Cathedral of St. Eunan and St Columba, dedicated to the joint patrons of the diocese - Saints Eunan and Columba.
The former Cathedral, once Cathedral of St. Eunan in Raphoe, is now a Protestant church. Abbots Nullius of Raphoe not available? Suffragan Bishops of Raphoe... first incumbent unavailable? Gilla in Choimded Ua Caráin, next Metropolitan Archbishop of Armagh Máel Pátraic Ó Scannail, Dominican Order, next Metropolitan Archbishop of Armagh Giovanni de Alneto, Friars Minor Cairpre Ó Scuapa Fergal Ó Firghil Énri Mac in Chrossáin Tomás Mac Carmaic Uí Domnaill Pádraig Mac Maonghaill Conchobhar Mac Carmaic Uí Dhomhnaill, died 1399 Seoán Mac Meanmain, Cistercian Order Eóin Mac Carmaic Lochlainn Ó Gallchobhair Cornelius Mac Giolla Bhrighde Lochlainn Ó Gallchobhair Johannes de Rogeriis Meanma Mac Carmaic, died 1515 Cornelius O’Cahan, died?1550 Edmund O’Gallagher Art O’Gallagher Donald MacGongail Niall O’Boyle John O’Cullenan Apostolic Administrator Fergus Laurence Lea, while Bishop of Derry... James O'Gallagher Daniel O'Gallagher, Franciscan Order Anthony O'Donnell, O. F. M. Nathaniel O'Donnell Philip O'Reilly Anthony Coyle Coadjutor Bishop: Anthony Coyle Coadjutor Bishop: Fr.
John McElvoy Peter McLaughlin Patrick McGettigan Daniel McGettigan Coadjutor Bishop: Daniel McGettigan James McDevitt Michael Logue Patrick O'Donnell William MacNeely Anthony Columba McFeely Séamus Hegarty Philip Boyce, Discalced Carmelites Alan McGuckian, Jesuit Order List of Catholic dioceses in Ireland Sexual abuse scandal in Raphoe diocese Anglican counterpart Diocese of Derry and Raphoe Diocese of Raphoe GCatholic.org, with Google map - data fro all sections Diocese of Raphoe Diocese of Raphoe Raphoe: Profile of the diocese
St Patrick's College, Maynooth
St Patrick's College, Maynooth, is the "National Seminary for Ireland", a Pontifical University, located in the village of Maynooth, 24 km from Dublin, Ireland. The college and seminary are referred to as Maynooth College; the college was established as the Royal College of St Patrick by Maynooth College Act 1795. Thomas Pelham, the Chief Secretary for Ireland, introduced his Bill for the foundation of a Catholic college, this was enacted by Parliament, it was opened to train 500 Catholic priests every year, was once the largest seminary in the world. In the past decades seminary intake has been decreasing in line with the wider fall in vocations across the Western developed world, with a record low in 2017 of six first year seminarians; this fall was due, in part, to the decision of the Archbishop of Dublin, Diarmuid Martin, to transfer Dublin seminarians to the Irish College in Rome. He did not state his reasons, but there had been unease over accusations of inappropriate behaviour among seminarians in Maynooth.
However the 2017 drop may be explained in part by the Irish Bishops' collective decision, in line with a new Holy See directive, to channel successful applicants for priestly formation into a new so-called propadeutic year before entering seminary. Eight students from the 2017 national intake were thus sent for a year of propadeutic studies in Spain. Degrees are awarded by the Pontifical University at Maynooth, established by a pontifical charter of 1896; the Pontifical charter entitles the university to grant degrees in canon law and theology. The college is associated with the separate Maynooth University; the town of Maynooth, County Kildare, was the seat of the Fitzgeralds, Earls of Kildare. The ivy-covered tower attached to St Mary's Church of Ireland, is all that remains of the ancient college of St Mary of Maynooth, founded and endowed by Gerald, 8th Earl of Kildare, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary. On October 7, 1515 Henry VIII granted licence for the establishment of a College. In 1518, the 9th Earl presented a petition to the Archbishop of Dublin, William Rokeby, for a license to found and endow a college at Maynooth: the College of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
In 1535 the College was suppressed and its endowments and lands confiscated as part of the Reformation. The present college was created in the 1790s against the background of the upheaval during the French Revolution and the gradual removal of the penal laws; until this time a significant number of Irish Catholic priests were educated on the European continent in France. The college was established on 5 June 1795 as The Royal College of St Patrick, by act of the Parliament of Ireland, to provide "for the better education of persons professing the popish or Roman Catholic religion"; the College was established to provide a university education for Catholic lay and ecclesiastical students, the lay college was based in Riverstown House on the south campus from 1802. With the opening of Clongowes Wood in 1814, the lay college was closed and the college functioned as a Catholic seminary for 150 years; the college was intended to provide for the education of Catholic priests in Ireland, who until this Act had to go to continental Europe for their formation and theological education.
There was an added value in this development for Britain, a reduced number of priests returning from training in revolutionary France thus hindering potential revolution. In 1800, John Butler, 12th Baron Dunboyne and left a substantial fortune to the College. Butler had been a Roman Catholic, Bishop of Cork, who had embraced Protestantism in order to marry and guarantee the succession to his hereditary title. However, there were no children to his marriage and it was alleged that he had been reconciled to the Catholic Church at his death. Were this the case, a Penal Law demanded that the will was invalid and his wealth would pass to his family. Much litigation followed before a negotiated settlement in 1808 that led to the establishment of a Dunboyne scholarship fund; the land was donated by William FitzGerald, 2nd Duke of Leinster, who had argued in favour of Catholic Emancipation in the Irish House of Lords. He lived nearby at Carton and at Leinster House; the building work was paid for by the British Government.
When this law was passed the College received a capital sum of £369,000. The trustees invested 75% of this in mortgages to Irish landowners at a yield of 4.25% or 4.75% per annum. This would have been considered a secure investment at that time but agitation for land reform and the depression of the 1870s eroded this security; the largest single mortgage was granted to the Earl of Granard. Accumulated losses on these transactions reached £35,000 by 1906; the first building to go up on this site was designed by, named after, John Stoyte. Over the next 15 years, the site at Maynooth underwent rapid construction so as to cater for the influx of new students, the buildings which now border St Joseph's Square were completed by 1824; the Rev. Laurence F. Renehan, a noted antiquarian, church historian, cleric, served as president of St Patrick's from 1845 until 1857. Under Renehan, many of the college's most important buildings were constructed by Augustus Pugin. Following the controversy regarding the Maynooth Grant, the
County Louth is a county in the Republic of Ireland. It is part of the Mid-East Region, it is named after the village of Louth. Louth County Council is the local authority for the county. According to the 2016 census, the population of the county was 128,884. County Louth is colloquially known as ` the Wee County', it is the 18th-largest in terms of population. It is the smallest of the sixth-largest by population. With its average total population and its small size, Louth is the second-most densely populated county in Ireland, behind Dublin, the fourth-most on the island of Ireland. County Louth is named after the village of Louth, which in turn is named after Lugh, a god of the ancient Irish; the placename has had various spellings. Lú is the modern simplified spelling; the county is steeped in myth and history, is a setting in the Táin Bó Cúailnge. It saw the influence of the Vikings, as seen in the name of Carlingford Lough, they established a longphort at Annagassan in the ninth century. At this time Louth consisted of three sub-kingdoms, each subject to separate over-kingdoms: Conaille.
The whole area became part of the O'Carroll Kingdom of Airgialla early in the 12th century under Donnchad Ua Cerbaill. At the same time, the area was removed from the diocese of Armagh and the See for the Diocese of Airgíalla or Clogher was transferred to Louth c. 1130-1190. A number of historic sites are in the county, including religious sites at Monasterboice, Mellifont Abbey and the St Mary Magdalene Dominican Friary; the Normans occupied the Louth area in the 1180s, it became known as'English' Oriel, to distinguish it from the remainder which remained in Irish hands. The latter became the McMahon lordship of Oriel of County Monaghan. In the early 14th century, the Scottish army of Edward Bruce was repulsed from Drogheda. Edward was defeated, losing his claim to the High Kingship of Ireland along with his life, in the Battle of Faughart near Dundalk, by a chiefly local force led by John de Bermingham. In 1189, a royal charter was granted to Dundalk after a Norman nobleman named Bertram de Verdun erected a manor house at Castletown Mount.
In 1412, a royal charter was granted to Drogheda. This charter unified the towns of Drogheda-in-Meath and Drogheda-in-Uriel as a County in its own right, styled as ‘the County of the town of Drogheda’. Drogheda continued as a County Borough until the setting up of County Councils, through the enactment of the Local Government Act 1898, which saw all of Drogheda, including a large area south of the River Boyne, become part of an extended County Louth; until the late 16th century, Louth had been a part of Ulster, before being included as part of Leinster after a conference held at Faughart between the Chiefs of Ulster, on the Irish side, the Archbishop of Cashel and the Earl of Ormonde on that of the English. The 16th and 17th centuries featured many skirmishes and battles involving Irish and English forces, as Louth was on the main route to'the Moiry Pass' and the Ulster areas in rebellion and as yet uncolonised. Oliver Cromwell attacked Drogheda in 1649 slaughtering the Royalist garrison and hundreds of the town's citizens.
Towards the end of the same century, the armies of the warring Kings, James II and William of Orange, faced off in south Louth during the build-up to the Battle of the Boyne. Drogheda held for James under Lord Iveagh, but surrendered to William the day after the battle of the Boyne. In 1798, the leaders of the United Irishmen included Bartholomew Teeling, John Byrne, Patrick Byrne, all from Castletown, they were betrayed by informers, notably a Dr. Conlan, who came from Dundalk, an agent provocateur called Sam Turner, from Newry. Several leaders were hanged; the priest and scientist Nicholas Callan was from Darver. County Louth is the 18th largest county in terms of population, but it is the most densely populated county in Ireland outside Dublin, with a population density of 160 people per km2 double the national average; the majority of the county's population lives in the two main towns of Drogheda and Dundalk the overall 6th- and 8th-largest urban areas in Ireland respectively. The local authority is Louth County Council, offices in Dundalk, which provides a number of services including.
Since the implementation of the Local Government Reform Act 2014 on 1 June 2014, County Louth has been subdivided into four Local Electoral Area's for elections to Louth County Council and three Municipal districts for local government which are, Ardee Municipal District Drogheda Borough District Dundalk Municipal DistrictKey: For elections to Dáil Éireann, Louth is represented by the five member Louth constituency which takes in the entire county of Louth and two electoral divisions in County Meath. The Electoral Act 2009 merged the electoral divisions of St. Mary's and Julianstown, collectively known as "East Meath" in County Meath with County Louth to form one Louth Dáil constituency; the Report on Dáil a
In hoc signo vinces
"In hoc signo vinces" is a Latin phrase conventionally translated into English as "In this sign thou shalt conquer". The Latin phrase itself renders, rather loosely, the Greek phrase "ἐν τούτῳ νίκα", transliterated as "en toútōi níka" meaning "in this, conquer". Lucius Caecilius Firmianus Lactantius was an early Christian author who became an advisor to the first Christian Roman emperor, Constantine I, guiding the Emperor's religious policy as it developed during his reign, his work De Mortibus Persecutorum has an apologetic character, but has been treated as a work of history by Christian writers. Here Lactantius preserves the story of Constantine's vision of the Chi Rho before his conversion to Christianity; the full text is found in only one manuscript, which bears the title, Lucii Caecilii liber ad Donatum Confessorem de Mortibus Persecutorum. The historian bishop Eusebius of Caesaria states that Constantine was marching with his army, when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, with it the Greek words " τούτῳ νίκα", a phrase rendered into Latin as in hoc signo vinces.
At first, Constantine did not know the meaning of the apparition, but on the following night, he had a dream in which Christ explained to him that he should use the sign of the cross against his enemies. Eusebius continues to describe the Labarum, the military standard used by Constantine in his wars against Licinius, showing the Chi-Rho sign; the accounts by Lactantius and Eusebius, though not consistent, have been connected to the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, having merged into a popular notion of Constantine seeing the Chi-Rho sign on the evening before the battle. The phrase appears prominently placed as a motto on a ribbon unfurled with a passion cross to its left, beneath a window over the Scala Regia, adjacent to the equestrian statue of Emperor Constantine, in the Vatican. Emperors and other monarchs, having paid respects to the Pope, descended the Scala Regia, would observe the light shining down through the window, with the motto, reminiscent of Constantine's vision, be reminded to follow the Cross.
They would thence turn right into the atrium of St. Peter's Basilica, ostensibly so inspired; the Kingdom of Portugal has used this motto according with the legend in Lusíadas. Coat of Arms of the Russian Government. 1919, see White movement Inscribed on the Colours of the Irish Brigade. Inscribed on the banner and the motto of the 4th Guards Brigade of the Croatian army Inscribed on the banner of the Sanfedismo in 1799 Inscribed in Greek on the flag of the Sacred Band of the Greek War of Independence Inscribed in Greek on the coat of arms and flag of the 22nd Tank Brigade of the Greek Army The motto of 814 Naval Air Squadron of the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm; the motto of the Mauritius National Coast Guard The motto of U. S. Marine Aircraft Squadron VMA533 The motto of Finnish Defence Force Reconnaissance The motto of the Norwegian army 2nd Battalion The motto of USS Waldron The motto of HMCS Crusader, the Sea Cadet Corps with her as the namesake, 25 RCSCC Crusader in Winnipeg. Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George In the logo of Knights Templar, Grand Encampment, U.
S. A. Public motto of the Sigma Chi international fraternity. Is the motto on the Coat of arms of the Vlaamse Verdedigings Liga, a right wing political organisation, it is the public motto of the English Defence League, emblazoned around the group's logo. In hoc signo vinces is the motto of: Bishop Simon Brute College Seminary, Indiana USA College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA Georgian Institute of Public Affairs, Georgia Hardey Preparatory School for Boys, Illinois USA Holy Cross College, Trinidad Holy Cross College, Sri Lanka Holy Cross College of Carigara, Leyte, Republic of the Philippines Holy Cross High School, Camp Phillips, Republic of the Philippines Holy Cross School, Manitoba, Canada. Instituto Tecnológico de Mérida, Mérida, Mexico Madras Christian College, India Marist Brothers High School, Fiji Suva city http://new.trinity.edu.gh/, Legon Ghana Quitman High School, Louisiana USA St. Eunan's College, County Donegal, Republic of Ireland St. Joseph's Grammar School, County Tyrone, Northern Ireland St. Michael's Church School, New Zealand St. Thomas' Secondary School,Kano,Nigeria Strangford Integrated College, County Down, Northern Ireland Wah Yan College, Wan Chai, Hong Kong Wah Yan College, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong Crest of the Royal Hockey Club, Belgium Motto of the Carlstad Crusaders, Sweden's dominant American Football team in Karlstad, Sweden Motto of Ponsonby Rugby Club, New Zealand http://www.ponsonbyrugby.co.nz/ The phrase is the motto on some Byzantine coins.
Used as the title of the political manifesto of George Lincoln Rockwell and the American Nazi Party. Is the motto on the coat of arms of the city of Plzeň, Czech Republic; the phrase is in the coat of arms of the city of Birkirkara, the largest city on the island of Malta, the city of Bayamon, Puerto Rico. Is the motto on the Coat of Arms of O'Donnell Appears in one of the paintings of the Polish artist Zdzisław Beksiński, it has been used in some v
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was a state established in 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921. That treaty ended the three-year Irish War of Independence between the forces of the self-proclaimed Irish Republic, the Irish Republican Army, British Crown forces; the Free State was established as a Dominion of the British Commonwealth of Nations. It comprised 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland. Northern Ireland, which comprised the remaining six counties, exercised its right under the Treaty to opt out of the new state; the Free State government consisted of the Governor-General, the representative of the King, the Executive Council, which replaced both the revolutionary Dáil Government and the Provisional Government set up under the Treaty. W. T. Cosgrave, who had led both of these governments since August 1922, became the first President of the Executive Council; the Oireachtas or legislature consisted of Dáil Éireann and Seanad Éireann known as the Senate. Members of the Dáil were required to take an Oath of Allegiance to the Constitution of the Free State and to declare fidelity to the king.
The oath was a key issue for opponents of the Treaty, who refused to take the oath and therefore did not take their seats. Pro-Treaty members, who formed Cumann na nGaedheal in 1923, held an effective majority in the Dáil from 1922 to 1927, thereafter ruled as a minority government until 1932. In 1931, with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, the Parliament of the United Kingdom relinquished its remaining authority to legislate for the Free State and the other dominions; this had the effect of making the dominions sovereign states. The Free State thus became. In the first months of the Free State, the Irish Civil War was waged between the newly established National Army and the anti-Treaty IRA, who refused to recognise the state; the Civil War ended in victory for the government forces, with the anti-Treaty forces dumping their arms in May 1923. The anti-Treaty political party, Sinn Féin, refused to take its seats in the Dáil, leaving the small Labour Party as the only opposition party.
In 1926, when Sinn Féin president Éamon de Valera failed to have this policy reversed, he resigned from Sinn Féin and founded Fianna Fáil. Fianna Fáil entered the Dáil following the 1927 general election, entered government after the Irish general election, 1932, when it became the largest party. De Valera abolished the Oath of Allegiance and embarked on an economic war with the UK. In 1937 he drafted a new constitution, passed by a referendum in July of that year; the Free State came to an end with the coming into force of a new constitution on 29 December 1937 when the state took the name "Ireland". The Easter Rising of 1916 and its aftermath caused a profound shift in public opinion towards the republican cause in Ireland. In the December 1918 General Election, the republican Sinn Féin party won a large majority of the Irish seats in the British parliament: 73 of the 105 constituencies returned Sinn Féin members; the elected Sinn Féin MPs, rather than take their seats at Westminster, set up their own assembly, known as Dáil Éireann.
It passed a Declaration of Independence. The subsequent War of Independence, fought between the Irish Republican Army and British security forces, continued until July 1921 when a truce came into force. By this time the Ulster Parliament had opened, established under the Government of Ireland Act 1920, presenting the republican movement with a fait accompli and guaranteeing the British presence in Ireland. In October negotiations opened in London between members of the British government and members of the Dáil, culminating in the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921; the Treaty allowed for the creation of an independent state to be known as the Irish Free State, with dominion status, within the British Empire—a status equivalent to Canada. The Parliament of Northern Ireland could, by presenting an address to the king, opt not to be included in the Free State, in which case a Boundary Commission would be established to determine where the boundary between them should lie. Members of the parliament of the Free State would be required to take an oath of allegiance to the king, albeit a modification of the oath taken in other dominions.
The Dáil ratified the Treaty on 7 January 1922. A Provisional Government was formed, with Michael Collins as chairman; the Treaty, the legislation introduced to give it legal effect, implied that Northern Ireland would be a part of the Free State on its creation, but in reality the terms of the Treaty applied only to the 26 counties, the government of the Free State had neither de facto nor de jure power in Northern Ireland. The Treaty was given legal effect in the United Kingdom through the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922; that act, which established the Free State, allowed Northern Ireland to "opt out" of it. Under Article 12 of the Treaty, Northern Ireland could exercise its option by presenting an address to the King requesting not to be part of the Irish Free State. Once the Irish Free State Constitution Act was passed on 5 December 1922, the Houses of Parliament of Northern Ireland had one month to exercise this option during which month the Government of Ireland Act continued to apply in Northern Ireland.
Realistically it was always certain. The Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Sir James Craig, speaking in the Parliament in Octob
Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI, born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939. He was the first sovereign of Vatican City from its creation as an independent state on 11 February 1929, he took as his papal motto, "Pax Christi in Regno Christi," translated "The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ." Pius XI issued numerous encyclicals, including Quadragesimo anno on the 40th anniversary of Pope Leo XIII's groundbreaking social encyclical Rerum novarum, highlighting the capitalistic greed of international finance, the dangers of socialism/communism, social justice issues, Quas primas, establishing the feast of Christ the King in response to anti-clericalism. The encyclical Studiorum ducem, promulgated 29 June 1923, was written on the occasion of the 6th centenary of the canonization of Thomas Aquinas, whose thought is acclaimed as central to Catholic philosophy and theology; the encyclical singles out the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum as the preeminent institution for the teaching of Aquinas: "ante omnia Pontificium Collegium Angelicum, ubi Thomam tamquam domi suae habitare dixeris".
To establish or maintain the position of the Catholic Church, Pius XI concluded a record number of concordats, including the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany, whose betrayals of which he condemned four years in the encyclical Mit brennender Sorge. During his pontificate, the longstanding hostility with the Italian government over the status of the papacy and the Church in Italy was resolved in the Lateran Treaty of 1929, he was unable to stop the persecution of the Church and the killing of clergy in Mexico and the Soviet Union. He canonized important saints, including Thomas More, Peter Canisius, Bernadette of Lourdes and Don Bosco, he beatified and canonized Thérèse de Lisieux, for whom he held special reverence, gave equivalent canonization to Albertus Magnus, naming him a Doctor of the Church due to the spiritual power of his writings. He took a strong interest in fostering the participation of lay people throughout the Catholic Church in the Catholic Action movement; the end of his pontificate was dominated by speaking out against Hitler and Mussolini and defending the Catholic Church from intrusions into Catholic life and education.
Pius XI died on 10 February 1939 in the Apostolic Palace and is buried in the Papal Grotto of Saint Peter's Basilica. In the course of excavating space for his tomb, two levels of burial grounds were uncovered which revealed bones now venerated as the bones of St. Peter. Achille Ratti was born in Desio, in the province of Milan, in 1857, the son of an owner of a silk factory, his parents were Teresa. He was embarked on an academic career within the Church, he obtained three doctorates at the Gregorian University in Rome, from 1882 to 1888 was a professor at the seminary in Padua. His scholarly specialty was as an expert paleographer, a student of ancient and medieval Church manuscripts, he left seminary teaching to work full-time at the Ambrosian Library in Milan, from 1888 to 1911. During this time, Ratti edited and published an edition of the Ambrosian Missal, researched and wrote much on the life and works of St. Charles Borromeo, he became chief of the Library in 1907 and undertook a thorough programme of restoration and re-classification of the Ambrosian's collection.
He was an avid mountaineer in his spare time, reaching the summits of Monte Rosa, the Matterhorn, Mont Blanc and Presolana. The combination of a scholar-athlete pope would not be seen again until the pontificate of John Paul II. In 1911, at Pope Pius X's invitation, he moved to the Vatican to become Vice-Prefect of the Vatican Library, in 1914 was promoted to Prefect. In 1918, Pope Benedict XV asked Ratti to change careers and take a diplomatic post: apostolic visitor in Poland, a state newly restored to existence, but still under effective German and Austro-Hungarian control. In October 1918, Benedict was the first head of state to congratulate the Polish people on the occasion of the restoration of their independence. In March 1919, he nominated ten new bishops and, soon after, upgraded Ratti's position in Warsaw to the official position of papal nuncio. Ratti was consecrated as a titular archbishop in October 1919. Benedict XV and Ratti cautioned Polish authorities against persecuting the Lithuanian and Ruthenian clergy.
During the Bolshevik advance against Warsaw, the Pope asked for worldwide public prayers for Poland, while Ratti was the only foreign diplomat who refused to flee Warsaw when the Red Army was approaching the city in August 1920. On 11 June 1921, Benedict XV asked Ratti to deliver his message to the Polish episcopate, warning against political misuses of spiritual power, urging again peaceful coexistence with neighbouring people, stating that "love of country has its limits in justice and obligations". Ratti intended to work for Poland by building bridges to men of goodwill in the Soviet Union to shedding his blood for Russia. Benedict, needed Ratti as a diplomat, not as a martyr, forbade his traveling into the USSR despite his being the official papal delegate for Russia; the nuncio's continued contacts with Russians did not generate much sympathy for him within Poland at the time. After Pope Benedic
Michael Logue was an Irish prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland from 1887 until his death in 1924, he was created a cardinal in 1893. Cardinal Logue was born at Duringings, in Kilmacrenan, Co.. Donegal, he was the son of Michael Logue, a blacksmith, Catherine Durning. From 1857 to 1866, he studied at Maynooth College, where his intelligence earned him the nickname the "Northern Star." Before his ordination to the priesthood, he was assigned by the Irish bishops as the chair of both theology and belles lettres at the Irish College in Paris in 1866. He was ordained priest in December of that year. Logue remained on the faculty of the Irish College until 1874, when he returned to his Donegal as administrator of a parish in Letterkenny. In 1876, he joined the staff of Maynooth College as professor of Dogmatic theology and Irish, as well as the post of dean. On 13 May 1879, Logue was appointed Bishop of Raphoe by Pope Leo XIII, he received his episcopal consecration on the following 20 July from Archbishop Daniel McGettigan, with Bishops James Donnelly and Francis Kelly serving as co-consecrators, at the pro-cathedral of Raphoe.
He was involved in fundraising to help people during the 1879 Irish famine, due to major donations of food and government intervention never developed into a major famine. He took advantage of the Intermediate Act of 1878 to enlarge the Catholic high school in Letterkenny, he was heavily involved in the Irish temperance movement to discourage the consumption of alcohol. On 18 April 1887 Logue was appointed Coadjutor Archbishop of Armagh and Titular Archbishop of Anazarbus. Upon the death of Archbishop MacGettigan, Logue succeeded him as Archbishop of Armagh, thus Primate of All Ireland, on 3 December of that year, he was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria della Pace by Pope Leo XIII in the consistory of 19 January 1893, he thus became the first archbishop of Armagh to be elevated to the College of Cardinals. He participated in the 1903, 1914, 1922 conclaves that elected popes Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI respectively. Logue took over the completion of the Victorian gothic St. Patrick's Cathedral in Armagh.
The new cathedral, which towered over Armagh, was dedicated on 24 July 1904. Cardinal Logue publicly supported the principle of Irish Home Rule throughout his long reign in both Raphoe and Armagh, though he was wary of the motives of individual politicians articulating that political position, he maintained a loyal attitude to the British Crown during the First World War, on 19 June 1917, when numbers of the younger clergy were beginning to take part in the Sinn Féin agitation, he issued an "instruction" calling attention to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church as to the obedience due to legitimate authority, warning the clergy against belonging to "dangerous associations," and reminding priests that it was forbidden by the statutes of the National Synod to speak of political or kindred affairs in the church. In 1918, however, he placed himself at the head of the opposition to the extension of the Military Service Act of 1916 to Ireland, in the midst of the Conscription Crisis of 1918.
Bishops assessed that priests were permitted to denounce conscription on the grounds that the question was not political but moral. Logue involved himself in politics for the 1918 general election, when he arranged an electoral pact between the Irish Parliamentary Party and Sinn Féin in three constituencies in Ulster, chose a Sinn Féin candidate in South Fermanagh – the imprisoned Republican, John O'Mahoney, he opposed the campaign of murder against the police and military begun in 1919, in his Lenten pastoral of 1921 he vigorously denounced murder by whomsoever committed. This was accompanied by an equally vigorous attack on the methods and policy of the government, he endorsed the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921. In 1921, the death of Cardinal James Gibbons made Logue archpriest of the College of Cardinals. Logue was more politically conservative than Archbishop William Joseph Walsh, which created tension between Armagh and Dublin. In earlier life he was a keen student of an excellent yachtsman.
He died in Ara Coeli, the residence of the archbishop, on 19 November 1924 and was buried in a cemetery in the grounds of his cathedral