Carry On (franchise)
The Carry On series consists of 31 British comedy motion pictures, four Christmas specials, a television series of thirteen episodes, three West End and provincial stage plays. The films' humour was in the British comic tradition of bawdy seaside postcards. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas drew on a regular group of actors, the Carry On team, that included Sid James, Kenneth Williams, Charles Hawtrey, Joan Sims, Kenneth Connor, Peter Butterworth, Hattie Jacques, Terry Scott, Bernard Bresslaw, Barbara Windsor, Jack Douglas, Jim Dale; the Carry On series contains the largest number of films of any British series, it is the longest continually running UK film series, although with a fourteen-year break. Anglo Amalgamated Film Distributors Ltd produced twelve films, the Rank Organisation made eighteen and United International Pictures made one. Producer Peter Rogers and director Gerald Thomas made all 31 films on time and to a strict budget, employed the same crew. Between 1958 and 1992, the series employed seven writers, most Norman Hudis and Talbot Rothwell.
In between the films and Thomas produced four Christmas specials in 1969, 1970, 1972, 1973, a thirteen episode television series in 1975, various West End stage shows which toured the regions. All the films were made at Pinewood Studios near Buckinghamshire. Budgetary constraints meant that a large proportion of the location filming was undertaken close to the studios in and around south Buckinghamshire, including areas of Berkshire and Middlesex. However, by the late 1960s more ambitious plots necessitated locations further afield, which included Snowdonia National Park and the beaches of the Sussex coast doubling as Saharan sand dunes in Follow That Camel. Carry On Sergeant was about a group of recruits doing National Service; the film was sufficiently successful to inspire a similar venture, again focusing on an established and respected profession in Carry On Nurse. When that too was successful, further forays with Carry On Teacher and Carry On Constable established the series; this initial'pattern' was broken with the fifth film in 1961, Carry On Regardless, but it still followed a similar plot to that of many of the early films—a small group of misfit newcomers to a job make comic mistakes, but come together to succeed in the end.
The remainder of the series developed with increased use of the British comic traditions of music hall and bawdy seaside postcards. Many titles parodied more serious films, such as their tongue-in-cheek homages to James Bond and Hammer horror films; the most impressive of these was Carry On Cleo, after the Burton and Taylor epic Cleopatra, where the budget-conscious Carry On team made full use of some impressive sets, intended for that film. Carry On Emmannuelle, inspired by the soft-porn Emmanuelle, brought to an end the original'run'; the stock-in-trade of Carry On humour was innuendo and the sending-up of British institutions and customs, such as the National Health Service, the monarchy, the Empire, the armed forces, the police and the trade unions as well as camping, foreign holidays, beauty contests, caravan holidays, the education system amongst others. Although the films were often panned by critics, they proved popular with audiences. In 2007, the pun "Infamy, they've all got it in for me", spoken by Kenneth Williams in Carry on Cleo, was voted the funniest one-line joke in film history.
A film had appeared in 1957 under the title Carry On Admiral. The much earlier 1937 film Carry On London is unrelated; the cast were poorly paid—around £5,000 per film for a principal performer. In his diaries, Kenneth Williams lamented this, criticised several of the movies despite his declared fondness for the series as a whole. Peter Rogers, the series' producer, acknowledged: "Kenneth was worth taking care of, because while he cost little he made a great deal of money for the franchise." Several other films were planned, scripted or entered pre-production before being abandoned: What a Carry On... 1961 Carry On Smoking, 1961. The story revolved around a fire station, various attempts to train a bungling group of new recruits. Carry On Spaceman, 1961 and again in 1962. See section below. Carry On Flying, 1962. Scripted by Norman Hudis, about a group of RAF recruits, it got as far as pre-production before being abandoned. Jim Dale was to have a starring role. Carry On Robin, 1965. A planned spoof of Robin Hood starring the "Carry On regulars" was outlined by Rogers and registered with the British Film Producers Association but never pursued.
Carry On Again Nurse, 1967 and two other attempts. See section below ↓. Carry On Escaping, 1973. Scripted by Talbot Rothwell, a spoof of World War II escape films; the complete script was included in the book The Complete A-Z of Everything Carry On. Carry on Dallas, 1980. A p
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the south by Turkey and Armenia, to the southeast by Azerbaijan; the capital and largest city is Tbilisi. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres, its 2017 population is about 3.718 million. Georgia is a unitary semi-presidential republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. During the classical era, several independent kingdoms became established in what is now Georgia, such as Colchis and Iberia; the Georgians adopted Christianity in the early 4th century. The common belief had an enormous importance for spiritual and political unification of early Georgian states. A unified Kingdom of Georgia reached its Golden Age during the reign of King David IV and Queen Tamar in the 12th and early 13th centuries. Thereafter, the kingdom declined and disintegrated under hegemony of various regional powers, including the Mongols, the Ottoman Empire, successive dynasties of Iran.
In the late 18th century, the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which directly annexed the kingdom in 1801 and conquered the western Kingdom of Imereti in 1810. Russian rule over Georgia was acknowledged in various peace treaties with Iran and the Ottomans and the remaining Georgian territories were absorbed by the Russian Empire in a piecemeal fashion in the course of the 19th century. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia became part of the Transcaucasian Federation and emerged as an independent republic before the Red Army invasion in 1921 which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. Soviet Georgia would be incorporated into a new Transcaucasian Federation which in 1922 would be a founding republic of the Soviet Union. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. During the Great Patriotic War 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the German invaders.
After Soviet leader Joseph Stalin, a native Georgian, died in 1953, a wave of protest spread against Nikita Khrushchev and his de-Stalinization reforms, leading to the death of nearly one hundred students in 1956. From that time on, Georgia would become marred with blatant corruption and increased alienation of the government from the people. By the 1980s, Georgians were ready to abandon the existing system altogether. A pro-independence movement led to the secession from the Soviet Union in April 1991. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, economic crisis. Following the bloodless Rose Revolution in 2003, Georgia pursued a pro-Western foreign policy; this strengthened state institutions. The country's Western orientation soon led to the worsening of relations with Russia, culminating in the brief Russo-Georgian War in August 2008 and Georgia's current territorial dispute with Russia. Georgia is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development.
It contains two de facto independent regions and South Ossetia, which gained limited international recognition after the 2008 Russo-Georgian War. Georgia and most of the world's countries consider the regions to be Georgian territory under Russian occupation. "Georgia" stems from the Persian designation of the Georgians – gurğān, in the 11th and 12th centuries adapted via Syriac gurz-ān/gurz-iyān and Arabic ĵurĵan/ĵurzan. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians, while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός; as Prof. Alexander Mikaberidze adds, these century-old explanations for the word Georgia/Georgians are rejected by the scholarly community, who point to the Persian word gurğ/gurğān as the root of the word. Starting with the Persian word gurğ/gurğān, the word was adopted in numerous other languages, including Slavic and West European languages; this term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, referred to as Gorgan.
The native name is Sakartvelo, derived from the core central Georgian region of Kartli, recorded from the 9th century, in extended usage referring to the entire medieval Kingdom of Georgia by the 13th century. The self-designation used by ethnic Georgians is Kartvelebi; the medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. However, scholars agree that the word is derived from the Karts, the latter being one of the proto-Georgian tribes that emerged as a dominant group in ancient times; the name Sakartvelo consists of two parts. Its root, kartvel-i, specifies an inhabitant of the core central-eastern Georgian region of Kartli, or Iberia as it is known in sources of the Eastern Roman Empire. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to early western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians; the Georgian circumfix sa-X-o is a standard geographic construction designating "the area where X dwell", where X is an ethnonym. To
Joseph Levitch, known worldwide as Jerry Lewis, was an American comedian, singer, producer and humanitarian, whose career spanned eight decades and was nicknamed "The King of Comedy". After his partnership with Dean Martin as the act of Martin and Lewis, he would star in, write and direct motion pictures of The Delicate Delinquent, The Sad Sack, Rock-A-Bye Baby, The Geisha Boy, Don't Give Up The Ship, Visit to a Small Planet, The Bellboy, The Ladies' Man, The Errand Boy, It's Only Money, The Nutty Professor, Who's Minding the Store?, The Patsy, The Disorderly Orderly and The Family Jewels. Lewis appear in concert stages, music recordings and television and outside of his career, he supported fundraising for muscular dystrophy research, while as national chairman of the Muscular Dystrophy Association and hosted The Jerry Lewis MDA Labor Day Telethon for 44 years every Labor Day; as one of the most successful stars, with worldwide box office receipts of his films in excess of $800 million, Lewis received global acclaim for his unique style with both comedy and drama.
As part of Martin and Lewis and as a solo performer, he was voted Hollywood's top box-office draw from 1951 to 1965, in years as the sole comedian. Lewis was born on March 16, 1926, at Newark Beth Israel Hospital in Newark, New Jersey, to Russian-Jewish parents. Though his birth certificate lists his name as Jerome Levitch, in his autobiography, Lewis claimed his birth name as Joseph Lewis, his father, Daniel Levitch, born in New York, was a master of ceremonies and vaudeville entertainer who used the professional name Danny Lewis. His mother, Rachel "Rae" Levitch went by the stage name Rae Lewis, was a piano player for the radio station WOR and was her husband's musical director. Lewis began performing at age five and would perform alongside his parents in the Catskill Mountains in New York, he was a "character" in his teenage years, pulling pranks in his neighborhood including sneaking into kitchens to steal fried chicken and pies. He dropped out of Irvington High School in the tenth grade.
By age 15, he had developed his "Record Act" miming lyrics to songs while a phonograph played offstage. He used the professional name Joey Lewis but soon changed it to Jerry Lewis to avoid confusion with comedian Joe E. Lewis and heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis, he landed a gig at a burlesque house in Buffalo, but his performance fell flat and was unable to book any more shows. Lewis worked as a soda jerk and a theater usher for Suzanne Pleshette's father Gene at the Paramount Theater to make ends meet. A veteran burlesque comedian, Max Coleman, who had worked with Lewis' father years before, persuaded him to try again. Irving Kaye, a Borscht Belt comedian, saw Lewis' mime act at Brown's Hotel in Loch Sheldrake, New York, the following summer, the audience was so enthusiastic that Kaye became Lewis' manager and guardian for Borscht Belt appearances. During World War II, he was rejected for military service because of a heart murmur. Lewis gained attention as part of a double act with singer Dean Martin, who served as straight man to Lewis' zany antics as the Martin and Lewis comedy team.
They were different from other duo acts of the time because they played to each other and had ad-libbed improvisational segments within their planned routines. After forming in 1946, they rose to national prominence, first with their popular nightclub act as stars of The Martin and Lewis Show on the radio NBC Red Network; the two made appearances on early live television on their June 20, 1948 debut broadcast on Toast of the Town on CBS. This was followed on October 1948, by an appearance on NBC's Welcome Aboard. In 1950, Martin and Lewis signed with NBC to be one of a series of weekly rotating hosts of The Colgate Comedy Hour, a live Sunday evening broadcast. Lewis, writer for the team's nightclub act, hired Norman Lear and Ed Simmons as regular writers for their Comedy Hour material, their Comedy Hour shows consisted of stand-up dialogue and dance from their nightclub act and movies, backed by Dick Stabile's big band and satirical sketch comedy, Martin's solo songs, Lewis' solo pantomimes or physical numbers.
Martin and Lewis broke character, ad-libbing and breaking the fourth wall. While not capturing the orchestrated mayhem of their nightclub act, the Comedy Hour displayed charismatic energy between the team and established their popularity nationwide. By 1951, with an appearance at the Paramount Theater, they were a cultural phenomenon, attracting crowds rivaled only by Frank Sinatra earlier and by Elvis Presley and The Beatles; the duo began their film careers at Paramount Pictures as ensemble players, first in My Friend Irma, based on the radio series of the same name, its sequel My Friend Irma Goes West. Soon after and Lewis starred in their own vehicles in 14 more movies, At War with the Army, That's My Boy, Sailor Beware, Jumping Jacks, The Stooge, Scared Stiff, The Caddy, Money from Home, Living It Up, 3 Ring Circus, You're Never Too Young and Models, Pardners and Hollywood or Bust. All 16 films were produced by Hal B. Wallis, they starred as cameos in Bing Crosby and Bob Hope's film Road to Bali.
Crosby and Hope would do the same in Lewis' Scared Stiff a year later. Attesting to the duo's popularity, DC Comics published The Adventures of Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis from 1952 to 1957. In 1954, the team appeared on episode 191 of What's My Line? as mystery guests, appeared on the 27th
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica is designated as a territorial collectivity by law; as a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions. The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud, with its regional capital in Ajaccio, the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia, the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second largest settlement in Corsica; the two departments, the region of Corsica, merged again into a single territorial collectivity in 2018. After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was an Italian-speaking independent republic from 1755, until it was ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts and conquered in 1769.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born the same year in Ajaccio, his ancestral home, Maison Bonaparte, is today a significant visitor attraction and museum. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many Italian cultural elements: the native tongue is recognized as a regional language by the French government; the origin of the name Corsica remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste, Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné. Of these Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, "Σειρηνούσσαι", the same Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. Corsica has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic era, it acquired an indigenous population, influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory. After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians, colonization by the ancient Greeks, an only longer occupation by the Etruscans, it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War and, with Sardinia, in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic.
The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria, considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey and wax, exported many slaves, not well considered because of their fierce and rebellious character. Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca. Administratively, the island was divided in pagi, which in the Middle Ages became the pievi, the basic administrative units of the island until 1768. During the diffusion of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors, Corsica was home to many martyrs and saints: among them, the most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia, both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated into Roman Italy by Emperor Diocletian. In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths. Recovered by the Byzantines, it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
This made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany. Pepin the Short, king of the Franks and Charlemagne's father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II. In the first quarter of the 11th century and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion. After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa. To this period belong the many polychrome churches which adorn the island, Corsica experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gave to the island its present toponymy and rendered the language spoken in the northern two-thirds of the island close to the Tuscan dialect. Due to that began the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of mountains going from Calvi to Porto-Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro, or Cismonte, more populated and open to the commerce with Italy, the western Banda di fuori, or Pomonte deserted and remote; the crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa had among its consequences the end of the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica: this was contested by the King of Aragon, who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica.
A popular revolution against this and the feudal lords, led by Sambucuccio d'Alando, got the aid of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled after the Italian experience; the following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was contested by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of Saint George, which brought peace. In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy. In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica, but the reaction of Spain and Genoa, led by Andrea Doria, reestablished the Genoese supremacy on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis; the unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would come to be considered a hero of t
Dino Paul Crocetti, known famously as Dean Martin, was an American actor and singer. One of the most popular and enduring American entertainers of the mid-20th century, Martin was nicknamed "The King of Cool" for his effortless charisma and self-assurance, he and Jerry Lewis formed the immensely popular comedy duo Martin and Lewis, with Martin serving as the straight man to Lewis' slapstick hijinks. A member of the "Rat Pack", Martin went on to become a star of concert stages, audio recordings, motion pictures and television. Martin was the host of the variety programs The Dean Martin Show and The Dean Martin Celebrity Roasts, his relaxed, crooning voice earned him dozens of hit singles, including his signature songs "Memories Are Made of This", "That's Amore", "Everybody Loves Somebody", "You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You", "Sway", "Ain't That a Kick in the Head?", "Volare". Martin was born Dino Paul Crocetti on June 7, 1917, in Steubenville, the son of Italian father Gaetano Alfonso Crocetti and Italian-American mother Angela Crocetti.
His parents were married in 1914. His father, a barber, was from Montesilvano and his mother's origins are believed to be from Abruzzo, although they are not known. Martin had an older brother named William Alfonso Crocetti, his first language was Italian and he did not speak English until he started school at the age of five. He attended Grant Elementary School in Steubenville; as a teenager, he played the drums as a hobby. He dropped out of Steubenville High School in the tenth grade because he thought he was smarter than his teachers, he bootlegged liquor, worked in a steel mill, served as a croupier at a speakeasy and a blackjack dealer, was a welterweight boxer. At 15, he was a boxer who billed himself as "Kid Crochet", his prizefighting earned him a broken nose, a scarred lip, many broken knuckles, a bruised body. Of his 12 bouts, he said that he "won all but 11". For a time, he shared a New York City apartment with Sonny King, starting in show business and had little money; the two charged people to watch them bare-knuckle box each other in their apartment, fighting until one was knocked out.
Martin knocked out King in the first round of an amateur boxing match. Martin gave up boxing to work as a roulette stickman and croupier in an illegal casino behind a tobacco shop, where he had started as a stock boy. At the same time, he sang with local bands, calling himself "Dino Martini", he got his break working for the Ernie McKay Orchestra. He sang among others. In the early 1940s, he started singing for bandleader Sammy Watkins, who suggested he change his name to Dean Martin. In October 1941, Martin married Elizabeth "Betty" Anne McDonald in Cleveland and the couple had an apartment in Cleveland Heights for a while, they had four children before the marriage ended in 1949. Martin worked for various bands throughout the early 1940s on looks and personality until he developed his own singing style, he flopped at the Riobamba nightclub in New York, when he followed Frank Sinatra in 1943. Martin attracted the attention of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, but a Hollywood contract was not forthcoming.
He met comic Jerry Lewis at the Glass Hat Club in New York. Martin and Lewis formed a fast friendship which led to their participation in each other's acts and the formation of a music-comedy team. Martin and Lewis's debut together occurred at Atlantic City's 500 Club on July 24, 1946, they were not well received; the owner, Skinny D'Amato, warned them that if they did not come up with a better act for their second show that night, they would be fired. Huddling in the alley behind the club and Martin agreed to "go for broke", they divided their act between songs, ad-libbed material. Martin sang and Lewis dressed as a busboy, dropping plates and making a shambles of Martin's performance and the club's decorum until Lewis was chased from the room as Martin pelted him with breadrolls, they did slapstick, reeled off old vaudeville jokes, did whatever else popped into their heads. The audience laughed; this success led to a series of well-paying engagements on the Eastern seaboard, culminating in a run at New York's Copacabana.
The act consisted of Lewis interrupting and heckling Martin while he was trying to sing, with the two chasing each other around the stage. The secret, both said, is that they played to each other; the team made its TV debut on the first broadcast of CBS-TV network's The Ed Sullivan Show on June 20, 1948, with composers Rodgers and Hammerstein appearing. Hoping to improve their act, the two hired young comedy writers Norman Lear and Ed Simmons to write their bits. With the assistance of both Lear and Simmons, the two would take their act beyond nightclubs. A radio series began in 1949, the year Martin and Lewis signed with Paramount producer Hal B. Wallis as comedy relief for the movie My Friend Irma, their agent, Abby Greshler, negotiated one of Hollywood's best deals: although they received only $75,000 between them for their films with Wallis and Lewis were free to do one outside film a year, which they would co-produce through their own York Productions. They controlled their club, record and television appearances, through these they earned millions of dollars.
In Dean & Me, Lewis calls Mar