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In Christian theology, historical patripassianism is a version of Sabellianism in the Eastern church. Modalism is the belief that God the Father, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit are three different modes or aspects of one monadic God, as perceived by the believer, rather than three distinct persons within the Godhead – that there are no real or substantial differences between the three, such that there is no substantial identity for the Spirit or the Son. In the West, a version of this belief was known pejoratively as patripassianism by its critics, because the teaching required that since God the Father had become directly incarnate in Christ, that God sacrificed Himself on the Cross. From the standpoint of the doctrine of the Trinity— one divine being existing in three persons— patripassianism is considered heretical since "it cannot make sense of the New Testament's teaching on the interpersonal relationship of Father and Spirit." In this patripassianism asserts that God the Father—rather than God the Son—became incarnate and suffered on the cross for humanity's redemption.

This not only denies the personhood of God-the-Son, but is seen by trinitarians as distorting the spiritual transaction of atonement, taking place at the cross, which the Apostle Paul described as follows: "God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting people’s sins against them.... God made him who had no sin to be sin for us, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God." It is possible, however, to modify patripassianism so as to acknowledge the Divine Being as having feelings toward, sharing in the experiences of, both Jesus— whom Christians regard as both human and divine— and other human beings. Full-orbed patripassianism denies Trinitarian distinctions, yet it does not contradict Christianity as defined in the Creeds to say that God feels or experiences things, including nonphysical forms of suffering. With regard to the crucifixion of Jesus, they claim it is consistent with Scriptural teaching to say that God the Father suffered—that is, felt emotional and spiritual pain as He watched His Son suffer on the Cross.

Patripassianism began in the third century AD. Patripassianism was referred to as a belief ascribed to those following Sabellianism, after its founder Sabellius by the chief opponent Tertullian. Sabellius, considered a founder of an early movement, was a priest, excommunicated from the Church by Pope Callixtus I in 220 and lived in Rome. Sabellius advanced the doctrine of one God sometimes referred to as the “economic Trinity” and he opposed the Eastern Orthodox doctrine of the “essential Trinity”. Praxeas and Noetus were some major followers; because the writings of Sabellius were destroyed it is hard to know if he did believe in Patripassianism, but one early version of the Apostles' Creed, recorded by Rufinus, explicitly states that the Father is'impassible.' This reading dates to about 390 AD. This addition was made in response to patripassianism. Cyprian and Tertullian famously accused the Modalistic Monarchians of patripassianism; the Monarchians taught the unity of the Godhead in Christ and that as the Son suffered the Father experienced the sufferings.

They did not teach. This term has been used by others such as F. L. Cross and E. A. Livingstone to describe other Oneness religions. Nontrinitarianism Trinitarianism

2010–11 Oman Mobile League

The 2010–11 Omani League was the 35th edition of the top football league in Oman. It began on 1 November 2010 and finished on 30 April 2011. Al-Suwaiq Club were the defending champions, having won the previous 2009–10 Oman Mobile League season. On Saturday, 30 April 2011, Al-Suwaiq Club won 0-3 away in their final league match against Al-Nasr S. C. S. C. and emerged as the champions of the 2010–11 Oman Mobile League with a total of 43 points. This season the league had 12 teams. Al-Khaboura SC and Al-Seeb Club were relegated to the Second Division League after finishing the relegation zone in the 2009–10 season; the two relegated teams were replaced by Second Division League winners Ahli Sidab Club and Al-Hilal SC. As of 30 April 2011 As of 30 April 2011 Fanja secured promotion after winning by away goals rule; as of 30 April 2011 2010 Sultan Qaboos Cup 2010–11 Oman First Division League

Dark Passion Play World Tour

Dark Passion Play World Tour was the fourth world tour by Finnish symphonic metal band Nightwish, taking place from 2007 to 2009 in support of their sixth studio album, Dark Passion Play, released by Nuclear Blast on September 26, 2007. During this tour, the band played for the first time in Israel, Hong Kong, Luxembourg, Republic of Ireland and Croatia. On September 22, 2007, the band hosted a secret concert at Rock Café in Tallinn, disguising itself as a Nightwish cover band called "Nachtwasser", their first official concert with the new singer was in Tel Aviv, Israel on October 6, 2007. The tour thus started, visiting the United States, most of Europe and Australia. In 2008, the band played over 100 shows, with concerts in Oceania and Asia. In November, the band played in South America, took a three-month break; the last show was played with an attendance of 11,000 people. For their Once album, Nightwish had planned to give a grand concert in London with a live orchestra, as the progressive metal band Dream Theater had done on what would be their Score album, this project is still in the works.

In an interview in December 2007, Holopainen said that they have been planning the concert and that this was something he wanted to do, but that the locale they needed was booked for two years in advance. The show was never played though, but according to Holopainen it is still in the future plans for other tours. Dispelling the rumours that Anette Olzon would never be capable of performing old Nightwish hit songs, the band used a setlist containing songs from all their album, except for Angels Fall First and the Over the Hills and Far Away EP He was not afraid that Olzon would not be able to perform the songs that Turunen sang, because on her demo she showed her ability performing for example "Ever Dream" and "Higher Than Hope", but he has confirmed that they will never again play songs "The Phantom of the Opera", "Passion and the Opera" and "Stargazers", as these go beyond Olzon's non-operatic vocal style; the ballad "Eva" was performed only a few times in the tour, as well as "Sleeping Sun", while "Cadence of Her Last Breath" and "She's my Sin" haven't been performed since the 2008 concerts in Australia.

During the 2008 European leg, "Slaying the Dreamer" and "She's my Sin" were performed in selected dates while "Dead to the World" and "The Siren" were included in the usual setlist, remaining until the end of the tour. During this European leg, the Irish musician Troy Donockley joined the band on stage to play Uilleann pipes on "The Islander" and "Last of the Wilds", the native-American singer John Two-Hawks joined the band in a few dates to sing and play flute on "Stone People" and "Creek Mary's Blood". During the European leg the band started to play a version of Megadeth's Symphony of Destruction replaced by the original "While Your Lips Are Still Red", both featuring Marco Hietala on led vocals. In the second North American leg in 2008 the band brought back their "Come Cover Me" song, played until the end of the Latin American tour in November; some old songs like "Dead Boy's Poem", "Romanticide" and "Ghost Love Score" have only been performed by the band since in the 2009 tour dates, starting in London's Brixton Academy on March 11, Olzon has performed "Kuolema tekee taiteilijan" without the support of the band during a festival in Sweden.

Holopainen has revealed that the band rehearsed Elvenpath with Olzon, but that the song "didn't work" well enough to be performed live. The final concert at Hartwall Areena in Helsinki featured the never performed song "Meadows of Heaven" including an acoustic version of "Walking in the Air" and the unreleased cover of "The Heart Asks Pleasure First" recorded for Dark Passion Play was played while the band left the stage. Cancelled dates Anette Olzon – Female vocals Tuomas Holopainen – Keyboards Emppu Vuorinen – Guitars Jukka NevalainenDrums Marco Hietala – Bass and male vocals Troy Donockley – Bagpipes John Two-Hawks- Male vocals and flute Pekka Kuusistoviolin Nightwish's Official Website


The Pysa was a Zanzibari coin, struck in AH1299 and AH1304. The obverses of these coins have a pair of scales; the name'Pysa' is derived from the currency units'Pice' and'Paisa'. The AH1299 1 Pysa turns up in old coin collections, but the AH1304 coin seldom turns up; the AH1299 coin was struck at the Royal Belgian Mint, Belgium while the AH1304 coin was struck at Heaton's Mint, England. These coins were commissioned by Sultan Barghash bin Said ibn Sultan, understandably, upset that his name was written incorrectly on the coins as "Sultan Said ibn Barghash ibn Sultan", it is accompanied by the expression "حفظه الله", "may Allah save him". Note that one of the Arabic characters was incorrectly written: the "fa" in "حفظه" is written with a dot below rather than with the dot above as in standard Arabic script. Zanzibari ryal

Szam Findlay

Szam Findlay is a Canadian electronic music producer, active since 1998. While still a teenager he was signed to Rough Trade Publishing. Subsequently while still in high school his debut album Die Hautfabrik was released by Resonant Recordings/Todtenschlaf in 2001 to acclaim from BBC Allmusic and Incursion; this release marked the beginning of a longtime collaboration with performance artist Dandilion Wind Opaine who provided the artwork for the booklet. In 2003 the two embarked on a decade long collaboration that encompassed the projects Dandi Wind and Fan Death. Dandi Wind released 2 full length albums, 5 eps, a handful of singles amidst extensive global touring alongside bands such as Klaxons, The Horrors, The Presets, Final Fantasy, Simian Mobile Disco and Broken Social Scene; the project was terminated in 2010. In 2007 with the addition of Marta Jaciubek McKeever the Fan Death project was created. An EP and full length album was released on Mercury/Universal/Last Gang Records following singles on Erol Alkan's Phantasy Sounds and Tokyo's Big Love records.

In support of these releases live shows were performed with Florence and the Machine, Telepathe, Late of the Pier and Franz Ferdinand in addition to a full European tour supporting Vampire Weekend. As of 2011 Findlay has continued the project with new vocalists Kasia Tessa Marie. In 2012 both 100% Silk and Big Love Records released 12" EPs from a new collaboration with Manderson under the name Body Double; the website for the 2013 documentary "Fall/Winter" references his contributions to the score of the film. In 2013 a full length album entitled "The Fairer Sex" by new vocal project Cry Blue Sky was released via Todtenschlaf. as Szam Findlay: Die Hautfabrik Dandi Wind: Concrete Igloo Yolk Of The Golden Egg Fan Death: Womb of Dreams sssistersss Cry Blue Sky: The Fairer Sex Dandi Wind: Bait The Traps Break The Bone And Suck The Marrow From It Nofuncity Apotemnophilia / Adolescent Sacrificial A Smile Before Death Sleeping Beauty Decontaminate Dead Gods, Dandi Wind - Split Fan Death: Veronica's Veil Cannibal A Coin for the Well Awakenings Body Double: My Life <What You Need> No Time Dandi Wind: The Horrors - Draw Japan Plasticzooms - Under///Black Fan Death: Ladyhawke - My Delirium Frankmusik - Better Off As Two The Virgins - Teen Lovers Lindstrom - Love Sick Lost Valentinos - Midnights Datarock - Give It Up Official website Szam Findlay at AllMusic Szam Findlay discography at Discogs

Professor Layton and the Last Specter

Professor Layton and the Last Specter, known in Europe as Professor Layton and the Spectre's Call, is a puzzle adventure video game produced by Level-5 for the Nintendo DS handheld game console. Last Specter is the fourth game in the Professor Layton series, is a prequel that takes place three years before the first trilogy, detailing how Professor Layton met his apprentice, Luke Triton and introducing Layton's assistant Emmy Altava. Professor Layton and the Last Specter includes an additional role-playing game entitled Professor Layton's London Life, available from the start of the game. London Life, in which players interact with various characters from the series in a town called "Little London", was advertised as having over 100 hours of content. London Life was removed from the European versions of the game because the translation of texts would have delayed the game's release; the game was released during 2009 in Japan, was the highest-selling game there during the week of its release.

It saw release in North American and PAL regions during 2011. Professor Layton and the Last Specter is a puzzle game presented in the style of an adventure game; the player controls the actions of a group of three protagonists as they move about a village called Misthallery: Professor Hershel Layton, his assistant Emmy Altava, a young boy named Luke Triton. While in the village, the three of them are presented with several mysteries that are solved as the plot progresses. Misthallery is divided into several sections, although many require the plot to progress to a certain point before they can be accessed. In order to move about Misthallery, players tap a shoe-shaped icon on the bottom-right corner of the touch screen, the arrow representing the direction of the path they wish to take. While in Misthallery, the player is capable of tapping anywhere on the bottom screen of the Nintendo DS system to investigate objects and reveal bits of dialogue, hint coins, collectible items, or hidden puzzles.

If a non-player character is visible on the screen, they can be tapped to initiate a conversation. Initiating a conversation or investigating an object in the main game will lead to the player being asked to solve a puzzle. If the plot progresses to a point at which a puzzle can no longer be accessed, it will be retrieved by a character named Keats the Cat for solving. There are over 170 puzzles in the game, including brain teasers, sliding puzzles, logic puzzles, peg solitaire, several other varieties; when a puzzle begins, the player is presented with the puzzle's name and value in "Picarats", the game's system of points as well as an estimation of the puzzle's difficulty. These points are not used during the main game, but if a player collects enough of these Picarats, they gain access to bonuses accessible from the main menu. After this first screen, players are taken the main puzzle solving interface, which provides instructions for the current puzzle on the top screen while allowing the player to interact directly with the touch screen in order to solve the puzzle.

The player has an infinite amount of time to complete each puzzle, they have access to an in-game memo pad function to aid them in solving each puzzle. If they do not wish to solve the puzzle at the time, they can hit the button labelled "Quit" in order to exit the interface without losing any Picarats. Additionally, all puzzles have three hints available that can be purchased with tokens called "hint coins". If a player needs more help, they can purchase a fourth "super hint", a more detailed hint that costs two hint coins. However, there are a limited amount of hint coins, the game recommends they be used wisely; the player starts with ten hint coins, but more can be obtained by thorough investigation of the village. In order to solve a puzzle, the player must input an answer on the bottom screen. Sometimes, this will involve tapping a button labelled "Input Answer" and writing a word or number that solves the given puzzle. Other times, they might be asked to circle an answer or tap an area on the touch screen, hit "Submit".

Still others are solved automatically once the player finds the solution by interacting with objects on the bottom screen. If the player has made a mistake in solving a puzzle, they can hit the button labelled "Restart" to reset the puzzle. Deducted Picarats and purchased hints are not reset. If the player submits an incorrect answer, they will be asked to repeat the puzzle, a varying amount of Picarats will be deducted from the maximum possible for that puzzle. If the player submits a correct answer, they are rewarded with the amount of Picarats the puzzle is worth, the plot will progress. After completing a puzzle, it can be played again at any time from the Puzzle Index, a section in the game's interface that lists the puzzles a player has completed. After completing a puzzle, the player will receive small items that can be used in minigames. Fulfilling certain criteria, such as clearing all levels in a minigame, unlock additional puzzles in the Bonuses section. Players are capable of connecting to Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection in order to download additional puzzles in the "Bonuses" mode, which can be selected from the game's title screen.

These puzzles to be are made available each week following the game's release. Hints for these puzzles could not be purchased with hint coins, but they were provided one week after the puzzle was made available, for 33 weeks. A 34th puzzle was never issued; when a player connected to Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection, all puzzles and hints would be downloaded. After May 20, 2014, it's no longer possible to download the additional content, as the Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection service was terminated on that date. Professor La