A patronymic, or patronym, is a component of a personal name based on the given name of one's father, grandfather, or an earlier male ancestor. A component of a name based on the name of one's mother or a female ancestor is a matronymic. A name based on the name of one's child is a paedonymic; each is a means of conveying lineage. Patronymics are still in use, including mandatory use, in many countries worldwide, although their use has been replaced by or transformed into patronymic surnames. Examples of such transformations include common English surnames such as Johnson; the usual noun and adjective in English is patronymic, but as a noun this exists in free variation alongside patronym. The first part of the word patronym comes from Greek πατήρ patēr "father". In the form patronymic, this stands with the addition of the suffix -ικός, used to form adjectives with the sense ‘pertaining to’; these forms are attested in Hellenistic Greek as πατρώνυμος and πατρωνυμικός. The form patronym, first attested in English in 1834, was borrowed into English from French patronyme, which had borrowed the word directly from Greek.

Patronymic, first attested in English in 1612, has a more complex history. Both Greek words had entered Latin, from Latin, French; the English form patronymic was borrowed through the mutual influence of French and Latin on English. In many areas around the world, patronyms predate the use of family names. Family names in many Celtic, Iberian, Georgian and Slavic languages originate from patronyms, e.g. Wilson, FitzGerald, Fernández, Rodríguez, Andersson or Andersen, Ilyin, Grigorovich, Stefanović, MacAllister and O'Conor. Other cultures which used patronyms have switched to the more widespread style of passing the father's last name to the children as their own. In Iceland, family names are unusual. Traditionally Muslim and non-Arabic speaking African people, such as Hausa and Fulani people follow the Arab naming pattern; the word or phrase meaning "son of" is, omitted. So Mohamed son of Ibrahim son of Ahmed is "Mohamed Ibrahim Ahmed", Mohamed Ibrahim Ahmed's son Ali is "Ali Mohamed Ibrahim". Ethiopians and Eritreans have no concept of family surname.

If one is to refer to a person with a single name he/she will always use the person's given name. Ethiopian and Eritreans use a naming pattern similar to the Arab naming pattern, but with one exception: no suffix or prefix; the full name is written as: First name followed by the father's name, last by the grandfather's name. For example, Lemlem Mengesha Abraha is Lemlem Mengesha Abraha; the grandfather's name is only used in official documents. The father's name is not considered a middle name. Instead, it is considered a last name; the same is true for females. They go independently by their given name, followed by their father's name, their grandfather's name after marriage; some Kenyan communities used patronyms. As of 2010 the practice has dropped off with the use of just the father's last name as a surname. Kalenjin use'arap' meaning'son of'; because of polygamy, matronyms were used and'wa' used to identify which wife the child was born of. Patronymic naming is common in parts of Mozambique. Although the practice is not universal, patronymic naming has been documented in the Zambezia province.

Now not as prominent as before, many people of southern Nigeria took their father's given name as their surname. It could be the father's prominent nickname, which takes the place of a first name. An example would be a man named Kolade Fabiyi; the son's name would now be Dele Kolade, not Dele Fabiyi. This is used to distinguish between extended family who would have the same last name, like between cousins; this custom has dropped to the modern English one, due to an increase in British-style education. Somalis use their paternal grandfather's given name as their legal surname for documentation purpose, they use the term "ina" or "iña" meaning "the son of" or "the daughter of,", similar to other African- and the Arab-naming patterns. For example, the name "Ahmed Mohamed Ali Farah" means "Ahmed son of Mohamed son of Ali son of Farah." When stating one's lineage, one will say "Ahmed ina Mohamed". To identify themselves and the sub-clan they belong to, Somalis memorize their long lineage back a common ancestor.

Women never keep theirs for life. Among the Zulu patronymics were used in the pre-colonial era; the prefix "ka" was attached to the father's name, for example Shaka kaSenzangakhona means Shaka son of Senzangakhona. The practice disappeared from everyday use with the introduction of the modern

Joan J. Taylor

Joan J. Taylor was an American archaeologist specialising in the prehistory of the British Isles, she was known for her work on Bronze Age gold working her 1980 monograph Bronze Age Goldwork of the British Isles. Born in the United States, Taylor completed her doctoral research at the University of Cambridge in 1973, she was appointed the Rankin Lecturer in Prehistoric Archaeology at the University of Liverpool in 1976. A festschrift in her honour, Of Things Gone but not Forgotten: essays in archaeology for Joan Taylor, was published in 2012


Polyhydramnios is a medical condition describing an excess of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac. It is seen in about 1% of pregnancies, it is diagnosed when the amniotic fluid index is greater than 24 cm. There are two clinical varieties of polyhydramnios: chronic polyhydramnios where excess amniotic fluid accumulates and acute polyhydramnios where excess amniotic fluid collects rapidly; the opposite to polyhydramnios is oligohydramnios, not enough amniotic fluid. Fetuses with polyhydramnios are at risk for a number of other problems including cord prolapse, placental abruption, premature birth and perinatal death. At delivery the baby should be checked for congenital abnormalities. In most cases, the exact cause cannot be identified. A single case may have one or more causes, including intrauterine infection, rh-isoimmunisation, or chorioangioma of the placenta. In a multiple gestation pregnancy, the cause of polyhydramnios is twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. Maternal causes include cardiac problems, kidney problems, maternal diabetes mellitus, which causes fetal hyperglycemia and resulting polyuria.

A recent study distinguishes between mild and severe polyhydramnios and showed that Apgar score of less than 7, perinatal death and structural malformations only occurred in women with severe polyhydramnios. In another study, all patients with polyhydramnios, that had a sonographically normal fetus, showed no chromosomal anomalies, but these anomalies include: gastrointestinal abnormalities such as esophageal atresia and duodenal atresia, facial cleft, neck masses, tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernias. An annular pancreas causing obstruction may be the cause. Bochdalek's hernia, in which the pleuro-peritoneal membranes will fail to develop and seal the pericardio-peritoneal canals; this results in the stomach protrusion up into the thoracic cavity, the fetus is unable to swallow sufficient amounts of amniotic fluid. Fetal renal disorders that result in increased urine production during pregnancy, such as in antenatal Bartter syndrome. Molecular diagnosis is available for these conditions..

Neurological abnormalities such as anencephaly, which impair the swallowing reflex. Anencephaly is failure of close of the rostral neuropore. If the rostral neuropore fails to close there will be no neural mechanism for swallowing. Chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome. Skeletal dysplasia, or dwarfism. There is a possibility of the chest cavity not being large enough to house all of the baby's organs causing the trachea and esophagus to be restricted, not allowing the baby to swallow the appropriate amount of amniotic fluid.sacrococcygeal teratoma There are several pathologic conditions that can predispose a pregnancy to polyhydramnios. These include a maternal history of diabetes mellitus, Rh incompatibility between the fetus and mother, intrauterine infection, multiple pregnancies. During the pregnancy, certain clinical signs may suggest polyhydramnios. In the mother, the physician may observe increased abdominal size out of proportion for her weight gain and gestation age, uterine size that outpaces gestational age, shiny skin with stria and chest heaviness.

When examining the fetus, faint fetal heart sounds are an important clinical sign of this condition. Mild asymptomatic polyhydramnios is managed expectantly. A woman with symptomatic polyhydramnios may need hospital admission. Antacids may be prescribed to relieve nausea. No data support dietary restriction of fluid. In some cases, amnioreduction known as therapeutic amniocentesis, has been used in response to polyhydramnios. Amniotyic fluid index 00329 at CHORUS