Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Gertie the Duck
Gertie the Duck is an icon of Milwaukee, Wisconsin history and the subject of a 4-foot tall bronze sculpture by American artist Gwendolyn Gillen. It was installed on the Wisconsin Avenue bridge in September 1997; the story of her heroic efforts to hatch six ducklings became an inspiration for many war-weary Americans near the end of World War II. Gertie's story unfolded as a daily serial in the local newspaper for 37 days, captivating the residents of Milwaukee, the state and the country. Gertie's story began in April 1945 when Milwaukee Journal outdoor writer Gordon MacQuarrie reported that a mallard duck was nesting on a wood piling under the Wisconsin Avenue bridge. A total of nine eggs were laid and the duck kept vigil atop her nest despite throngs of visitors and motorists stopping on the bridge daily to check the progress of the expectant mother. Mother's Day cards began arriving for the mallard, the Boy Scouts formed a Gertie Patrol and a Wisconsin Humane Society officer was stationed to watch the brood as six of the nine eggs produced chicks.
Public interest continued to swell. Gertie and her nest were photographed by the Journal and local rival Milwaukee Sentinel, featured in Life Magazine and had a front-page story in the United Kingdom's Daily Express. Readers Digest ran a story on Gertie entitled "The Duck That Made Milwaukee Famous". Despite flooding and fire on some nearby pilings, five ducklings and Gertie survived the ordeal and were put on public display in the nearby Gimbels department store windows, where more than 2 million visitors peered in to see the famous feathered family; the ducks were relocated to the Juneau Park lagoon on Milwaukee's lakefront. The first book based on Gertie's story was "The Story of'Gertie'", published by the Journal in July 1945 and based on its daily coverage; the book sold out three printings before being re-printed by New York's Rinehart & Co. in 1946. That same year, Milwaukee toymaker Earl F. Wendt produced a wooden toy duck named for the famous mallard. In 1959, Nicholas P. Georgiady and Louis G. Romano, two Milwaukee-area teachers, wrote a children's book titled "Gertie the Duck".
The book was reissued in 1988 after selling more than 800,000 copies and translated into six languages. Gertie's story was told in an episode of GE True in 1963 entitled "Gertie the Great", featuring Jan Shepard as a reporter assigned to cover the hatching eggs. Gertie the Duck is a 4-foot bronze sculpture of the mallard duck created by sculptor Gwendolyn Gillen; the original cost of the sculpture was $15,000, it was given to the city by the Eppstein Uhen Architects firm and installed in September 1997. It stands on the northwest side of the Wisconsin Avenue bridge over the Milwaukee River in downtown Milwaukee; the sculpture is part of the art displays called RiverSculpture! RiverSplash.com Gertie the Duck: Symbol of Hope
The Juneau Monument is a public artwork by American artist Richard Henry Park located on the grounds of Juneau Park, in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The base of the statue is made of limestone. On top of the base is a bronze statue of Solomon Juneau. On each side of the base are bronze reliefs; the statue is 5 feet wide by 15 feet high. The front of the limestone base is inscribed with the name of the figure depicted in the sculpture, “Solomon Juneau." The back of the base is inscribed, “The gift of Charles T. Bradley, William H. Metcalf to the City of Milwaukee." On the north side of the base is a bronze relief of Juneau being greeted by Native Americans. Underneath the relief, an inscription reads, “Solomon Juneau, First Mayor of Milwaukee, MDCCCXXXXVI." On the south side of the base is a bronze relief of Juneau being elected to Congress. Underneath the relief is the inscription, “Solomon Juneau, First Mayor of Milwaukee, MDCCCXXXXVI.” The memorial statue is 15 by 5 feet in size. The sculpture was unveiled on July 1887 by Juneau's granddaughter, Hattie White.
Solomon Juneau was a French Canadian born in a small village near Montreal, Lower Canada on August 9, 1793. Juneau was a French trader with the American Fur Company. In 1818, the American Fur Company established a trading post in Milwaukee. Juneau decided to purchase the land between the Milwaukee River and Lake Michigan and named it Juneau Town, he was the first president of the Village of Milwaukee. He was elected the first mayor of the City of Milwaukee in 1846. Juneau died in 1856 while making an Indian payment for the U. S. Government at a reservation in Keshena. Shoe manufacturers Charles T. Bradley and William H. Metcalf, friends of the Juneau family, donated the monument as a gift in remembrance of the first mayor of Milwaukee. Melissa Sue Andersen Solomon Juneau from the Smithsonian's Save Outdoor Sculpture! survey Juneau Monument, Greetings from Milwaukee, UWM Archives
Walkways Through the Wall
Walkways Through the Wall is a public artwork by American artist Vito Acconci located at the Wisconsin Center, near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in the United States. Walkways Through the Wall is a sculpture, made for the Wisconsin Center, that intertwines public and private space. Created in 1998 by Vito Acconci, a collaborating team of architects, Walkways Through the Wall is intended to enhance the idea of the Airlines Center as being seen as one continuous plaza; the dimensions are 14.5' X 68' X 204', the sculpture stretches from outside the building, through its interior, out the other side. The materials used are: Colored Concrete, Standard Gray Concrete and Light-box floor; the sculpture passes through the walls of the building as if they aren't there, making a continuous path from exterior to exterior. Walkways Through the Wall is an example of Acconci's focus on landscape design. According to Wisconsin policy, 1% of the Midwest Airlines Center had to be spent on art. Instead of creating a piece of sculpture for the outside of the building, Acconci integrated art into the building's design.
Mark A. Wallace compares the building's concrete floor to taffy that slips in and out of the building, going through windows and the building's facade."From the outside, Acconci extends the natural concrete as pathways through the wall and into the building, bisecting the terra-cotta concourse. Each path heads in a different direction and ends with a unique purpose. In two cases, the path forms a bench at the street level. In another it cascades downward before ending as a sitting area on the level below. In still another, it leads to a stairway connecting the two levels. Light boxes mark the turns in the walkways where the concrete material ceases to exist, illuminating both the interior and exterior concourses." Special care had to be taken in the construction. For example, the benches had to be cast 6 inches thick, so as to be able to support their own weight and that of pedestrians; the resulting space is playful, yet Acconci envisioned serious objectives. The artist aimed to re-people the public space, encourage them to think about how these spaces are shaped.
He achieved this by creating a continuous plaza. "Acconci and his colleagues designed their "interactive art installation" with the hope that visitors to the Midwest Airlines Center will see materials defying physical properties and reflect on their own potential.'I hope they would laugh and think that something is doing what it wasn't supposed to do,' explains Acconci,'So if the material does what it is not supposed to do, maybe I, a person, can do what I am not supposed to do." This sculpture has a permanent place at the Wisconsin Center
Trigon is a public art work by American artist Allen Ditson, located in downtown Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The loosely figurative artwork was purchased by the four daughters of Mr. and Mrs. A. P. Rosenberg in their memory at the time of construction of the Performing Arts Center, it is located on the East Kilbourn side of the Performing Arts Center near the Peck Pavilion and a grove of horse chestnut trees
Wisconsin is a U. S. state located in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 20th most populous; the state capital is Madison, its largest city is Milwaukee, located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties. Wisconsin's geography is diverse, having been impacted by glaciers during the Ice Age with the exception of the Driftless Area; the Northern Highland and Western Upland along with a part of the Central Plain occupies the western part of the state, with lowlands stretching to the shore of Lake Michigan. Wisconsin is second to Michigan in the length of its Great Lakes coastline. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European settlers entered the state, many of whom emigrated from Germany and Scandinavia. Like neighboring Minnesota, the state remains a center of German American and Scandinavian American culture.
Wisconsin is known as "America's Dairyland" because it is one of the nation's leading dairy producers famous for its cheese. Manufacturing, information technology, cranberries and tourism are major contributors to the state's economy; the word Wisconsin originates from the name given to the Wisconsin River by one of the Algonquian-speaking Native American groups living in the region at the time of European contact. French explorer Jacques Marquette was the first European to reach the Wisconsin River, arriving in 1673 and calling the river Meskousing in his journal. Subsequent French writers changed the spelling from Meskousing to Ouisconsin, over time this became the name for both the Wisconsin River and the surrounding lands. English speakers anglicized the spelling from Ouisconsin to Wisconsin when they began to arrive in large numbers during the early 19th century; the legislature of Wisconsin Territory made the current spelling official in 1845. The Algonquin word for Wisconsin and its original meaning have both grown obscure.
Interpretations vary. One leading theory holds that the name originated from the Miami word Meskonsing, meaning "it lies red", a reference to the setting of the Wisconsin River as it flows through the reddish sandstone of the Wisconsin Dells. Other theories include claims that the name originated from one of a variety of Ojibwa words meaning "red stone place", "where the waters gather", or "great rock". Wisconsin has been home to a wide variety of cultures over the past 14,000 years; the first people arrived around 10,000 BCE during the Wisconsin Glaciation. These early inhabitants, called Paleo-Indians, hunted now-extinct ice age animals such as the Boaz mastodon, a prehistoric mastodon skeleton unearthed along with spear points in southwest Wisconsin. After the ice age ended around 8000 BCE, people in the subsequent Archaic period lived by hunting and gathering food from wild plants. Agricultural societies emerged over the Woodland period between 1000 BCE to 1000 CE. Toward the end of this period, Wisconsin was the heartland of the "Effigy Mound culture", which built thousands of animal-shaped mounds across the landscape.
Between 1000 and 1500 CE, the Mississippian and Oneota cultures built substantial settlements including the fortified village at Aztalan in southeast Wisconsin. The Oneota may be the ancestors of the modern Ioway and Ho-Chunk tribes who shared the Wisconsin region with the Menominee at the time of European contact. Other Native American groups living in Wisconsin when Europeans first settled included the Ojibwa, Fox and Pottawatomie, who migrated to Wisconsin from the east between 1500 and 1700; the first European to visit what became Wisconsin was the French explorer Jean Nicolet. He canoed west from Georgian Bay through the Great Lakes in 1634, it is traditionally assumed that he came ashore near Green Bay at Red Banks. Pierre Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers visited Green Bay again in 1654–1666 and Chequamegon Bay in 1659–1660, where they traded for fur with local Native Americans. In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet became the first to record a journey on the Fox-Wisconsin Waterway all the way to the Mississippi River near Prairie du Chien.
Frenchmen like Nicholas Perrot continued to ply the fur trade across Wisconsin through the 17th and 18th centuries, but the French made no permanent settlements in Wisconsin before Great Britain won control of the region following the French and Indian War in 1763. So, French traders continued to work in the region after the war, some, beginning with Charles de Langlade in 1764, settled in Wisconsin permanently, rather than returning to British-controlled Canada; the British took over Wisconsin during the French and Indian War, taking control of Green Bay in 1761 and gaining control of all of Wisconsin in 1763. Like the French, the British were interested in little but the fur trade. One notable event in the fur trading industry in Wisconsin occurred in 1791, when two free African Americans set up a fur trading post among the Menominee at present day Marinette; the first permanent settlers French Canadians, some Anglo-New Englanders and a few African American freedmen, arrived in Wisconsin while it was under British control.
Charles Michel de Langlade is recognized as the first settler, establishing a trading post at Green Bay in 1745, moving there permanently in 1764. Settlement began at Prairie du Chien around 1781; the French residents at the trading post in what is now Green Bay, referred to the t
Referee is a public artwork by American artist Tom Queoff, located on the south entrance of the U. S. Cellular Arena, in Milwaukee, United States; the 9 foot laminated marble sculpture depicts an abstracted referee with legs spread apart and arms raised. Tom Queoff's Referee is made of white laminated travertine marble, carved into the simplified figure of a referee; the referee stands with his legs out in an inverted "V" shape, has both arms raised up and bent at the elbows. His face consists of a negative oval space. There are no inscriptions on the sculpture. Referee was funded through the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act, a program that operated in Wisconsin from 1977 through 1981; the program's goal was to give university-trained artists the opportunity to create artworks, while finding them employment within their communities. Thirty Wisconsin artists participated in CETA during its short run. Tom Queoff joined the City of Milwaukee's CETA from 1977 to 1978. During this time he shared a studio with another sculptor, worked on various art projects for the city.
One of these projects was Referee. Since CETA could not afford to pay for an artist's materials, Queoff had the marble for the sculpture donated by the Milwaukee Marble Company; the marble was the remainders from the First Wisconsin Bank building's construction. The artist laminated the marble pieces together and carved the sculpture out of this resulting material. Although the artwork sat in storage for some time, it was placed on the south entrance of UW-Milwaukee Panther Arena in Milwaukee. Tom Queoff was raised in Green Bay, Wisconsin, he received a BFA from the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee in 1975, an MFA from the same school in 1977. Queoff established the Thomas Queoff Studio and Gallery in 1978. In 1985 he was introduced to an activity he excelled at; the sculptor has taught at Cardinal Stritch University and received various awards at snow competitions, including the Finland International Snow Sculpting Championship in 1987 and 1988. Queoff was a member of the 2002 US Olympic snow sculpting team and was named a snow sculpting US National Champion.
His studio is located in the Historic Third Ward, MilwaukeeTom Queoff created the Miller Valley Veterans Monument, unveiled on November 11, 2010, at the MillerCoors Brewery. The sculpture, an American bald eagle, is meant to honor the Miller-Coors employees killed in military action, he created the sculpture United We Stand in front of Froedtert Hospital. Two Opposites Reaching Up Toward the Peak of Progress RiverSculpture! Frontier Airlines Center