1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in Northern California on October 17 at 5:04 p.m. local time. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park 10 mi northeast of Santa Cruz on a section of the San Andreas Fault System and was named for the nearby Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains. With an Mw magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Modified Mercalli intensity of IX, the shock was responsible for 63 deaths and 3,757 injuries. The Loma Prieta segment of the San Andreas Fault System had been inactive since the 1906 San Francisco earthquake until two moderate foreshocks occurred in June 1988 and again in August 1989. Damage was heavy in Santa Cruz County and less so to the south in Monterey County, but effects extended well to the north into the San Francisco Bay Area, both on the San Francisco Peninsula and across the bay in Oakland. No surface faulting occurred, though a large number of other ground failures and landslides were present in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
Liquefaction was a significant issue in the damaged Marina District of San Francisco, but its effects were seen in the East Bay, near the shore of Monterey Bay, where a non-destructive tsunami was observed. Due to the sports coverage of the 1989 World Series, it became the first major earthquake in the United States, broadcast live on national television. Rush-hour traffic on the Bay Area freeways was lighter than normal because the game, being played at Candlestick Park in San Francisco, was about to begin, this may have prevented a larger loss of life, as several of the Bay Area's major transportation structures suffered catastrophic failures; the collapse of a section of the double-deck Nimitz Freeway in Oakland was the site of the largest number of casualties for the event, but the collapse of man-made structures and other related accidents contributed to casualties occurring in San Francisco, Los Altos, Santa Cruz. The history of earthquake investigations in California has been focused on the San Andreas Fault System, due to its strong influence in the state as the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate.
Andrew Lawson, a geologist from the University of California, had named the fault after the San Andreas Lake and led an investigation into that event. The San Andreas Fault ruptured for a length of 290 mi during the 1906 shock, both to the north of San Francisco and to the south in the Santa Cruz Mountains region. Several long term forecasts for a large shock along the San Andreas Fault in that area had been made public prior to 1989 but the earthquake that transpired was not what had been anticipated; the 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an undiscovered oblique-slip reverse fault, located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault. Since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event. Between 1910 and 1989 there were 20 varying forecasts that were announced, with some that were specific, covering multiple aspects of an event, while others were less complete and vague. With a M6.5 event on the San Juan Bautista segment, or an M7 event on the San Francisco Peninsula segment, United States Geological Survey seismologist Allan Lindh's 1983 forecasted rupture length of 25 miles for the San Juan Bautista segment nearly matched the actual rupture length of the 1989 event.
An updated forecast was presented in 1988, at which time Lindh took the opportunity to assign a new name to the San Juan Bautista segment – the Loma Prieta segment. In early 1988, the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities made several statements regarding their forecasts for the 225 mi northern San Andreas Fault segment, the 56 mi San Francisco Peninsula segment, a 18.8–22 mi portion of that segment, referred to as the southern Santa Cruz Mountains segment. The thirty year probability for one or more M7 earthquakes in the study area was given as 50%, but because of a lack of information and low confidence, a 30% probability was assigned to the Southern Santa Cruz Mountains segment. Two moderate shocks, referred to as the Lake Elsman earthquakes by the USGS, occurred in the Santa Cruz Mountains region in June 1988 and again in August 1989. Following each event, the State office of Emergency Services issued short term advisories for a possible large earthquake, which meant there was "a increased likelihood of an M6.5 event on the Santa Cruz Mountains segment of the San Andreas fault".
The advisories following the two Lake Elsman events were issued in part because of the statements made by WGCEP and because they were two of the three largest shocks to occur along the 1906 earthquake's rupture zone since 1914. The ML 5.3 June 1988 and the ML 5.4 August 1989 events occurred on unknown oblique reverse faults and were within 3 mi of the M6.9 Loma Prieta mainshock epicenter, near the intersection of the San Andreas and Sargent faults. Total displacement for these shocks was small and although they occurred on separate faults and well before the mainshock, a group of seismologists considered these to be foreshocks due to their location in sp
World Golf Hall of Fame
The World Golf Hall of Fame is located at World Golf Village near St. Augustine, Florida, in the United States, it is unusual among sports halls of fame in that a single site honors both men and women, it is supported by a consortium of 26 golf organizations from all over the world. The Hall of Fame Museum Building is designed by the museum architecture specialist firm of E. Verner Johnson and Associates of Boston, Massachusetts, they produced the museum master plan that established the overall size and qualities of the overall museum and the surrounding facilities and site. The Hall of Fame Museum features a permanent exhibition and a rolling program of temporary exhibitions. Designed by museum design firm Ralph Appelbaum Associates, the Hall of Fame and exhibition area contains exhibits on the game's history and techniques; the World Golf Hall of Fame was located in Pinehurst, North Carolina, was operated by Diamondhead Corp. owners of the Pinehurst Resort. It opened in September 1974 with an initial class of 13 members.
It was a local project, but the PGA of America took over management in 1983 and acquired full ownership in 1986. Two other halls of fame have been merged into the World Golf Hall of Fame; the PGA of America established one in 1940, merged into the Pinehurst Hall in the 1980s. The Hall of Fame of Women's Golf was established by the LPGA in 1951, with four charter members: Patty Berg, Betty Jameson, Louise Suggs, Babe Zaharias, it was inactive for some years, but in 1967 it moved into its first physical premises, which were in Augusta and was renamed the LPGA Tour Hall of Fame. In 1998 it merged into the World Golf Hall of Fame. In 1994 the global golf industry established a non-profit making body called the World Golf Foundation to promote the sport, with the creation of an enhanced Hall of Fame as one of its main objectives. Construction at the new site in St. Johns County began in 1996 and the new facility opened on May 19, 1998. In October 2013, the Hall announced that it was reviewing its selection process and that there would be no induction ceremony in 2014.
A new process was announced in March 2014. Starting in 2014, members are inducted into the Hall of Fame in one of four categories: Male Competitor, Female Competitor and Lifetime Achievement categories. Elections are held every other year with induction ceremonies in odd number years beginning in 2015; the process has changed from that used from 1996 to 2013. The minimum qualifications for male and female competitors are: minimum of 40 years old, or five years removed from "active competition" and 15 or more wins on "approved tours" or two "major wins"; the veterans category is for those golfers whose careers ended before 1980 and includes both amateurs and professionals. The lifetime achievement category remains from the old system. A 20-member selection sub-committee will choose from among the eligible candidates and select ballots for a selection committee. There will be five names each on the male and female ballots and three names each on the veterans and lifetime achievement ballots. A separate 16-member selection committee will vote on all four ballots.
Election to the Hall of Fame will require 75% of the vote and each year's election class is limited to two from each ballot and five total. In 2016, the Hall announced. A player must have turned 50 years old prior to January 1 of the year the ballots are constructed; the "active competition" requirement will be determined by each "approved tour" that the player is/was a member of. Approved tours PGA Tour European Tour Japan Golf Tour Sunshine Tour Asian Tour PGA Tour of Australasia Majors or Players Championship Masters Tournament U. S. Open The Open Championship PGA Championship The Players Championship Approved tours LPGA Tour Ladies European Tour LPGA of Japan Tour LPGA of Korea Tour ALPG Tour Majors U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Championship Women's British Open ANA Inspiration The Evian Championship du Maurier Classic Titleholders Championship Women's Western Open From 1996 to 2013, members were inducted into the Hall of Fame in one of five categories: PGA Tour/Champions Tour, LPGA Tour, Lifetime Achievement, Veterans.
Current and former PGA Tour and Champions Tour players were eligible for this ballot if they met the following requirements: PGA Tour Minimum of 40 years old PGA Tour member for 10 years 10 PGA Tour wins or two wins in the majors or Players Championship Champions Tour Champions Tour member for five years 20 wins between PGA Tour and Champions Tour or five wins in the majors or Players ChampionshipElection requirements: Voters voted for up to 30% of the players on the ballot. If a player was named on less than 5% of the ballots for two consecutive years, they were dropped from the ballot. Players not elected could remain on the ballot indefinitely. LPGA Tour golfers were eligible through a point system. Since 1999, LPGA members automatically qualified for World Golf Hall of Fame membership when they meet these three criteria: Must be/have been an "active" LPGA Tour member for 10 years. Must have won/been awarded at least one of the following - an LPGA major championship, the Vare Trophy or Player of the Year honors.
Reno is a city in the U. S. state of Nevada, located in the northwestern part of the state 22 miles from Lake Tahoe. Known as "The Biggest Little City in the World", Reno is known for its casino industry, it is the county seat of Washoe County. The city sits in a high desert at the foot of the Sierra Nevada and its downtown area occupies a valley informally known as the Truckee Meadows; the city is named after Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, killed in action at the Battle of South Mountain on Fox's Gap. Reno, with an estimated population of 248,853 as of 2017, is the fourth-most populous city in Nevada after Las Vegas and North Las Vegas, all three of those cities being part of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is the most populous city in the state outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Reno is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area which consists of all of Washoe and Storey counties. Archaeological finds place the eastern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Reno area.
As early as the mid 1850s a few pioneers settled in the Truckee Meadows, a fertile valley through which the Truckee River made its way from Lake Tahoe to Pyramid Lake. In addition to subsistence farming, these early residents could pick up business from travelers along the California Trail, which followed the Truckee westward, before branching off towards Donner Lake, where the formidable obstacle of the Sierra Nevada began. Gold was discovered in the vicinity of Virginia City in 1850, a modest mining community developed, but the discovery of silver in 1859 at the Comstock Lode led to a mining rush, thousands of emigrants left their homes, bound for the West, hoping to find a fortune. To provide the necessary connection between Virginia City and the California Trail, Charles W. Fuller built a log toll bridge across the Truckee River in 1859. A small community that would service travelers soon grew up near the bridge. After two years, Fuller sold the bridge to Myron C. Lake, who continued to develop the community with the addition of a grist mill and livery stable to the hotel and eating house.
He renamed it "Lake's Crossing". In 1864, Washoe County was consolidated with Roop County, Lake's Crossing became the largest town in the county. Lake had earned himself the title "founder of Reno". By January 1863, the Central Pacific Railroad had begun laying tracks east from Sacramento, California connecting with the Union Pacific Railroad at Promontory, Utah, to form the First Transcontinental Railroad. Lake deeded land to the CPRR in exchange for its promise to build a depot at Lake's Crossing. Once the railroad station was established, the town of Reno came into being on May 9, 1868. CPRR construction superintendent Charles Crocker named the community after Major General Jesse Lee Reno, a Union officer killed in the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain. In 1871, Reno became the county seat of the newly expanded Washoe County, replacing the previous county seat, located in Washoe City. However, political power in Nevada remained with the mining communities, first Virginia City and Tonopah and Goldfield.
The extension of the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to Reno in 1872 provided a boost to the new city's economy. In the following decades, Reno continued to grow and prosper as a business and agricultural center and became the principal settlement on the transcontinental railroad between Sacramento and Salt Lake City; as the mining boom waned early in the 20th century, Nevada's centers of political and business activity shifted to the non-mining communities Reno and Las Vegas, today the former mining metropolises stand as little more than ghost towns. Despite this, Nevada is still the third-largest gold producer in the world, after South Africa and Australia; the "Reno Arch" was erected on Virginia Street in 1926 to promote the upcoming Transcontinental Highways Exposition of 1927. The arch included the words "Nevada's Transcontinental Highways Exposition" and the dates of the exposition. After the exposition, the Reno City Council decided to keep the arch as a permanent downtown gateway, Mayor E.
E. Roberts asked the citizens of Reno to suggest a slogan for the arch. No acceptable slogan was received until a $100 prize was offered, G. A. Burns of Sacramento was declared the winner on March 14, 1929, with "Reno, The Biggest Little City in the World". Reno took a leap when the state of Nevada legalized open-gambling on March 19, 1931, along with the passage of more liberal divorce laws than places like Hot Springs, offered. No other state offered what Nevada had in the 1930s, casinos like the Bank Club and Palace were popular. Within a few years, the Bank Club, owned by George Wingfield, Bill Graham, Jim McKay, was the state's largest employer and the largest casino in the world. Wingfield owned most of the buildings in town that housed gaming and took a percentage of the profits, along with his rent. Ernie Pyle once wrote in one of his columns, "All the people you saw on the streets in Reno were there to get divorces." In Ayn Rand's novel The Fountainhead, published in 1943, the New York-based female protagonist tells a friend, "I am going to Reno,", taken as a different way of saying "I am going to divorce my husband."
Among others, the Belgian-French writer Georges Simenon, at the time living in the U. S. came to Reno in 1950. The divorce business died as the other states fell in line by passing their own laws easing the requirements for divorce, but gambling continued as a major Reno industry. While gaming pioneers like "Pappy" and Harold Smith of Harold's Club and
Beth Daniel is an American professional golfer. She became a member of the LPGA Tour in 1979 and won 33 LPGA Tour events, including one major championship, during her career, she is a member of the World Golf Hall of Fame. Daniel was born in South Carolina, she played her collegiate golf at Furman University, was on the 1976 national championship team that included future LPGA players Betsy King, Sherri Turner and Cindy Ferro. Daniel won the U. S. Women's Amateur in 1975 and 1977, the Women's Western Amateur in 1978, was on the U. S. Curtis Cup teams in 1976 and 1978, she turned pro at the end of 1978 and joined the LPGA Tour in 1979. Daniel's first victory came in 1979 year at the Patty Berg Classic, she went on to win the LPGA Rookie of the Year award. Over the next five years, when Nancy Lopez was at her most dominant, Daniel still managed to win 13 tournaments, including four in 1980 when she was named LPGA Tour Player of the Year. Daniel led the Tour in wins in 1982, 1990 and 1994, she led in scoring three times, including in 1989 when she became the second golfer in Tour history to record a scoring average below 71.00.
The year 1990 was her most successful on tour. She won seven times, including her lone major at the Mazda LPGA Championship; that year she was named the Associated Press Female Athlete of the Year. Along the way, Daniel endured two major slumps, she was winless from 1986 to 1988 and again from 1996 to 2002. When she won again in 2003, she became - at age 46 years, 8 months and 29 days - the oldest winner in Tour history, she had outlasted most of her contemporaries such as King, Patty Sheehan and Amy Alcott, remaining competitive on the LPGA Tour. She won the Golf Writers Association of America Female Player of the Year in 1980 and 1990, she won the 1981 Seagrams Seven Crowns of Sport Award for women’s golf. She was inducted into the South Carolina Golf Hall of Fame in September 1995, she was recognized during the LPGA’s 50th Anniversary in 2000 as one of the LPGA’s top-50 players and teachers. Daniel played on eight U. S. Solheim Cup teams. By 2005 she had cut back her schedule, played just five events by 2007.
That year she served as assistant captain on the U. S. Solheim Cup team, was named captain for the American squad in 2009. In 2007, she joined the Golf Channel as a substitute analyst for LPGA Tournament coverage, her first event was the 2007 Safeway Classic. Daniel awards the best junior female golfer in South Carolina with the Beth Daniel Award; the award is given to the player with the most SCJGA points in a year. In 2009, Daniel was the captain of the U. S. Solheim Cup team that defeated Europe by a score of 16-12 at Rich Harvest Farms in Sugar Grove, Illinois. LPGA Tour playoff record 1979 World Ladies 1981 JCPenney Mixed Team Classic 1988 Nichirei Ladies Cup US-Japan Team Championship 1990 JCPenney Classic, Konica World Ladies 1991 Konica World Ladies 1995 JCPenney Classic 1999 World Golf Hall of Fame Championship ^ The Women's British Open replaced the du Maurier Classic as an LPGA major in 2001. DNP = did not play. CUT = missed the half-way cut. T = tied. Yellow background for a top-10 finish.
Starts – 107 Wins – 1 2nd-place finishes – 6 3rd-place finishes – 3 Top 3 finishes – 10 Top 5 finishes – 16 Top 10 finishes – 33 Top 25 finishes – 60 Missed cuts – 11 Most consecutive cuts made – 23 Longest streak of top-10s – 5 Amateur Curtis Cup: 1976, 1978 Espirito Santo Trophy: 1978Professional Solheim Cup: 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2005 World Cup: 2005 Handa Cup: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 List of golfers with most LPGA Tour wins List of golfers with most LPGA major championship wins Beth Daniel at the LPGA Tour official site Beth Daniel at the Legends Tour official site Biography on about.com
Women's major golf championships
Women's golf has a set of major championships which parallels that in men's golf, with the women's system newer and less stable than the men's. As of 2013, five tournaments are designated as majors in women's golf by the LPGA Tour; the LPGA's list of majors has changed several times over the years. The two most recent changes were: In 2001, the du Maurier Classic, held in Canada, lost its primary sponsorship after that country passed severe restrictions on tobacco advertising; the tournament, now known as the Canadian Women's Open, is still a regular event on the LPGA Tour, but no longer designated as a major. The LPGA elevated the Women's British Open to major status to replace the du Maurier Classic. In 2013, The Evian Championship, held in France, became the fifth LPGA major. Known before 2013 as the Evian Masters, it is one of two events recognized as majors by the LPGA's European counterpart, the Ladies European Tour; the elevation of this event to LPGA major status and the name change were announced by the LPGA on July 20, 2011.
As of 2018, the order in which women's majors are played: ANA Inspiration U. S. Women's Open Women's PGA Championship The Evian Championship Women's British OpenBefore The Evian Championship became the fifth LPGA major, the setup of women's majors paralleled that of the mainstream men's majors. In both cases, the United States hosts the United Kingdom one; the Evian Championship, as noted above, is held in France. The U. S. and British Opens, the PGA Championship match their male equivalents. The ANA Inspiration is the first major of the season and is held at a single host course to the Masters Tournament. Unlike the mainstream men's equivalents, all but one of the women's majors have title sponsors; each of the five majors falls under a different jurisdiction. The LPGA organizes the ANA Inspiration. Through 2014, it organized the LPGA Championship, but since 2015 that tournament has been taken over by the PGA of America, the body that organizes the men's PGA Championship, has been renamed the Women's PGA Championship.
The U. S. Women's Open, is operated by the United States Golf Association; the Women's British Open is operated by the Ladies' Golf Union, the governing body for women's golf in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The Evian Championship is operated by the LET. From 2006 through 2008, the winners of the four women's majors received automatic entry to the LPGA's season championship, the LPGA Tour Championship. Beginning in 2009, the Tour Championship extended entry to all players in the top 120 on the official LPGA Money List. Starting in 2011, the Tour Championship was replaced by the CME Group Titleholders. Starting in 2014, the LPGA adopted a points race similar in some ways to the PGA Tour's FedEx Cup. In the new system called the "Race to the CME Globe", the top 72 points earners during the season, plus all tournament winners, qualify for the renamed final event, the CME Group Tour Championship, in which the top nine points earners will have at least a mathematical chance of winning the season title.
Eight different events are classified as having been LPGA majors at some time. The number in each season has fluctuated between five; the first tournament, now included in the LPGA's official list of major victories is the 1930 Women's Western Open, although this is a retrospective designation as the LPGA was not founded until 1950.·The Titleholders was played from 1937 to 1966 with a gap due to World War II. In 1967 there were three majors from 1968 to 1971 this decreased and went back to two majors. In 1979, the du Maurier Classic was first played and considered a major leading to three majors again from 1979 to 1982. In 1983, when Nabisco Dinah Shore gained major championship status, there were four majors. Women's Western Open: 1930–1967 Titleholders Championship: 1937–42. S. Women's Open: 1946–present Women's PGA Championship: 1955–present du Maurier Classic: 1979–2000 ANA Inspiration: 1983–present Women's British Open: 2001–present The Evian Championship: 2013–present No woman has completed a four-major Grand Slam, much less one with five majors.
Babe Zaharias won all three majors contested in 1950 and Sandra Haynie won both majors in 1974. During the four-major era, six women have completed a "Career Grand Slam" by winning four different majors. There are variations in the set of four tournaments involved as the players played in different eras; the six are: Pat Bradley. During the five-major era, Inbee Park became the first woman to complete the "Career Grand Slam." Though there has been some debate surrounding whether Park has accomplished this feat, as she won The Evian Championship in 2012 before it became a major in 2013, LPGA acknowledged Park to have achieved a "Career Grand Slam." The LPGA recognizes Webb as its only "Super Career Grand Slam" winner, since she is the only golfer to have won five events recognized by the LPGA as majors. Before the elevation of The Evian Championship to major status, the following was required for a golfer to win the Super Career Grand Slam: The du Maurier Classic between 1979 and 2000, when it was recognized by the LPGA as a major.
Webb won the du Maurier Classic in 1999 and the Women's British Open in 2002. 1950: Babe Zaharias.
Santa Barbara, California
Santa Barbara is the county seat of Santa Barbara County in the U. S. state of California. Situated on a south-facing section of coastline, the longest such section on the West Coast of the United States, the city lies between the steeply rising Santa Ynez Mountains and the Pacific Ocean. Santa Barbara's climate is described as Mediterranean, the city has been promoted as the "American Riviera"; as of 2014, the city had an estimated population of 91,196, up from 88,410 in 2010, making it the second most populous city in the county after Santa Maria. The contiguous urban area, which includes the cities of Goleta and Carpinteria, along with the unincorporated regions of Isla Vista, Mission Canyon, Hope Ranch and others, has an approximate population of 220,000; the population of the entire county in 2010 was 423,895. In addition to being a popular tourist and resort destination, the city economy includes a large service sector, technology, health care, agriculture and local government. In 2004, the service sector accounted for 35% of local employment.
Education in particular is well represented, with four institutions of higher learning on the south coast. The Santa Barbara Airport serves the city, Santa Barbara Aviation provides jet charter aircraft and train service is provided by Amtrak the Pacific Surfliner which runs from San Diego to San Luis Obispo). U. S. Highway 101 connects the Santa Barbara area with Los Angeles to the southeast and San Francisco to the northwest. Behind the city, in and beyond the Santa Ynez Mountains, is the Los Padres National Forest, which contains several remote wilderness areas. Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary are located 20 miles offshore. Evidence of human habitation of the area begins at least 13,000 years ago. Evidence for a Paleoindian presence includes a fluted Clovis-like point found in the 1980s along the western Santa Barbara County coast, as well as the remains of Arlington Springs Man, found on Santa Rosa Island in the 1960s. An estimated 8,000 to 10,000 Chumash lived on the south coast of Santa Barbara County at the time of the first European explorations.
Five Chumash villages flourished in the area. The present-day area of Santa Barbara City College was the village of Mispu. Portuguese explorer João Cabrilho, sailing for the Kingdom of Spain, sailed through what is now called the Santa Barbara Channel in 1542, anchoring in the area. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastián Vizcaíno gave the name "Santa Barbara" to the channel and to one of the Channel Islands. A land expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà visited around 1769, Franciscan missionary Juan Crespi, who accompanied the expedition, named a large native town "Laguna de la Concepcion". Cabrillo's earlier name, however, is the one; the first permanent European residents were Spanish missionaries and soldiers under Felipe de Neve, who came in 1782 to build the Presidio. They were sent both to fortify the region against expansion by other powers such as England and Russia, to convert the natives to Christianity. Many of the Spaniards brought their families with them, those formed the nucleus of the small town – at first just a cluster of adobes – that surrounded the Presidio of Santa Barbara.
The Santa Barbara Mission was established on the Feast of Saint Barbara, December 4, 1786. It was the tenth of the California Missions to be founded by the Spanish Franciscans, it was dedicated by Padre Fermín Lasuén, who succeeded Padre Junipero Serra as the second president and founder of the California Franciscan Mission Chain. The Mission fathers began the slow work of converting the native Chumash to Christianity, building a village for them on the Mission grounds; the Chumash laborers built a connection between the canyon creek and the Santa Barbara Mission water system through the use of a dam and an aqueduct. During the following decades, many of the natives died of diseases such as smallpox, against which they had no natural immunity; the most dramatic event of the Spanish period was the powerful 1812 earthquake, tsunami, with an estimated magnitude of 7.1, which destroyed the Mission as well as the rest of the town. The Mission was rebuilt by 1820 after the earthquake. Following the earthquake, the Mission fathers chose to rebuild in a grander manner, it is this construction that survives to the present day, the best-preserved of the California Missions, still functioning as an active church by the Franciscans.
After the Mexican government secularized the missions in the 1830s, the baptismal and burial records of other missions were transferred to Santa Barbara, now found in the Santa Barbara Mission Archive-Library. C-SPAN has produced a program on the mission archive-library; the Spanish period ended in 1822 with the end of the Mexican War of Independence, which terminated 300 years of colonial rule. The flag of Mexico went up the flagpole at the Presidio, but only for 24 years. Santa Barbara street names reflect this time period as well; the names de le Guerra and Carrillo come from citizens of the town of this time. They were instrumental in building up the town, so they were honored by having streets after them. After the forced secularization of the Missions in 1833
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation. First published in August 1954, it has over 3 million subscribers and is read by 23 million people each week, including over 18 million men, it was the first magazine with circulation over one million to win the National Magazine Award for General Excellence twice. It is known for its annual swimsuit issue, published since 1964, has spawned other complementary media works and products. There were two magazines named Sports Illustrated before the current magazine began on August 16, 1954. In 1936, Stuart Scheftel created Sports Illustrated with a target market for the sportsman, he published the magazine from 1936 to 1938 on a monthly basis. The magazine was a life magazine size and focused on golf and skiing with articles on the major sports, he sold the name to Dell Publications, which released Sports Illustrated in 1949 and this version lasted 6 issues before closing. Dell's version focused on major sports and competed on magazine racks against Sport and other monthly sports magazines.
During the 1940s these magazines were monthly and they did not cover the current events because of the production schedules. There was no large-base, weekly sports magazine with a national following on actual active events, it was that Time patriarch Henry Luce began considering whether his company should attempt to fill that gap. At the time, many believed sports was beneath the attention of serious journalism and did not think sports news could fill a weekly magazine during the winter. A number of advisers to Luce, including Life magazine's Ernest Havemann, tried to kill the idea, but Luce, not a sports fan, decided the time was right; the goal of the new magazine was to be a magazine, but with sports. Many at Time-Life scoffed at Luce's idea. Launched on August 16, 1954, it was not profitable and not well run at first, but Luce's timing was good; the popularity of spectator sports in the United States was about to explode, that popularity came to be driven by three things: economic prosperity and Sports Illustrated.
The early issues of the magazine seemed caught between two opposing views of its audience. Much of the subject matter was directed at upper-class activities such as yachting and safaris, but upscale would-be advertisers were unconvinced that sports fans were a significant part of their market. After more than a decade of steady losses, the magazine's fortunes turned around in the 1960s when Andre Laguerre became its managing editor. A European correspondent for Time, Inc. who became chief of the Time-Life news bureaux in Paris and London, Laguerre attracted Henry Luce's attention in 1956 with his singular coverage of the Winter Olympic Games in Cortina d'Ampezzo, which became the core of SI's coverage of those games. In May 1956, Luce brought Laguerre to New York to become assistant managing editor of the magazine, he was named managing editor in 1960, he more than doubled the circulation by instituting a system of departmental editors, redesigning the internal format, inaugurating the unprecedented use in a news magazine of full-color photographic coverage of the week's sports events.
He was one of the first to sense the rise of national interest in professional football. Laguerre instituted the innovative concept of one long story at the end of every issue, which he called the "bonus piece"; these well-written, in-depth articles helped to distinguish Sports Illustrated from other sports publications, helped launch the careers of such legendary writers as Frank Deford, who in March 2010 wrote of Laguerre, "He smoked cigars and drank Scotch and made the sun move across the heavens... His genius as an editor was that he made you want to please him, but he wanted you to do that by writing in your own distinct way."Laguerre is credited with the conception and creation of the annual Swimsuit Issue, which became, remains, the most popular issue each year. In 1990, Time Inc. merged with Warner Communications to form the media conglomerate Time Warner. In 2014, Time Inc. was spun off from Time Warner. In November 2017, Meredith Corporation announced that it would acquire Time Inc. and the acquisition was completed in January 2018.
However, in March 2018, Meredith stated that it would explore selling Sports Illustrated and several other former Time properties, arguing that they did not properly align with the company's lifestyle brands and publications. From its start, Sports Illustrated introduced a number of innovations that are taken for granted today: Liberal use of color photos—though the six-week lead time meant they were unable to depict timely subject matter Scouting reports—including a World Series Preview and New Year's Day bowl game round-up that enhanced the viewing of games on television In-depth sports reporting from writers like Robert Creamer, Tex Maule and Dan Jenkins. Regular illustration features by artists like Robert Riger. High school football Player of the Month awards. Inserts of sports cards in the center of the magazine 1994 Launched Sports Illustrated Interactive CD-ROM with StarPress Multimedia, Incorporates player stats and highlights from the year in sports. In 2015 Sports Illustrated purchased a group of software companies and combined them to create Sports Illustrated Play, a platform that offers sports league management software as a service.
In 1965, offset printing bega