Overland Monthly was a monthly magazine based in California, United States, published in the 19th and 20th centuries. The Overland Monthly was founded in 1868 by Anton Roman, a Bavarian-born bookseller who moved to California during the Gold Rush, he had published the poems of Charles Warren Stoddard and a collection of verse by California writers called Outcroppings. The magazine's first issue was published in July 1868, edited by Bret Harte in San Francisco, continued until late 1875. Roman, who hoped his magazine would "help the material development of this Coast", was concerned that Harte would "lean too much toward the purely literary". Harte, in turn, was skeptical at first that there would be enough quality content provided from local authors; the first issue included contributions from the "Golden State Trinity": Harte and Ina Coolbrith. Despite the positive response from critics and the magazine's profitability, publisher Anton Roman sold the Overland Monthly in June 1869 for $7,500 to John Carmany.
Harte offered the new owner a list of demands, including a raise to $200 a month and a guarantee of his complete editorial control of each issue. Carmany agreed to his terms, Harte was able to leave his job at the San Francisco Mint to devote his full attention to the Overland Monthly; the publication continued to thrive in this period. That year, with his popularity soaring, Harte considered a professorship at the University of California, Berkeley or an offer to purchase the Overland Monthly, but declined both. Instead, he traveled east to seek broader literary fame; the original publishers, in 1880, started The Californian, which became The Californian and Overland Monthly in October 1882. In January 1883, the effort reverted to The Overland Monthly; the 1884 volume contained a commitment to present content "free of advertising taint," explaining that articles no article would appear, not "in good faith what it appears to be." It was based in San Francisco until at least 1921. In 1923 the magazine merged with Out West to become Overland Monthly and the Out West magazine, ended publication in July 1935.
Noted writers and artists associated with the magazine included: Ambrose Bierce Noah Brooks Alice Cary Willa Cather Frona Eunice Wait Colburn Bret Harte Ina Coolbrith Edgar Fawcett Henry George John Brayshaw Kaye Charmian Kittredge Netta Eames Clarence King Kinahan Cornwallis Jack London Josephine Clifford McCracken Joaquin Miller John Muir Hugo Wilhelm Arthur Nahl Lola Ridge Charles Taze Russell Stephen Powers William Saroyan Herman George Scheffauer Clark Ashton Smith Charles Warren Stoddard Augustus Gabriel de Vivier Tassin Mark Twain Frances Fuller Victor Laura Lyon White Joseph WidneyEditors include: Milicent Shinn 1882-1894 Online Books: University of Pennsylvania Archive 1868–1900: University of Michigan More issues, into the 1900s: Archive.org Guide to the Overland Monthly Records, at The Bancroft Library Overland Monthly from Encyclopedia.com
Stephen Powers was an American journalist and historian of Native American tribes in California. He traveled extensively to study and learn about their cultures, wrote notable accounts of them, his articles were first published over a series of years in the Overland Monthly journal, but collected in The Tribes of California published by the US Geological Survey. Stephen Powers was born in Ohio, he attended and graduated from the established University of Michigan in 1863. During the American Civil War years, Powers served as a Union Army correspondent for the Cincinnati Commercial newspaper. In 1869 Powers left Ohio for the West, he walked across the Southern and Western United States to his destination of San Francisco, California. After arriving, Powers wrote about his experiences and observations, had his book published in 1871. Between 1871 and 1876, Stephen Powers traveled thousands of miles on foot and horseback through the Northern, Central Coast, great Central Valley regions of California.
Powers become familiar with the various distinctive Native Californian Indian population groups and tribes. He studied their crafts including: spiritual and religious beliefs and ceremonies, he studied their ways of interacting with plants and animals for food, clothing and tools. Powers observed and documented their adaptations to circumstances from a hundred years of homeland invasions by Spanish and European-American immigrants settling on their land, the resulting consequences. Stephen Powers published his diverse ethnographic studies in a series of articles, which appeared in the Overland Monthly journal from 1872-1877. Stephen Powers subsequently reworked his Tribes of California articles and other material for a book's publication, it was published in 1877 as part of the federally sponsored Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region series edited by the renowned western geologist John Wesley Powell Director of the Geological Survey of the Department of Interior, as well as the Bureau of Ethnological Studies at the Smithsonian Institution.
Alfred L. Kroeber, an anthropologist, director of the University of California, Berkeley's Museum of Anthropology and the dean of Native Californian ethnologists, said Stephen Powers' book Tribes of California: "... it will always remain the best introduction to the subject." His book and articles are held by his alma mater, the University of Michigan, which has put them online as part of the Making of America collaboration among major universities. Population of Native California Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Traditional narratives Category: Native American tribes in California Category: Native American history of California California mission clash of cultures Alfred Robinson - "Life in California" 1846 Golla, Victor. 2011. California Indian Languages. Berkeley: University of California Press. Heizer, Robert F.. 1975. "Letters of Stephen Powers to John Wesley Powell Concerning Tribes of California". In Stephen Powers, California's First Ethnologist, part 2. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 28.
Berkeley. Park, Susan. 1975. "The Life of Stephen Powers". In Stephen Powers, California's First Ethnologist, part 1. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 28. Berkeley. Powers, Stephen. 1871. Afoot and Alone: A Walk from Sea to Sea by the Southern Route and Observations in Southern California, New Mexico, Texas, etc. Columbian Book Company, Connecticut. Powers, Stephen. 1975. The Northern California Indians: A Reprinting of 19 Articles on California Indians Originally Published 1872-1877. Edited by Robert F. Heizer. Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility No. 25. Berkeley. Powers, Stephen. Tribes of California. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. P. 21. Retrieved August 22, 2012. Reprinted 1976 Works by or about Stephen Powers at Internet ArchiveStephen Powers' "Overland Monthly" articlesAvailable on-line for the following cultural groups: Karuk -— "Overland-Karuk", "Overland-Karuk", Yurok —— "Overland-Yurok", Hupa —— "Overland-Hupa", Yuki —— "Overland-Yuki", Pomo —— "Overland-Pomo", Miwok —— "Overland-Miwok", Modoc —— "Overland-Modoc", Yokut —— "Overland-Yokuts", Maidu —— "Overland-Nisenan", Achomawi, Yana people —— "Overland-various groups", Wintu —— "Overland-Wintu", Patwin —— "Overland-Patwin", Cultures —— "Overland-General characteristics of the California Indians".
"Native Tribes, Language Families and Dialects of California in 1770". Adapted from Heizer, California Prehistory Website
The Yuki are an indigenous people of California, whose traditional territory is around Round Valley, Mendocino County. Today they are enrolled members of the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation. Yuki tribes are thought to have settled as far south as Hood Mountain in present-day Sonoma County; as European-American settlers began to flock to Northern California in the early 1850s, they drove the Yuki from their lands. The Indians suffered deaths in raids by the local ranchers and the authorities, captives were taken into slavery. In 1856, the US government established the Indian reservation of Nome Cult Farm at Round Valley, it forced thousands of Yuki and other local tribes on to these lands without sufficient support for the transition. These events and tensions led to the Mendocino War, where US forces killed hundreds of Yuki and took others by force to Nome Cult Farm; the Yuki language is no longer spoken. It is distantly related to the Wappo language, forming the Yukian family with it.
The Yuki people had a quaternary counting system, based on counting the spaces between the fingers, rather than the fingers themselves. Scholarly estimates have varied for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California, as historians and anthropologists have tried to evaluate early documentation. Alfred L. Kroeber estimated the 1770 population of the Yuki proper and Coast Yuki as 2,000, 500, 500 or 3,000 in all. Sherburne F. Cook raised this total to 3,500. Subsequently, he proposed a higher estimate of 9,730 Yuki. In the 2010 census, 569 people claimed Yuki ancestry. 255 of them were full-blooded. Yuki traditional narratives Cook, Sherburne F. 1956. "The Aboriginal Population of the North Coast of California", Anthropological Records, 16:81-130. University of California, Berkeley. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. University of California Press, Berkeley. Harrison, K. David 2007; when Languages Die. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Four Directions Institute Round Valley history "Central California culture", Four Directions Institute
University of California, Davis
The University of California, Davis, is a public research university and land-grant university adjacent to Davis, California. It is part of the University of California system and has the third-largest enrollment in the UC System after UCLA and UC Berkeley; the institution was founded as a branch in 1909 and became its own separate entity in 1959. It has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies", a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League; the Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a comprehensive doctoral research university with a medical program, high research activity. The UC Davis faculty includes 23 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 30 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 members of the American Law Institute, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering. Among other honors, university faculty and researchers have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize, MacArthur Fellowship, National Medal of Science, Blue Planet Prize, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Founded as an agricultural campus, the university has expanded over the past century to include graduate and professional programs in medicine, veterinary medicine, education and business management, in addition to 90 research programs offered by UC Davis Graduate Studies. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and has been ranked first in the world for four consecutive years, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018; the UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. In its first year of full Division I status, 11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition. UC Davis was ranked as the 29th best national university, as the 42nd best world university according to the 2018-2019 CWUR rankings. UC Davis was named the 5th best public university in the nation according to Times/WSJ in the 2019 version. In 1905, the California legislature passed the University Farm Bill, which called for the establishment of a farm school for the University of California.
The commission took a year to select a site for the campus, a tiny town known as Davisville. UC Davis opened its doors as the "University Farm" to 40 degree students from UC Berkeley in January 1909; the Farm was established the result of the vision and perseverance of Peter J. Shields, secretary of the State Agricultural Society; the Peter J. Shields Library at UC Davis was named in his honor. Shields began to champion the cause of a University Farm to teach agriculture after learning that California students were going to out-of-state universities to pursue such education. After two failed bills, a law authorizing the creation of a University Farm was passed on March 18, 1905. Yolo County, home to some of California's prime farmland, was chosen as the site. A committee appointed by the Regents purchased land near Davisville in 1906; the Regents took control of the property in September 1906 and constructed four buildings in 1907. Short courses were first offered in 1908 and a three-year non-degree program set up in 1909.
In 1911, the first class graduated from the University Farm. The Farm accepted its first female students in 1914 from Berkeley; the three-year non-degree program continued until 1923. At that time, a two-year non-degree program began, continuing until 1958. In 1922, a four-year undergraduate general academic program was established, with the first class graduating in 1926. Renamed in 1922 as the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture, the institution continued growing at a breakneck pace: in 1916 the Farm's 314 students occupied the original 778 acres campus. By 1951 it had expanded to a size of 3,000 acres. In 1959, the campus was declared by the Regents of the University of California as the seventh general campus in the University of California system. Davis' Graduate Division was established in 1961 followed by the College of Engineering in 1962; the law school opened for classes in fall 1966, the School of Medicine began instruction in fall 1968. In a period of increasing activism, a Native American studies program was started in 1969, one of the first at a major university.
During a protest against tuition hikes on November 18, 2011, a campus police officer, Lieutenant John Pike, used pepper spray on a group of seated demonstrators when they refused to disperse, another officer pepper sprayed demonstrators at Pike's direction. The incident drew international attention and led to further demonstrations, a formal investigation, Pike's departure in July 2012. Documents released in 2016 through a public records request showed that the university had spent at least $175,000 to attempt to "scrub the Internet of negative postings" about the incident, in efforts that started in 2013. California newspaper The Sacramento Bee obtained a document outlining the public relations strategy, which stated: "Nevins and Associates is prepared to create and execute an online branding campaign designed to clean up the negative attention the University of California and Chancellor Katehi have received related to the events that transpired in November 2011"; the strategy included an "aggressive and comprehensive on
Population of Native California
The Population of Native Californian refers to the population of Indigenous peoples of California. Estimates prior to and after European contact have varied substantially. Pre-contact estimates range from 133,000 to 705,000 with some recent scholars concluding that these estimates are low. Following the arrival of Europeans in California and violence reduced the population to as low as 25,000. During and after the California Gold Rush, it is estimated that miners and others killed about 4,500 Indigenous people of California between 1849 and 1870; as of 2005, California is the state with the largest self-identified Native American population according to the U. S. Census at 696,600. Historians have calculated the Native Californian population prior to European entry into the region using a number of different methods, including: Mission records. Few analysts claim; the estimates developed by different analysts vary by a factor of two or more. Stephen Powers estimated that the pre-contact population of the state was 1,520,000.
He reduced this figure to 705,000. C. Hart Merriam offered the first detailed analysis, he extrapolated that to non-missionized areas. His estimate for the state as a whole was 260,000. Alfred L. Kroeber made a detailed re-analysis, both for the state as a whole and for the individual ethnolinguistic groups within it, he reduced Merriam's figure by about half, to 133,000 Native Californians in 1770. Martin A. Baumhoff used an ecological basis to evaluate the potential carrying capacity and estimated an aboriginal population of 350,000. Sherburne F. Cook was the most persistent and painstaking student of the problem, examining in detail both pre-contact estimates and the history of demographic decline during mission and post-mission periods. In 1943, Cook arrived at a figure only 7% higher than the one suggested by Kroeber: 133,550. Cook raised his estimate to 310,000; some scholars now believe that waves of epidemic diseases reached California well in advance of the arrival of the Franciscans in 1769.
If correct, this may imply that population estimates using the beginning of the mission period as a baseline have underestimated the state's pre-Columbian population. Mexican sovereignty over Alta California was short lived, as after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed to end the Mexican–American War in 1848, the U. S. took control of California, in the latter half of the 19th century both State and Federal authorities, incited aided and financed miners, settlers and people's militias to enslave, kidnap and exterminate a major proportion of displaced Native American Indians, sometimes contemptuously referred to as "Diggers", using many of the same policies of violence against the indigenous population that it did throughout its territory. Simultaneous to the ongoing extermination, reports of its effects were being made known to the outside world. A notable early eyewitness testimony and account: "The Indians of California" 1864, is from John Ross Browne, Custom's official and Inspector of Indian Affairs on the Pacific Coast systematically categorizing the fraud, land theft, slavery and massacre perpetrated on a substantial portion of the aboriginal population.
By one estimate, at least 4,500 California Indians were killed between 1849 and 1870. Historian Benjamin Madley recorded the numbers of killings of California Indians between 1846 and 1873 and estimated that during this period at least 9,400 to 16,000 California Indians were killed by non-Indians occurring in more than 370 massacres. Professor Ed Castillo, of Sonoma State University, provides a higher estimate: "The handiwork of these well armed death squads combined with the widespread random killing of Indians by individual miners resulted in the death of 100,000 Indians in the first two years of the gold rush." The decline of Native Californian populations during the late 18th and 19th centuries was investigated in most detail by Cook. Cook assessed the relative importance of the various sources of the decline, including Old World epidemic diseases, nutritional changes, cultural shock. Declines tended to be steepest in the areas directly affected by the Gold Rush. Other studies have addressed the changes that occurred within individual regions or ethnolinguistic groups.
The Native Californian population reached its nadir of around 25,000 at the end of the 19th century. Based on Kroeber's estimate of 133,000 people in 1770, this represents a more than 80% decrease. Using Cook's revised figure, it constitutes a decline of more than 90%. On this Cook rendered his harshest criticism: The first was the food supply... The second factor was disease.... A third factor, which intensified the effect of the other two, was the social and physical disruption visited upon the Indian, he was driven from his home by the thousands, beaten and murdered wi
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Plains and Sierra Miwok
The Plains and Sierra Miwok were once the largest group of Native American Miwok people, indigenous to California. Their homeland included regions of the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley, the Sierra Nevada; the Plains and Sierra Miwok traditionally lived in the western Sierra Nevada between the Fresno River and Cosumnes River, in the eastern Central Valley of California, in the northern Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta region at the confluences of the Cosumnes River, Mokelumne River, Sacramento River. In the present day, many Sierra Miwok live in or close to their traditional territories and Indian rancherias, including at: Buena Vista Rancheria Chicken Ranch Rancheria Jackson Rancheria Sheep Ranch Rancheria Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Rancheria; the Plains and Sierra Miwok lived by hunting and gathering, lived in small local tribes, without centralized political authority. They continue the traditions today; the original Plains and Sierra Miwok people world view included Shamanism.
One form this took was the Kuksu religion, evident in Central and Northern California, which included elaborate acting and dancing ceremonies in traditional costume, an annual morning ceremony, puberty rites of passage, shamanic intervention with the spirit world, an all-male society that met in subterranean dance rooms. Kuksu was shared with other indigenous ethnic groups of Central California, such as the Pomo, Ohlone and northernmost Yokuts. However, Kroeber observed less "specialized cosmogony" in the Miwok, which he termed one of the "southern Kuksu-dancing groups", in comparison to the Maidu and other northern California tribes; the record of myths, legends and histories from the Plains and Sierra Miwok is one of the most extensive in the state. These groups participate in the general cultural pattern of Central California. Miwok mythology is similar to other natives of Northern California; the Plains and Sierra Miwok believe in animal and human spirits, see the animal spirits as their ancestors.
Coyote is seen as their creator god. There were four definite regional and linguistic sub-divisions: Plains Miwok, Northern Sierra Miwok, Central Sierra Miwok, Southern Sierra Miwok; the Plains Miwok inhabited a portion of the Central Valley's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and adjacent plains in modern southern Sacramento County, eastern Solano County, northern San Joaquin County. They spoke a language of the Miwokan branch of the Utian language family. Classical anthropologists recorded a number of specific Plains Miwok villages, but it remained for work by Bennyhoff in the 1950s and 1960s to recognize multi-village territorial local tribes as the signature land-use organization of the Plains Miwok; the published specific village locations were: On the Cosumnes River: Chuyumkatat, Mayeman, Mokos-unni, Supu, Yomit Near the Cosumnes River: Umucha, Yumhui. By 1815 they represented 14% of the Indian people at that mission, by 1830 they had reached 42% of the mission's population. In 1834 and 1835, hundreds of Plains Miwok survivors of the Central Valley's 1833 malaria epidemic were baptized at Mission San José.
By the end of 1835, Plains Miwok was the native language of 60% of the Indian people at the mission. Between 1834 and 1838 the Alta California missions were secularized. Many Plains Miwoks moved back to their home areas, where between 1839 and 1841 John Sutter played the local groups off against one another in order to gain control of the lower Sacramento Valley. Other Plains Miwok families remained in the San Francisco Bay area, intermarried with Ohlone and Yokuts peoples, found work on local Mexican ranchos; the Northern Miwok inhabited the upper watersheds of the Calaveras River. One settlement site is within the present day Indian Grinding Rock State Historic Park near Volcano, they spoke a language in the Utian linguistic group. The authenticated Northern Sierra Miwok villages are: At present-day San Andreas: Huta-sil At present-day Jackson: Tukupe-su Near present-day Jackson: Pola-su On the Calaveras River Headwaters: Kechenti, Mona-sti Between Calaveras River and Mokelumne Rivers: Apautawilti, Ketina On the Cosumnes River: Noma, Yule On the Mokelumne River.