Hotchkiss et Cie
Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Cie was a French arms and, in the 20th century, automobile manufacturer first established by United States gunsmith Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, he moved to France and set up a factory, first at Viviez near Rodez in 1867 at Saint-Denis near Paris in 1875 manufacturing arms used by the French in the Franco-Prussian war. An example of the company's output was the Hotchkiss revolving cannon; the cannon had five barrels each able to fire 43 shells a minute a distance of one mile. At the turn of the twentieth century, the company introduced the gas-actuated Hotchkiss machine gun, a sturdy and reliable weapon, used during World War I and thereafter by the French Army. At the start of the twentieth century the company started building cars. Information provided by the company for the International Universal Exhibition of 1900, at which it displayed a variety of cannons, said the St Denis factory employed around 400 staff and had 600 machine tools; the first Hotchkiss car, a 17 CV four-cylinder model, appeared in 1903.
The badge for the marque consisted of a pair of crossed cannons—a salute to the company's first products. A factory fire nearly killed all projects. Despite this, a six-cylinder model followed in 1906. During World War I, they mass-produced the Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun, tank parts and other weapons. In 1933, they developed the Hotchkiss H35 tank. Post war came. In 1920, there was an unsuccessful attempt to build Hotchkiss cars by a British arm of Hotchkiss in the United Kingdom—only a prototype was made. A refined model named AM was in production between 1923 and 1928. A new six-cylinder model, named AM 80 came in 1928; the company made several successful racing cars. Hotchkiss racers won the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1932, 1933, 1934, 1939, 1949 and 1950; the Hotchkiss 680 was an important model between the wars—it had a six-cylinder, 3-litre engine. In 1937, the company merged with Amilcar. J. A. Grégoire joined the company as a designer. After World War II, the 680 continued; the first new car post war was a 13 CV four-cylinder model.
From 1947, two-litre flat-four models are called Hotchkiss-Grégoire. In 1954, Hotchkiss purchased French manufacturer Delahaye, closing down their automotive line but continuing to produce Hotchkiss-Delahaye trucks for a few months before eliminating the Delahaye name completely. After 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under licence from Willys. In 1956, Hotchkiss merged with French car manufacturer Brandt, producing jeeps at their factory near Paris for the French military until 1966; the firm was merged into Thomson-Houston in 1970 stopped producing vehicles of any sort. In the early 1970s, the Hotchkiss marque disappeared, as the French conglomerate came to be known as Thomson-Brandt. This, in turn, was nationalized in 1982 to form Thomson SA; the name of the Hotchkiss firm was given to a form of power transmission from a vehicle's engine by shaft to the differential on its back axle, which through leaf springs both locates the back axle and transmits drive forces to the vehicle, called Hotchkiss drive.
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
Fiat Automobiles S.p. A. is an Italian automobile manufacturer, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p. A., part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced. Fiat Automobiles is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy. During its more than century-long history, it remained the largest automobile manufacturer in Europe and the third in the world after General Motors and Ford for over twenty years, until the car industry crisis in the late 1980s. In 2013, Fiat S.p. A. was the second largest European automaker by volumes produced and the seventh in the world, while FCA is the world's eighth largest auto maker. In 1970, Fiat Automobiles employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, it built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue.
Fiat has manufactured railway engines, military vehicles, farm tractors and weapons such as the Fiat–Revelli Modello 1914. Fiat-brand cars are built in several locations around the world. Outside Italy, the largest country of production is Brazil, where the Fiat brand is the market leader; the group has factories in Argentina and Mexico and a long history of licensing manufacture of its products in other countries. Fiat Automobiles has received many international awards for its vehicles, including nine European Car of the Year awards, the most of any other manufacturer, it ranked many times as the lowest level of CO2 emissions by vehicles sold in Europe. On 11 July 1899, Giovanni Agnelli was part of the group of founding members of FIAT, Fabbrica Italiana di Automobili Torino; the first Fiat plant opened in 1900 with 35 staff making 24 cars. Known from the beginning for the talent and creativity of its engineering staff, by 1903 Fiat made a small profit and produced 135 cars; the company went public selling shares via the Milan stock exchange.
Agnelli led the company until his death in 1945, while Vittorio Valletta administered the firm's daily activities. Its first car, the 3 ½ CV resembled contemporary Benz, had a 697 cc boxer twin engine. In 1903, Fiat produced its first truck. In 1908, the first Fiat was exported to the US; that same year, the first Fiat aircraft engine was produced. Around the same time, Fiat taxis became popular in Europe. By 1910, Fiat was the largest automotive company in Italy; that same year, a new plant was built in Poughkeepsie, NY, by the newly founded American F. I. A. T. Automobile Company. Owning a Fiat at that time was a sign of distinction; the cost of a Fiat in the US was $4,000 and rose up to $6,400 in 1918, compared to $825 for a Ford Model T in 1908, $525 in 1918, respectively. During World War I, Fiat had to devote all of its factories to supplying the Allies with aircraft, machine guns and ambulances. Upon the entry of the US into the war in 1917, the factory was shut down as US regulations became too burdensome.
After the war, Fiat introduced its first tractor, the 702. By the early 1920s, Fiat had a market share in Italy of 80%. In 1921, workers hoisted the red flag of communism over them. Agnelli responded by quitting the company. However, the Italian Socialist Party and its ally organization, the Italian General Confederation of Labour, in an effort to effect a compromise with the centrist parties ordered the occupation ended. In 1922, Fiat began to build the famous Lingotto car factory—then the largest in Europe—which opened in 1923, it was the first Fiat factory to use assembly lines. In 1928, with the 509, Fiat included insurance in the purchase price. Fiat made military machinery and vehicles during World War II for the Army and Regia Aeronautica and for the Germans. Fiat made obsolete fighter aircraft like the biplane CR.42, one of the most common Italian aircraft, along with Savoia-Marchettis, as well as light tanks and armoured vehicles. The best Fiat aircraft was the G. 55 fighter. In 1945, the year Benito Mussolini was overthrown, the National Liberation Committee removed the Agnelli family from leadership roles in Fiat because of its ties to Mussolini's government.
They were not returned until 1963, when Giovanni's grandson, took over as general manager until 1966, as chairman until 1996. In 1970, Fiat employed more than 100,000 in Italy when its production reached the highest number, 1.4 million cars, in that country. As of 2002, Fiat built more than 1 million vehicles at six plants in Italy and the country accounted for more than a third of the company's revenue. Towards the end of 1976 it was announced that the Libyan government was to take a shareholding in the company in return for a capital injection Other aspects of the Libyan agreement included the construction of a truck and bus plant at Tripoli. Chairman Agnelli candidly described the deal as "a classic petro-money recycling operation which will strengthen the Italian reserves, provide Fiat with fresh capital and give the group greater tranquility in which to carry out its investment programmes". On 29 January 20
Racial policy of Nazi Germany
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy. This was combined with a eugenics programme that aimed for racial hygiene by compulsory sterilization and extermination of those who they saw as Untermenschen, which culminated in the Holocaust. Nazi policies labeled centuries-long residents in German territory who were not ethnic Germans such as Jews, along with the vast majority of Slavs, most non-Europeans as inferior non-Aryan subhumans in a racial hierarchy that placed the Herrenvolk of the Volksgemeinschaft at the top; the Aryan Master Race conceived by the Nazis graded humans on a scale of pure Aryans to non-Aryans. At the top of the scale of pure Aryans were Germans and other Germanic peoples, including the Dutch and the English. Latins were tolerated; the feeling that Germans were the Aryan Herrenvolk was spread among the German public through Nazi propaganda and among Nazi officials throughout the ranks, in particular when Reichskommissariat Ukraine Erich Koch said: We are a master race, which must remember that the lowliest German worker is racially and biologically a thousand times more valuable than the population here.
The Nazis considered the Slavs as Non-Aryan Untermenschen who were to be enslaved and exterminated by Germans. Slavic nations such as the Ukrainians, Slovaks and Croats who collaborated with Nazi Germany were still being perceived as not racially "pure" enough to reach the status of Germanic peoples, yet they were considered ethnically better than the rest of the Slavs due to pseudoscientific theories about these nations having a considerable admixture of Germanic blood. In countries where these people lived, there were according to Nazis small groups of non-Slavic German descendants; these people underwent a "racial selection" process to determine whether or not they were "racially valuable", if the individual passed they would be re-Germanised and forcefully taken from their families in order to be raised as Germans. This secret plan Generalplan Ost aimed at expulsion and extermination of most Slavic people. Nazi policy towards them changed during World War II as a pragmatic means to resolve military manpower shortages: they were allowed, with certain restrictions, to serve in the Waffen-SS, in spite of being considered subhumans.
Nazi propaganda portrayed people in Eastern Europe with an Asiatic appearance to be the result of intermingling between the native Slavic populations and Asiatic or Mongolian races as sub-humans dominated by the Jews with the help of Bolshevism. At the bottom of the racial scale of non-Aryans were Jews, ethnic Poles, ethnic Serbs and other Slavic people and black people; the Nazis sought to rid the German state of Jews and Romani by means of deportation, while blacks were to be segregated and eliminated through compulsory sterilization. Volkisch theorists believed that Germany's Teutonic ancestors had spread out from Germany throughout Europe. Of the Germanic tribes that spread through Europe, the theorists identified that the Burgundians and Western Goths joined with the Gauls to make France. Nazi racial beliefs of the superiority of an Aryan master race arose from earlier proponents of a supremacist conception of race such as the French novelist and diplomat Arthur de Gobineau, who published a four-volume work titled An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races.
Gobineau proposed that the Aryan race was superior, urged the preservation of its cultural and racial purity. Gobineau came to use and reserve the term Aryan only for the "German race" and described the Aryans as'la race germanique'. By doing so he presented a racist theory in which Aryans–that is Germans–were all, positive. Houston Stewart Chamberlain's work The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, one of the first to combine Social Darwinism with antisemitism, describes history as a struggle for survival between the Germanic peoples and the Jews, whom he characterized as an inferior and dangerous group; the two-volume book Foundations of Human Hereditary Teaching and Racial Hygiene by Eugen Fischer, Erwin Baur, Fritz Lenz, used pseudoscientific studies to conclude that the Germans were superior to the Jews intellectually and physically, recommended eugenics as a solution. Madison Grant's work The Passing of the Great Race advocated Nordicism and proposed using a eugenic program to preserve the Nordic race.
After reading the book, Hitler called it "my Bible". Racist author and Nordic supremacist Hans F. K. Günther who influenced Nazi ideology, wrote in his "Race Lore of German People" about the danger of "Slavic blood of Eastern race" mixing with the German and combined virulent nationalism with anti-semitism. Günther became an epitome of corrupt and politicized pseudo-science in post-war Germany Among the topics of his research
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën. In 1934, the firm established its reputation for innovative technology with the Traction Avant; this car was the world's first mass-produced front wheel drive car, one of the first to feature a unitary type body, with no chassis supporting the mechanical components. In 1954 they produced the world's first hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension system in 1955, the revolutionary DS, the first mass-produced car with modern disc brakes and, in 1967, they introduced in several of their models swiveling headlights that allowed for greater visibility on winding roads. With a successful history in motorsport, Citroën is the only automobile manufacturer to have won three different official championships from the International Automobile Federation: the World Rally Raid Championship five times, the World Rally Championship eight times and the World Touring Car Championship.
Citroën has been selling vehicles in China since 1984 via the Dongfeng Peugeot-Citroën joint venture, which today represents a major market for the brand. In 2014, when PSA Peugeot Citroën ran into severe financial difficulties, the Dongfeng Motor Corporation took an ownership stake. André Citroën built armaments for France during World War I. There was nothing automatic about his decision to become an automobile manufacturer once the war was over: the automotive business was one that Citroën knew well, thanks to a successful six-year stint working with Mors between 1908 and the outbreak of war; the decision to switch to automobile manufacturing was evidently taken as early as 1916, the year when Citroën asked the engineer Louis Dufresne with Panhard, to design a technically-sophisticated 18HP automobile for which he could use his factory once peace returned. Long before that happened, however, he had modified his vision and decided, like Henry Ford, that the best post-war opportunities in auto-making would involve a lighter car of good quality, but made in sufficient quantities to be priced enticingly.
In February 1917 Citroën contacted another engineer, Jules Salomon, who had a considerable reputation within the French automotive sector as the creator, in 1909, of a little car called Le Zèbre. André Citroën's mandate was characteristically demanding and characteristically simple: to produce an all-new design for a 10 HP car that would be better equipped, more robust and less costly to produce than any rival product at the time; the result was the Type A, announced to the press in March 1919, just four months after the guns fell silent. The first production Type A emerged from the factory at the end of May 1919 and in June it was exhibited at a show room at Number 42, on the Champs-Élysées in Paris which sold Alda cars. Citroën persuaded the owner of the Alda business, Fernand Charron, to lend him the show-room, still in use today; this C42 showroom is where the company organises exhibitions and shows its vehicles and concept cars. A few years Charron would be persuaded to become a major investor in the Citroën business.
On 7 July 1919, the first customer took delivery of a new Citroën 10HP Type A. That same year, André Citroën negotiated with General Motors a proposed sale of the Citroën company; the deal nearly closed, but General Motors decided that its management and capital would be too overstretched by the takeover. Thus Citroën remained independent till 1935. Between 1921 and 1937, Citroën produced half-track vehicles for off-road and military uses, using the Kégresse track system. In the 1920s, the U. S. Army purchased several Citroën-Kégresse vehicles for evaluation followed by a licence to produce them; this resulted in the Army Ordnance Department building a prototype in 1939. In December 1942, it went into production with the M2 Half Track M3 Half-track versions; the U. S. produced more than 41,000 vehicles in over 70 versions between 1940 and 1944. After their 1940 occupation of France, the Nazi's captured many of the Citroën half-track vehicles and armored them for their own use. Mr Citroën was a keen marketer: he used the Eiffel Tower as the world's largest advertising sign, as recorded in Guinness World Records.
He sponsored expeditions in Asia, North America and Africa, demonstrating the potential for motor vehicles equipped with the Kégresse track system to cross inhospitable regions. These expeditions conveyed journalists. Demonstrating extraordinary toughness, a 1923 Citroën that had travelled 48,000 km was the first car to be driven around Australia; the car, a 1923 Citroën 5CV Type C Torpedo, was driven by Neville Westwood from Perth, Western Australia, on a round trip from August to December 1925. This vehicle is now restored and in the collection of the National Museum of Australia. In 1924, Citroën began a business relationship with the American engineer Edward G. Budd. From 1899, Budd had worked to develop stainless steel bodies for railroad cars, for the Pullman in particular. Budd went on to manufacture steel bodies for many automakers. At the Paris Motor Show in October 1924, Citroën introduced the Citroën B10, the first all-steel body in Europe; these automobiles were successful in the marketplace, but soon competitors introduced new body des
Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet was a French political economist and diplomat. An influential supporter of European unity, he is considered as one of the founding fathers of the European Union. Jean Monnet has been called "The Father of Europe" by those who see his innovative and pioneering efforts in the 1950s as the key to establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, the predecessor of today’s European Union. Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected pragmatic internationalist, he was named patron of the 1980–1981 academic year at the College of Europe, in honour of his accomplishments. Monnet was born in Cognac, a commune in the department of Charente in France, into a family of cognac merchants. At the age of sixteen, he abandoned his university entrance examinations part way through and moved to the United Kingdom, where he spent several years in London with Mr. Chaplin, an agent of his father's company.
Subsequently, he travelled – to Scandinavia, Egypt and the United States – for the family business. Monnet believed that the only path to an Allied victory lay in combining the war efforts of Britain and France, he reflected on a concept that would coordinate war resources. In 1914, young Monnet was allowed to meet French Premier René Viviani on this issue and he managed to convince the French government to agree with him, in principle. However, during the first two years of the war, Monnet did not have much success pressing for a better organization of the allied economic cooperation, it was not until two years that stronger combines like the Wheat Executive and the Allied Maritime Transport Council were set into motion, adding to the overall war effort. At the Paris Peace Conference, Monnet was an assistant to the French minister of commerce and industry, Étienne Clémentel, who proposed a "new economic order" based on European cooperation; the scheme was rejected by the Allies in April 1919.
Due to his contributions to the war effort, Monnet, at the age of thirty-one, was named Deputy Secretary General of the League of Nations by French premier Georges Clemenceau and British statesman Arthur Balfour, upon the League's creation in 1919. Soon disillusioned with the League because of its laborious and unanimous decision-making processes, Monnet resigned in 1923 and devoted himself to managing the family business, experiencing difficulties. In 1925, Monnet moved to America to accept a partnership in Blair & Co. a New York bank which merged with Bank of America in 1929, forming Bancamerica-Blair Corporation, owned by Transamerica Corporation. He returned to international politics and, as an international financier, proved to be instrumental to the economic recovery of several Central and Eastern European nations, he helped stabilise the Polish złoty in 1927 and the Romanian leu in 1928. In November 1932, the Chinese Minister of Finance invited Jean Monnet to act as chairman of an East-West non-political committee in China for the development of the Chinese economy where he lived until 1936.
During his time in China, Monnet's task of partnering Chinese capital with foreign companies led to the formal inauguration of the Chinese Development Finance Corporation as well as the reorganization of the Chinese railroads. In 1935, when Monnet was still in Shanghai, he became a business partner of George Murnane in Monnet, Murnane & Co. Murnane was connected to the Wallenberg family in Sweden, the Bosch family in Germany, the Solvays and Boëls in Belgium, John Foster Dulles, André Meyer, the Rockefeller family in the United States, he was considered among the most connected persons of his time. In December 1939, Monnet was sent to London to oversee the collectivization of the British and French war industries, his influence inspired Charles de Gaulle and Winston Churchill to agree on an Anglo-French union, in an attempt to rival the alliance between Germany and Italy. De Gaulle dined with Monnet on his first evening in Britain after his flight with Winston Churchill's envoy Edward Spears.
Monnet broke with de Gaulle on 23 June, as he thought his appeal was "too personal" and had broken too far with the Pétain government, that French opinion would not rally to a man, seen to be operating from British soil. He claimed to have shared his concerns about de Gaulle with the Foreign Office mandarins Alexander Cadogan and Robert Vansittart, Spears. Monnet soon resigned as head of the Inter-Allied Commission and departed for the US. In August 1940, he was sent to the United States by the British Government, as a member of the British Supply Council, to negotiate the purchase of war supplies. Soon after his arrival in Washington, D. C. he became an advisor to President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Convinced that America could serve as "the great arsenal of democracy", he persuaded the President to launch a massive arms production program, both as an economic stimulus and to supply the Allies with military resources. In 1941, with Churchill's agreement, launched the Victory Program, which represented the involvement of the United States in the war effort.
After the war, John Maynard Keynes, a British economist, claimed that through his coordinating, Monnet had shortened World War II by a year. In 1943, Monnet became a member of the National Liberation Committee, the French government of De Gaulle in exile in Algiers, designated Commissaire à l'Armement. During a meeting on 5 August of that year, Monnet declared to the Committee: There will be no peace in Europe, if the states are reconstituted on the basis of national sovereignty... The countries of Europe are too small to gua
Panhard was a French motor vehicle manufacturer that began as one of the first makers of automobiles. It was last a manufacturer of light military vehicles, its final incarnation, now owned by Renault Trucks Defense, was formed by the acquisition of Panhard by Auverland in 2005, by Renault in 2012. In 2018 Renault Trucks Defense and Panhard combined under a single brand called Arquus. Panhard was called Panhard et Levassor, was established as an automobile manufacturing concern by René Panhard and Émile Levassor in 1887. Panhard et Levassor sold their first automobile based on a Daimler engine license. Levassor obtained his licence from Paris lawyer Edouard Sarazin, a friend and representative of Gottlieb Daimler's interests in France. Following Sarazin's 1887 death, Daimler commissioned Sarazin's widow Louise to carry on her late husband's agency; the Panhard et Levassor license was finalised by Louise, who married Levassor in 1890. Daimler and Levassor became fast friends, shared improvements with one another.
These first vehicles set many modern standards. They used a clutch pedal to operate a chain-driven gearbox; the vehicle featured a front-mounted radiator. An 1895 Panhard et Levassor is credited with the first modern transmission. For the 1894 Paris–Rouen Rally, Alfred Vacheron equipped his 4 horsepower with a steering wheel, believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle. In 1891, the company built its first all-Levassor design, a "state of the art" model: the Système Panhard consisted of four wheels, a front-mounted engine with rear wheel drive, a crude sliding-gear transmission, sold at 3500 francs; this was to become the standard layout for automobiles for most of the next century. The same year, Panhard et Levassor shared their Daimler engine license with bicycle maker Armand Peugeot, who formed his own car company. In 1895, 1,205 cc Panhard et Levassor vehicles finished first and second in the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race, one piloted solo by Levassor, for 48¾hr. However, during the 1896 Paris–Marseille–Paris race, Levassor was fatally injured due to a crash while trying to avoid hitting a dog, died in Paris the following year.
Arthur Krebs succeeded Levassor as General Manager in 1897, held the job until 1916. He turned the Panhard et Levassor Company into one of the largest and most profitable manufacturers of automobiles before World War I. Panhards won numerous races from 1895 to 1903. Panhard et Levassor developed the Panhard rod, which came to be used in many other types of automobiles as well. From 1910 Panhard worked to develop engines without conventional valves, using under license the sleeve valve technology, patented by the American Charles Yale Knight. Between 1910 and 1924 the Panhard & Levassor catalogue listed plenty of models with conventional valve engines, but these were offered alongside cars powered by sleeve valve power units. Following various detailed improvements to the sleeve valve technology by Panhard's own engineering department, from 1924 till 1940 all Panhard cars used sleeve valve engines. Under the presidency of Raymond Poincaré, which ran from 1913 till 1920, Panhard & Levassor's 18CV and 20CV models were the official presidential cars.
During the war Panhard, like other leading automobile producers, concentrated on war production, including large numbers of military trucks, V12-cylinder aero-engines, gun components, large 75 and 105 diameter shells. The military were keen on the sleeve valve engined Panhard 20HP. General Joffre himself used two 35HP Panhard Type X35s with massive 4-cylinder 7,360 cc engines for his personal transport, these were to be seen by Parisians carrying military leaders between the front-line and the Élysée Palace. Following the return to peace in 1918, Panhard resumed passenger car production in March 1919 with the 10HP Panhard Type X19, which used a 4-cylinder 2,140 cc engine; this was followed three months by three more 4-cylinder models which will have been familiar to any customers whose memories pre-dated the war, but they now incorporated ungraded electrics and a number of other modifications. For the 15th Paris Motor Show, in October 1919, Panhard were displaying four models, all with four cylinder engines, as follows: Panhard Type X19 2,150 cc / 10 HP Panhard Type X31 2,275 cc / 12 HPPanhard Type X28 3,175 cc / 16 HP Panhard Type X29 4,850 cc / 20 HPBy 1925, all Panhard's cars were powered by Knight sleeve valve engines that used steel sleeves.
The steel sleeves were thinner and lighter than the cast iron ones, fitted in Panhard sleeve valve engines since 1910, this gave rise to an improved friction coefficient permitting engines to run at higher speeds. To reduce further the risk of engines jamming, the outer sleeves, which are less thermally stressed than the inner sleeves, were coated on their inner sides with an anti-friction material, employing a patented technique with which Panhard engineers had been working since 1923; this was one of several improvements applied by Panhard engineers to the basic Knight sleeve-valve engine concept. In 1925 a 4,800 cc model set the world record for an average of 185.51 km/h. A surprise appeared on the Panhard stand at the 20th Paris Motor Show in October 1926, in the shape of the manufacturer's first six-cylinder model since before the war; the new Panhard 16CV "Six" sat on a 3,540 mm wheelbase. At the show it was priced, at 58,000 francs. Of the nine models displayed for the 1927 mo