Kicking is a skill used in many types of football, including: Association football Australian rules football International rules football American football Canadian football Gaelic football Rugby league Rugby unionKicking is the act of propelling a ball by striking it with the foot or, depending upon the sport, the shin. Kicking is most common in Association Football, where only the two goalkeepers are allowed to use their hands, it is the primary method of transferring the ball in Australian rules football and Gaelic football. Whereas most sports allow points to be scored by methods other than kicking, in Australian rules football kicking for goal is the only method allowed to score a goal and get the maximum six point score. Kicking is used less in Rugby League, Rugby Union, American football, Canadian football, may be restricted to specialist positions, but it is still an important tactical skill in each sport; the range of kicking styles available is influenced by the shape of the ball and the rules.
Melbourne Cricket Ground
The Melbourne Cricket Ground known as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Victoria. Home to the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the 10th largest stadium in the world, the largest in Australia, the largest in the Southern Hemisphere, the largest cricket ground by capacity, has the tallest light towers of any sporting venue; the MCG is within walking distance of the city centre and is served by Richmond and Jolimont stations, as well as the route 70 tram and the route 246 bus. It is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct. Since it was built in 1853, the MCG has been in a state of constant renewal, it served as the centrepiece stadium of the 1956 Summer Olympics, the 2006 Commonwealth Games and two Cricket World Cups: 1992 and 2015. It is famous for its role in the development of international cricket; the annual Boxing Day Test is one of the MCG's most popular events. Referred to as "the spiritual home of Australian rules football" for its strong association with the sport since it was codified in 1859, it hosts Australian Football League matches in the winter, with at least one game held there in most rounds of the home-and-away season.
The stadium fills to capacity for the AFL Grand Final. Home to the National Sports Museum, the MCG has hosted other major sporting events, including international rules football matches between Australia and Ireland, international rugby union matches, State of Origin games, FIFA World Cup qualifiers. Concerts and other cultural events are held at the venue, with the record attendance standing at around 130,000 for a Billy Graham evangelistic crusade in 1959. Grandstand redevelopments and occupational health and safety legislation have limited the maximum seating capacity to 95,000 with an additional 5,000 standing room capacity, bringing the total capacity to 100,024; the MCG is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register and was included on the Australian National Heritage List in 2005. Journalist Greg Baum called it "a shrine, a citadel, a landmark, a totem" that "symbolises Melbourne to the world". Founded in November 1838 the Melbourne Cricket Club selected the current MCG site in 1853 after playing at several grounds around Melbourne.
The club's first game was against a military team at the Old Mint site, at the corner of William and Latrobe Streets. Burial Hill became its home ground in January 1839, but the area was set aside for Botanical Gardens and the club was moved on in October 1846, to an area on the south bank of the Yarra about where the Herald and Weekly Times building is today; the area was subject to flooding, forcing the club to move again, this time to a ground in South Melbourne. It was not long before the club was forced out again, this time because of the expansion of the railway; the South Melbourne ground was in the path of Victoria's first steam railway line from Melbourne to Sandridge. Governor La Trobe offered the MCC a choice of three sites; this last option, now Yarra Park, had been used by Aborigines until 1835. Between 1835 and the early 1860s it was known as the Government or Police Paddock and served as a large agistment area for the horses of the Mounted Police, Border Police and Native Police.
The north-eastern section housed the main barracks for the Mounted Police in the Port Phillip district. In 1850 it was part of a 200-acre stretch set aside for public recreation extending from Governor La Trobe's Jolimont Estate to the Yarra River. By 1853 it had become a busy promenade for Melbourne residents. An MCC sub-committee chose the Richmond Park option because it was level enough for cricket but sloped enough to prevent inundation; that ground was located. At the same time the Richmond Cricket Club was given occupancy rights to six acres for another cricket ground on the eastern side of the Government Paddock. At the time of the land grant the Government stipulated that the ground was to be used for cricket and cricket only; this condition remained until 1933 when the State Government allowed the MCG's uses to be broadened to include other purposes when not being used for cricket. In 1863 a corridor of land running diagonally across Yarra Park was granted to the Hobson's Bay Railway and divided Yarra Park from the river.
The Mounted Police barracks were operational until the 1880s when it was subdivided into the current residential precinct bordered by Vale Street. The area closest to the river was developed for sporting purposes in years including Olympic venues in 1956; the first grandstand at the MCG was the original wooden members’ stand built in 1854, while the first public grandstand was a 200-metre long 6000-seat temporary structure built in 1861. Another grandstand seating 2000, facing one way to the cricket ground and the other way to the park where football was played, was built in 1876 for the 1877 visit of James Lillywhite's English cricket team, it was during this tour. In 1881 the original members' stand was sold to the Richmond Cricket Club for £55. A new brick stand, considered at the time to be the world's finest cricket facility, was built in its place; the foundation stone was laid by Prince George of Wales and Prince Albert Victor on 4 July and the stand opened in December that year. It was als
Tackle (football move)
Most forms of football have a move known as a tackle. The primary and important purposes of tackling are to dispossess an opponent of the ball, to stop the player from gaining ground towards goal or to stop them from carrying out what they intend; the word is used in some contact variations of football to describe the act of physically holding or wrestling a player to the ground. In others, it describes one or more methods of contesting for possession of the ball, it can therefore be used as both a defensive or attacking move. In Middle Dutch, the verb tacken meant to handle. By the 14th century, this had come to be used for the equipment used for fishing, referring to the rod and reel, etc. and for that used in sailing, referring to rigging, equipment, or gear used on ships. By the 18th century, a similar use was applied to harnesses or equipment used with horses. Modern use in football comes from the earlier sport of rugby, where the word was used in the 19th century. In American football and Canadian football, to tackle is to physically interfere with the forward progress of a player in possession of the ball, such that his forward progress ceases and is not resumed, or such that he is caused to touch some part of his body to the ground other than his feet or hands, or such that he is forced to go out of bounds.
In any such case, the ball becomes dead, the down is over, play ceases until the beginning of the next play. A tackle is known as a quarterback sack when the quarterback is tackled at or behind the line of scrimmage while attempting to throw a pass. A tackle for loss indicates a tackle that causes a loss of yardage for the opposing running back or wide receiver; this happens when the quarterback is sacked, when either a rusher or a receiver is tackled behind the line of scrimmage, or when the ball is fumbled behind the line of scrimmage and was picked up by an offensive player who does not manage to move past the line before being tackled. When a player who does not have the ball is taken down, it is referred to as a block. Tacklers are not required to wrap their arms around the ball carrier before bringing him to the ground. Tackles can be made by grabbing the ball carrier's jersey and pulling him to the ground; as mentioned above, the referee can declare that a play is dead if the ball carrier's forward progress has been stopped if he has not been taken to the ground.
To protect players from catastrophic injury, there are some restrictions on tackles and blocks. At no time may a defensive player tackle an offensive player by grabbing the facemask of their helmet. Although spear tackles are allowed in gridiron football, a player may not use his helmet to tackle an opponent as the technique can cause serious injury to both players and warrants a 15-yard penalty as well as a fresh set of downs if committed by the defending team. A similar penalty is assessed to any player attempting to make contact with his helmet against another opponent's helmet, known as a helmet-to-helmet collision. Grabbing a ball carrier by the pads behind his neck and pulling him down is known as a "horse collar", a method, made illegal at all levels of American football, it is illegal to tackle a player who has thrown a forward pass after he has released the ball. However, in the NFL a player can continue forward for one step, which means that a player, committed to attacking the quarterback will still make a tackle.
Place kickers and punters are afforded an greater protection from being tackled. Once the play is ruled complete, no contact is permitted. Blocks that occur in the back of the legs and below the knees, initiated below the waist, or clotheslines are generally prohibited and players who use them are subject to much more severe penalties than other illegal tackles. However, a player who plays on the line can block below the knees as long the block is within five yards of the line and the player they block is in front of them and not engaged by another blocker. In the National Football League, tackles are tracked as an unofficial statistic by a scorekeeper hired by the home team. Though the statistic is cited, the league does not verify that the counts are accurate. Unlike other codes, tackles in association football have to be predominantly directed against the ball rather than the player in possession of it; this is achieved by using either leg to wrest possession from the opponent, or sliding in on the grass to knock the ball away.
A defender is permitted to use their body to obstruct the motion of a player with the ball, this may be part of a successful tackle. Pulling a player to the ground in the style of tackle common to other codes is absent from the game. Although some contact between players is allowed, the rules of association football limit the physicality of tackles, explicitly forbidding contacts which are "careless, reckless or excessive force
Mark Johnson (footballer)
Mark'MJ' Johnson is a former professional Australian rules footballer who played for the Essendon Football Club and Fremantle Football Club in the Australian Football League. Johnson is known as "Mr. Sunbury", referring to the body building award he won as a teenager in his home town of Sunbury, Victoria. Mark commenced his junior football before moving to Sunbury Lions, he was drafted to Essendon as a rookie after playing underage with the Calder Cannons in the TAC Cup competition. Johnson was elevated from the Essendon rookie list in 1998, playing his first game in 1999, he was part of the 2000 premiership side, won the W. S. Crichton Medal in 2002. Known for his toughness, Johnson was part of the midfield duo known as the "Johnson Boys" at Essendon, the other member being Jason Johnson; the two are not related, however Mark did have a brother who played in the AFL for Geelong, David Johnson. He was a courageous player and sometimes his height and strength were underestimated by opposition players.
He was one of just three Essendon players to do so. On 15 October 2007, Essendon announced that 29-year-old Johnson was to be delisted by the club, giving him the option of nominating for the national draft; the decision to delist Johnson was unpopular to many Essendon fans who enjoyed Mark's'hard at it' attitude to his footy. In November 2007, Mark was training with the Kangaroos. In the 2007 AFL Draft however, he was drafted to West Australian club, where he was reunited with former Essendon teammates Dean Solomon, traded by Essendon in 2006, Kepler Bradley delisted by the Dons at the end of the 2007 season. Johnson brought up his 200th AFL game in round 14, coincidentally against his former side, Essendon, at Domain Stadium, his old club triumphed by four points. He sustained a career ending shoulder injury and played his last game in round 22 against Collingwood, which Fremantle won by 24 points, he sought compensation from the Dockers for his injury. Mark Johnson's playing statistics from AFL Tables
Hawthorn Football Club
The Hawthorn Football Club, nicknamed the Hawks, is a professional Australian rules football club in the Australian Football League. The club, founded in 1902, is the youngest of the Victorian-based teams in the AFL and has won thirteen VFL/AFL premierships, it is renowned as the only club having won premierships in each decade of the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010s. The team play in gold vertically striped guernseys; the club's Latin motto is spectemur agendo, the English translation being "Let us be judged by our acts". The Hawks' origins are in the inner-eastern Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn and at Glenferrie Oval, the club's former administrative and training base and social club. Matches, have not been played there since 1973. In 2006, Hawthorn's training and administration facilities were relocated to Waverly Park, located 27.8 km from the CBD and in the middle of the club's major supporter base in Melbourne's outer-eastern region. The mascot of Hawthorn FC is a hawk. Since 2007 Hawthorn have played four games a year at their second ground of York Park in Launceston, with the remaining games played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the club's current playing home ground.
Hawthorn's current Victorian Football League affiliate team is the Box Hill Hawks Football Club. The official club history books and many supporters believe that the club's origins date back to its founding in 1873 at a meeting at the Hawthorne Hotel. Although a Hawthorn Football Club did indeed form at this time—and the region has since continuously been represented by a football team—it was not the Hawthorn which competes at AFL level today, it is that today's club is the third club to carry the name'Hawthorn Football Club'. In The Daily Telegraph of 12 May 1883 it is stated that "The Hawthorn Club having disbanded, all engagements for the ensuing season have been cancelled." In 1889 the Riversdale Football Club is reported to have changed its name to the Hawthorn Football Club. This club ceased in 1890. No Hawthorn club existed from 1890 to 1892. A new representative club, called the'Hawthorn Football Club', was formed in 1893, it competed in the Victorian Junior Football Association until 1898.
Without a ground to play on, the club was disbanded in 1899. In March 1902, Alf Kosky formed a club from the various district clubs under the banner of Hawthorn Football Club to compete in the Metropolitan Junior Football Association; the club merged with Boroondara in 1905 and adopted Boroondara's colours of a black guernsey with red sash but retained the name of Hawthorn. In 1906 Hawthorn merged with successful junior club the Hawthorn Rovers to form the Hawthorn City Football Club as a result of Glenferrie Oval opening; the club opted to change the gold guernsey with a blue V of the Hawthorn Rovers. The council applied to the Victorian Football Association for inclusion, granted in 1914 when Hawthorn replaced the disbanded Melbourne City club; the first task for the club was to decide on club colours, their jumper of blue and gold was taken by Williamstown so a change was required. At a Special General Meeting held on 17 February 1914, a Mr J. Brain proposed brown and gold as the new colours and the motion was carried.
The Mayblooms won three games and a draw in their first season in the VFA. The effect of World War I with players enlisting caused the club to finish last in 1915; the VFA went into recess in 1916 and 1917, Hawthorn did not compete when resumption occurred in 1918. Upon Hawthorn's resumption in 1919 it was more competitive winning eight games and finishing sixth out of ten teams. Hawthorn dropped to eighth in 1920 but in 1921 they won seven games and finished sixth. Bill Walton was appointed captain-coach of Hawthorn in 1922, he was, refused a clearance by Port Melbourne and as a result spent the season playing for them, while coaching Hawthorn during the week. Twice that season, he had the unusual situation of playing a VFA game against the club that he coached. In one of those matches a Port Melbourne teammate had to be restrained from striking Walton over Walton's vocal support for the player's opponent. In 1922 the club missed the finals by percentage and Hawthorn set a new record score in the VFA scoring 30.31.211 to Prahran 6.9.45.
In 1923 Walton was granted his clearance and the club made the finals finishing in fourth place and losing to Port Melbourne in the first semi-final. 1924 the club finished fifth. Since 1919 the VFL had nine clubs; the VFL was keen to do away with this bye via the admission of a tenth club. In 1924 a group calling itself the Hawthorn Citizens' League Campaign Committee began gathering support for the football club admittance to the VFL. Other representations came from Brighton, Footscray, North Melbourne, Prahran and Caulfield. On 9 January 1925 a committee meeting of the VFL, chaired by Reg Hunt of Carlton, examined the question of expanding the competition from nine clubs to twelve; the Mayblooms, as they were known became the perennial whipping boys of the competition. Hawthorn had an casual attitude towards playing football and, lying remote from major industrial areas and devoid of the business or political patrons available to Carlton and Collingwood, were not able to pay their players the match payment allowed by the Coulter Law.
Despite the presence of a number players of true class such as Bert Hyde, Bert Mills, Stan Spinks, Alec Albiston and Co
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Handball (Australian rules football)
Handball or handpass is a skill in the sport of Australian rules football. It is the primary means of disposing of the football by hand, is executed by holding the ball with one hand and punching it with the other. Handball is a method of disposing of possession of the football by hand, it is the most used alternative to kicking the ball. In order to be a legal method to dispose of the ball, the player holds the ball with one hand and punches the ball away with the clenched fist of the other hand. A player punches with his dominant hand; when a player receives a handpass from another player, play continues – unlike the kick where if a player catches the ball on the full from a kick, he is entitled to take his next kick unimpeded. Failure to execute a handball is deemed a throw or illegal disposal and results in a free kick to the nearest opposition player. Moving the hand that holds the ball excessively in the direction of the handpass, using an open hand instead of a clenched fist to tap the ball away, throwing the ball off the carrying hand before punching it away, or handing the ball directly to a teammate will all attract a free kick for illegal disposal.
The rule defines it to the open hand tap/handpass in Gaelic football, but differentiates the hand skills from codes of football derived from rugby football. Unlike Gaelic football, punching the oval ball was more used as it was the most effective technique to move the heavier ball larger distances. Although the rules allowed for the handball, for most Australian rules leagues handball was a secondary skill to the kick. Strategically Australian football was viewed as a territorial sport – where the prime aim was not so much possession, but to cover as much distance through the air as possible; as the holding hand could not move, this was best achieved by means of kicking the ball as far as possible. The principally used handpass was top-spin in nature; this was used with the belief that the ball could be contained more locally and executed more off the hands when the ball was held in preparation for kicking, as smaller handpasses were used when in trouble. The other thought was that, as in tennis, a top-spun ball was more directed, dipped faster and possessed more stability in the air.
One notable variant of the handpass which began to develop was known as the flick pass, in which a player used his open hand instead of his fist to propel the ball. The legality of the flick pass has varied throughout the history of the game: it began to gain prominence in the early 1920s, before the Australian National Football Council voted to abolish it before the 1925 season, making the handpass with a clenched fist the only legal form of handpass; this was not popular, as the style of punch pass used at the time a much more cumbersome disposal than a flick pass, it resulted in the game being played at a slower pace. The flick pass was re-instated before the 1934 season. In the late 1950s and early 1960s it re-emerged as a common technique to achieve centre square clearances from scrimmages at VFL club Fitzroy. Of the 88 handballs executed during the 1961 VFL Grand Final, 18 were flick passes; the flick pass was abolished permanently in 1966. The flick pass had the significant drawback that its action was close to that of a throw, different umpires had different interpretations of what was legal.
In 1938, motivated by a desire to eliminate this inconsistency, to speed up the game further, the Victorian Football Association legalised throwing the ball, provided the throw was with two hands and both hands were below shoulder-height. The throw-pass was legal in the VFA and in some other competitions affiliated with it from 1938 until 1949, but it was never legal under ANFC rules; the emergence of handball as a more used skill took place in the 1960s and 1970s. A running handball game emerged in the South Australian National Football League with Sturt coach Jack Oatey credited with encouraging the skill through the late 1960s, leading to Sturt winning five premierships from 1966 to 1970. In Western Australia, Graham'Polly' Farmer and Barry Cable brought a new dimension to the game using handball, with Farmer looking for a runner to handpass to after each mark, to speed up the ball movement; the kick and catch style of play in the Victorian Football League is credited to the Carlton Football Club's 1970 VFL Grand Final victory under Ron Barassi, in which Carlton's extensive use of handpassing in the second half helped it recover from a 44-point half time deficit.
The modern handpass technique, known as the rocket handball, was pioneered by Kevin Sheedy. It is executed so that the ball rotates backwards in an end-to-end fashion, similar to the drop punt kick; the ball is held on a slight angle with the fist ending up in or close to the other open hand. This enables a handpass to achieve distance and speed comparable to a short kick and is easier for teammates to catch. Professional Australian footballers are competent at handballing using either punching arm. With the wide adoption of the handball in the 1980s, midfielders such as Greg Williams and Dale Weightman became handball specialists, renowned their playmaking ability by preferring to handball in the midfield. In the 1980s, Richmond Football Club wingman Kevin Bartlett became famous for a style of play which involved use of the handball to dispose of the ball before an opponent was about to tackle. Although rules were uniform across the country, local interpretations and customs var