OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Claude Bernard was a French physiologist. Historian I. Bernard Cohen of Harvard University called Bernard "one of the greatest of all men of science". Among many other accomplishments, he was one of the first to suggest the use of blind experiments to ensure the objectivity of scientific observations, he originated the term milieu intérieur, the associated concept of homeostasis. Bernard was born in 1813 in the village of Saint-Julien near Villefranche-sur-Saône, he received his early education in the Jesuit school of that town, proceeded to the college at Lyon, however, he soon left to become assistant in a druggist's shop. Although he is sometimes described as an agnostic or an atheist, Bernard was a fervent Catholic, with a biographical entry in the Catholic Encyclopedia, his leisure hours were devoted to the composition of a vaudeville comedy, the success it achieved moved him to attempt a prose drama in five acts, Arthur de Bretagne. In 1834, at the age of twenty-one, he went to Paris, armed with this play and an introduction to Saint-Marc Girardin, but the critic dissuaded him from adopting literature as a profession, urged him rather to take up the study of medicine.
This advice Bernard followed, in due course he became interne at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris. In this way he was brought into contact with the great physiologist, François Magendie, who served as physician at the hospital. Bernard became'preparateur' at the Collège de France in 1841. In 1845, Bernard married Marie Françoise "Fanny" Martin for convenience. In 1847 he was appointed Magendie's deputy-professor at the college, in 1855 he succeeded him as full professor, his field of research was considered inferior at the time, the laboratory assigned to him was a "regular cellar". Some time Bernard had been chosen the first occupant of the newly instituted chair of physiology at the Sorbonne, but no laboratory was provided for his use, it was Louis Napoleon who, after an interview with him in 1864, repaired the deficiency, building a laboratory at the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in the Jardin des Plantes. At the same time, Napoleon III established a professorship which Bernard accepted, leaving the Sorbonne.
In the same year, 1868, he was admitted a member of the Académie française and elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. When he died on 10 February 1878, he was accorded a public funeral – an honor which had never before been bestowed by France on a man of science, he was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Claude Bernard's aim, as he stated in his own words, was to establish the use of the scientific method in medicine, he dismissed many previous misconceptions, took nothing for granted, relied on experimentation. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he insisted that all living creatures were bound by the same laws as inanimate matter. Claude Bernard's first important work was on the functions of the pancreas, the juice of which he proved to be of great significance in the process of digestion. A second investigation – his most famous – was on the glycogenic function of the liver. A third research resulted in the discovery of the vasomotor system. In 1851, while examining the effects produced in the temperature of various parts of the body by section of the nerve or nerves belonging to them, he noticed that division of the cervical sympathetic nerve gave rise to more active circulation and more forcible pulsation of the arteries in certain parts of the head, a few months afterwards he observed that electrical excitation of the upper portion of the divided nerve had the contrary effect.
In this way he established the existence of both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor. Milieu intérieur is the key process, he wrote, "The stability of the internal environment is the condition for the free and independent life." This is the underlying principle of what would be called homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon. He explained that: The living body, though it has need of the surrounding environment, is relatively independent of it; this independence which the organism has of its external environment, derives from the fact that in the living being, the tissues are in fact withdrawn from direct external influences and are protected by a veritable internal environment, constituted, in particular, by the fluids circulating in the body. The constancy of the internal environment is the condition for free and independent life: the mechanism that makes it possible is that which assured the maintenance, within the internal environment, of all the conditions necessary for the life of the elements.
The constancy of the environment presupposes a perfection of the organism such that external variations are at every instant compensated and brought into balance. In consequence, far from being indifferent to the external world, the higher animal is on the contrary in a close and wise relation with it, so that its equilibrium results from a continuous and delicate compensation established as if the most sensitive of balances; the study of the physiological action of poisons was of great interest to him, his attenti
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism in opposition to social hierarchy. It involves a concern for those in society whom its adherents perceive as disadvantaged relative to others as well as a belief that there are unjustified inequalities that need to be reduced or abolished; the term left-wing can refer to "the radical, reforming, or socialist section of a political party or system". The political terms "Left" and "Right" were coined during the French Revolution, referring to the seating arrangement in the French Estates General: those who sat on the left opposed the monarchy and supported the revolution, including the creation of a republic and secularization, while those on the right were supportive of the traditional institutions of the Old Regime. Use of the term "Left" became more prominent after the restoration of the French monarchy in 1815 when it was applied to the "Independents"; the word "wing" was appended to Left and Right in the late 19th century with disparaging intent and "left-wing" was applied to those who were unorthodox in their religious or political views.
The term was applied to a number of movements republicanism during the French Revolution in the 18th century, followed by socialism, communism and social democracy in the 19th and 20th centuries. Since the term left-wing has been applied to a broad range of movements including civil rights movements, feminist movements, anti-war movements and environmental movements, as well as a wide range of parties. According to former professor of economics Barry Clark, " claim that human development flourishes when individuals engage in cooperative, mutually respectful relations that can thrive only when excessive differences in status and wealth are eliminated". In politics, the term "Left" derives from the French Revolution, as the anti-monarchist Montagnard and Jacobin deputies from the Third Estate sat to the left of the presiding member's chair in parliament, a habit which began in the French Estates General of 1789. Throughout the 19th century in France, the main line dividing Left and Right was between supporters of the French Republic and those of the monarchy.
The June Days Uprising during the Second Republic was an attempt by the Left to assert itself after the 1848 Revolution, but only a small portion of the population supported this. In the mid-19th century, socialism and anti-clericalism became features of the French Left. After Napoleon III's 1851 coup and the subsequent establishment of the Second Empire, Marxism began to rival radical republicanism and utopian socialism as a force within left-wing politics; the influential Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, published in 1848, asserted that all human history is the history of class struggle. They predicted that a proletarian revolution would overthrow bourgeois capitalism and create a classless, post-monetary communist society, it was in this period that the word "wing" was appended to both Right. In the United States, many leftists, social liberals and trade unionists were influenced by the works of Thomas Paine, who introduced the concept of asset-based egalitarianism, which theorises that social equality is possible by a redistribution of resources.
The International Workingmen's Association, sometimes called the First International, brought together delegates from many different countries, with many different views about how to reach a classless and stateless society. Following a split between supporters of Marx and Mikhail Bakunin, anarchists formed the International Workers' Association; the Second International became divided over the issue of World War I. Those who opposed the war, such as Vladimir Lenin and Rosa Luxemburg, saw themselves as further to the left. In the United States after Reconstruction, the phrase "the Left" was used to describe those who supported trade unions, the civil rights movement and the anti-war movement. More in the United States, left-wing and right-wing have been used as synonyms for Democratic and Republican, or as synonyms for liberalism and conservatism respectively. Since the Right was populist, both in the Western and the Eastern Bloc anything viewed as avant-garde art was called leftist in all Europe, thus the identification of Picasso's Guernica as "leftist" in Europe and the condemnation of the Russian composer Shostakovich's opera in Pravda as follows: "Here we have'leftist' confusion instead of natural, human music".
The following positions are associated with left-wing politics. Leftist economic beliefs range from Keynesian economics and the welfare state through industrial democracy and the social market to nationalization of the economy and central planning, to the anarcho-syndicalist advocacy of a council- and assembly-based self-managed anarchist communism. During the industrial revolution, leftists supported trade unions. At the beginning of the 20th century, many leftists advocated strong government intervention in the economy. Leftists continue to criticize what they perceive as the exploitative nature of globalization, the "race to the bottom" and unjust lay-offs. In the last quarter of the 20th century, the belief that government ought to be directly involved in the day-to-day workings of an economy declined in popularity amongst the center-left social democrats who became influenced by "Third Way" ideology. Other leftists believe in Marxian economics; some distinguish Marx's economic theories from his political philos
Charles François Laurent
Charles François Laurent was a French senior civil servant, specializing in finance. He was president of the Cour des comptes. After taking early retirement at the age of 53 he became a businessman, he became a member of the board of the Suez Canal Company and president of the French branch of Thomson-Houston. Laurent was co-founder of the Crédit national. After World War I he was French ambassador in Berlin between 1920 and 1922 and was involved in discussions of reparations. Charles François Laurent was born in Paris on 12 November 1856, his parents were Pierre Charles Laurent, a merchant, Narcisse Decaux. He studied at the École Polytechnique, he was a second lieutenant at the School of Artillery in 1877. Laurent was a supernumerary at the Central Administration of Finance a clerk in the Posts and Telegraphs in 1878. In 1879 he was made an assistant to the General Inspectorate of Finance, he went to French Indochina in 1886 as Inspector of Finances with Paul Bert, appointed Resident General of the French Republic in Annam and Tonkin.
After Bert's death in November 1886 Charles Laurent was listed among the subscribers in Tonkin to a fund to erect a statue in Bert's honour. Laurent was named chief of staff to the Minister of Finance, Paul Peytral, in 1888, he was appointed Deputy Head of the General Inspectorate of Finance in 1890. On 24 June 1891 Laurent married Sophie Augustine de Bénazé, their children were Pierre Charles Théodore Laurent, Jean Charles Léon Laurent, Captain of the infantry and Jacques Laurent. Laurent became Chief of Staff to the Minister of Finance in 1893, he was Director of the Central Teller of the Public Treasury, Director General of Public Accounts, Inspector of Finance, Councilor of State in Extraordinary Service, Secretary General of the Ministry of Finance, Director General of Public Accounting, first President of the Court of Auditors, financial adviser to the Ottoman Government. Charles Laurent retired in 1909 at the age of 53, having occupied the most senior posts in the administration. After leaving the civil service Laurent began a new career as a company director, first at the Suez Canal Company at the Compagnie du chemin de fer de Paris à Orléans.
He became president of the Compagnie Francaise Thomson-Houston, a manufacturer of electrical equipment, in 1915. Although Laurent had no prior relationship with the electrical industry, he was valued for his contacts and understanding of the administrative machinery, important to a company for whom the state was the most important customer. Laurent succeeded Florent Guillain as president of the Comité des forges de France. Robert Pinot continued to serve as secretary general of the CFF under Laurent, as he did under Laurent's successor Gabriel Cordier. Laurent represented the Mechanical and Electrical Construction group of industries in the Union des industries et métiers de la métallurgie, he became president of the UIMM in 1916. While president of the CFF Laurent joined the Confédération générale de la production française, he left the presidency of the UIMM in 1920 when he was appointed ambassador to Berlin. The Crédit national was founded under a law of 10 October 1919 with a capital of 100 million francs, played an important role in providing medium and long term credit in France.
It was jointly owned by the state, the main credit suppliers and the main French industrial enterprises. The public/private institution was to handle reparation payments and provide credit to small and medium enterprises. Laurent was administrator of the Crédit national. Laurent returned to public service as French ambassador in Berlin from June 1920 to December 1922. Laurent was named to this post due to his "high competence in economic and financial matters". Alexandre Millerand, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, instructed Laurent to ensure an economic agreement with Germany was prepared; the British and French ambassadors to Germany, Lord d'Abernon and Charles Laurent, were invited to the inter-allied Spa Conference in July 1920 and tasked with supervision of reparation payments and control of the Berlin-based Reparation Commission. Towards the end of 1920 Laurent led negotiations by a group of French and German businesses concerning the Upper Silesian industries; the concept was that French firms would obtain options on 25% of the main German companies in the region and would be represented on their boards, while the companies would be rescued from liquidation and the French would guarantee that Upper Silesia would remain German rather than be transferred to Poland.
In a meeting in Paris on 8 January 1821 Jacques Seydoux told D'Abernon that the French proposed to indefinitely postpone discussion of cash reparations. Soon after this Laurent recommended that Walter Simons, German Minister of Foreign Affairs, accept the Seydoux proposals as a basis for discussion and agree not to push for a declaration of the totals amount of the reparations. D'Abernon and Laurent met on 4 February 1921 to discuss the negative reaction of the Germans to a proposed 12% tax on German exports. Laurent thought the Germans had not understood the implications, noted that although the tax would raise the price of their exports it would remove the ability of the Allies to meddle with the German economy; the US ambassador Alanson B. Houghton reached Berlin on 20 April 1922, he was disappointed in Laurent's attitude, since Laurent seemed uninterested in improving Franco-German relations. While ambassador Laurent continued as President of Thomson-Houston and remained on the board of the Suez Canal Company.
Charles Laurent became pres
Ministry of National Education (France)
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, or "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations. The Ministry's headquarters is located in the 18th century Hôtel de Rochechouart on the rue de Grenelle in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. Given that National Education is France's largest employer, employs more than half of the French state civil servants, the position is traditionally a strategic one; the current minister is Jean-Michel Blanquer. A governmental position overseeing public education was first created in France in 1802. Following the various regime changes in France in the first decades of the 19th century, the position changed official status and name a number of times before the position of Minister of Public Instruction was created in 1828.
For much of its history, the position was combined with that of Minister of Public Worship, who dealt with issues related to the Roman Catholic Church, except in instances where the Minister of Public Instruction was a Protestant. The position has occasionally been combined with Minister of Sports and Minister of Youth Affairs. In 1932, the office's title was changed to Minister of National Education, although it was changed back in 1940–1941, was renamed Minister of Education during the Presidency of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1975, it created the Comité d'études sur les formations d'ingénieurs which studies the training and job placement of engineers in France. List of Education Ministers of France Education in France France Ministry of National Education – Official website
Raphaël Anatole Émile Blanchard was a French doctor and entomologist. Les moustiques. Histoire naturelle et médicale Paris, F. R. de Rudeval, 1905 Éléments de zoologie G. Masson, 1885.692 pages 613 illustrations in the text, 2 plates. Le ba’cubert: l’art populaire dans le Briançonnais, Librairie ancienne Honoré Champion, 1914, 90 p. "Sur une collection d'amulettes chinoises" in Revue Anthropologique, 1918. Evenhuis, N. L. 1997: Litteratura taxonomica dipterorum. Volume 1. – Leiden, Backhuys Publishers 1. Howard, L. O. 1930: History of applied Entomology. Smiths. Miscell. Coll. 84 X+1-564, 51 Taf BNF Available free at Gallica are Éléments de zoologie, Traité de zoologie médicale and Notes historiques sur la peste. Article about Blanchard Obituary in Science journal His entry on Wikipedia in French