Pedal steel guitar
The pedal steel guitar is a console-type of steel guitar with pedals and levers added to enable playing more varied and complex music which had not been possible with antecedent steel guitar designs. Like other steel guitars, it shares the ability to play unlimited glissandi and deep vibrati—characteristics in common with the human voice. Pedal steel is most associated with American country music. Pedals and knee levers were added to a steel guitar in the 1950s, allowing the performer to play scales without moving the bar and to push the pedals while striking a chord, making passing notes slur or bend up into harmony with existing notes; the latter creates a unique sound, embraced by country and western music—a sound not possible on a non-pedal steel guitar of any type. From its first use in Hawaii in the 19th century, the steel guitar sound became popular in the United States in the first half of the 20th century and spawned a family of instruments designed to be played with the guitar a horizontal position known as "Hawaiian-style".
The first instrument in this chronology was the Hawaiian guitar called a lap steel. The electric guitar pickup was invented in 1934, allowing steel guitars to be heard with other instruments. Electronic amplification enabled subsequent development of the electrified lap steel the console steel, the pedal steel guitar. Playing the pedal steel has unusual physical requirements in requiring simultaneous coordination of both hands, both feet and both knees. Pioneers in development of the instrument include Buddy Emmons, Bud Isaacs, Zane Beck, Paul Bigsby. In addition to American country music and Hawaiian music, the instrument is common in sacred music, Nigerian Music, Indian music; the instrument's ancestry is traced to the Hawaiian Islands in the late 19th century after the Spanish guitar was introduced there by European sailors and by Mexican vaqueros who came there to herd cattle. Hawaiians who did not want to take the time to learn how to play a Spanish guitar, re-tuned the instrument so it sounded a major chord when strummed thought to be an "unorthodox tuning".
This was known as "slack-key". To change chords, they used some smooth object a piece of pipe or metal, sliding it over the strings to the fourth or fifth position playing a three-chord song. To make playing easier, they played it while sitting; the problem with playing a traditional Spanish guitar this way was that the steel tone bar strikes against the frets making an unpleasant sound unless played lightly—this was corrected by raising the strings higher off the fretboard with a piece of metal or wood over the nut. This technique became popular throughout Hawaii. Joseph Kekuku was a Hawaiian from Oahu who became proficient in this style of playing around the turn of the century and popularized it—some sources say he invented the steel guitar, he moved to the United States mainland and became vaudeville performer and toured Europe performing Hawaiian music. The Hawaiian style of playing spread to the United States mainland and became popular during the first half of the 20th century, to the degree that it has been called the "Hawaiian craze", ignited by several events.
One such event was a 1912 Broadway musical show called Bird of Paradise, which featured Hawaiian music and elaborate costumes. The show became a hit and, to ride this wave of success, it was subsequently taken on the road in the U. S. and Europe spawning a motion picture of the same name. Joseph Kekuku was a member of the show's original cast and toured Europe with the Bird of Paradise show for eight years; the Washington Herald in 1918 stated, "So great is the popularity of Hawaiian music in this country that'The Bird of Paradise' will go on record as having created the greatest musical fad this country has known". Another event fueling the popularity of Hawaiian music was a radio broadcast called "Hawaii Calls" which began broadcasting from Hawaii to the US west coast, it prominently featured Hawaiian songs sung in English. Subsequently, the program was heard worldwide on over 750 stations. One of pedal steel guitar's foremost virtuosos, Buddy Emmons, at age 11 trained at the "Hawaiian Conservatory of Music" in South Bend, Indiana.
The Hawaiian style was adapted to blues music. Blues musicians played a conventional Spanish guitar as hybrid between the two types of guitars, using one finger inserted into a tubular slide or a bottleneck while using frets with the remaining fingers; this is known as "slide guitar". One of the first southern blues musicians to adapt the Hawaiian sound to the blues was "Tampa Red" whose playing, says historian Gérard Herzhaft, "created a style that has unquestionably influenced all modern blues."The acceptance of the sound of the steel guitar referred to as "Hawaiian guitars" or "lap steels", spurred instrument makers to produce them in quantity and create innovations in the design to accommodate this style of playing. Hawaiian lap steel guitars were not loud enough to compete with other instruments, a problem that many inventors were trying to remedy. In Los Angeles in the 1920s, a steel guitar player named George Beauchamp saw some inventions which added a horn, like a megaphone, to steel guitars to make them louder.
Beauchamp became interested, went to a shop near his home to learn more. The shop
Ollie Imogene "Jean" Shepard was an American honky tonk singer-songwriter who pioneered for women in country music. Shepard released a total of 73 singles to the Hot Country Songs chart, one of which reached the No. 1 spot. She recorded a total of 24 studio albums between 1956–81, became a member of the Grand Ole Opry in 1955. After Kitty Wells' 1952 breakthrough, Shepard followed, a national television gig and the Opry helped make her a star when few female country singers had enduring success, her first hit, "A Dear John Letter", a 1953 duet with Ferlin Husky, was the first post-World War II record by a woman country artist to sell more than a million copies. Ollie Imogene Shepard was born November 21, 1933, in Pauls Valley, one of 10 children, she was raised in Visalia, near Bakersfield. As a teenager, she played bass in the Melody Ranch Girls, an all-female band formed in 1948. Hank Thompson discovered Shepard a few years later. With Thompson's help, Shepard signed with Capitol Records in 1952, following the success of Kitty Wells' "It Wasn't God Who Made Honky Tonk Angels" Shepard cut four songs at her first session with popular band players Jimmy Bryant, Speedy West, Cliffie Stone and Billy Strange.
She recorded her first single for the label in 1952, "Crying Steel Guitar Waltz", but it failed to chart. Shepard's first chart appearance was 1953's duet with Ferlin Husky, with "A Dear John Letter", it was a No. 1 smash, became a major crossover pop hit, peaking at No. 4 on the Billboard pop chart. The song struck a chord with audiences as it was a half-spoken duet about a soldier in the Korean War; the duo's follow-up, "Forgive Me John", was another crossover hit, peaking in the Top 10 on the country chart and the top 25 on the pop chart. Because at 20 she was still a minor, Shepard's parents signed her rights to Husky. In 1955, Shepard joined ABC-TV's nationally telecast Ozark Jubilee for several years, recorded her first studio album, Songs of a Love Affair, written by Shepard, she charted her first solo top ten single, "A Satisfied Mind", that same year, backed by the No. 13 hit, "Take Possession". "A Satisfied Mind" peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard country chart. Shepard had another top five hit the same year with "Beautiful Lies".
Its flip side, peaked in the country top ten. Her streak of hit singles led to an invitation to join the Grand Ole Opry in 1955 as one of its few female stars; because she was a honky tonk singer when the Nashville sound was popular, Shepard had just two charting country singles between 1956 and 1963. Those two singles, 1958's "I Want to Go Where No One Knows Me" and 1959's "Have Heart Will Love". In 1960, Shepard married fellow Opry star Hawkshaw Hawkins, he died three years in the same plane crash that killed Patsy Cline and Cowboy Copas. Shepard gave birth to their son Hawkshaw Jr. just one month after the crash. She married country music musician and singer Benny Birchfield, he was injured in a stabbing along with their granddaughter, who died, December 18, 2016 in his home in Tennessee. Shepard returned to the top ten in 1964 with "Second Fiddle", which began a string of hits and proved a commercial comeback as well. In 1964 and 1965, she had two Top 40 hits with "A Tear Dropped By" and "Someone's Gotta Cry", from the Heart, We Did All That We Could LP released in 1967.
In 1966, Shepard recorded a duet with country singer Ray Pillow titled, "I'll Take the Dog", which peaked at No. 9 on the Billboard country chart. This was followed by two solo hit singles the same year: the top ten hit, "If the Teardrops Were Silver" and the top 15 hit, "Many Happy Hangovers to You". In 1967, Shepard had two top 20 hits with the title track of Heart, We Did All That We Could and the single "Your Forevers Don't Last Very Long"; the following year she had only one Top 40 hit, but continued to release albums, which included 1968's A Real Good Woman. In 1969, Shepard's LP, Seven Lonely Days, produced the hit single of the same name that reached the top 20. With the release of 1969's "Then He Touched Me", Shepard had a top ten hit. Shepard had one more Top 40 hit with Capitol, 1971's "With His Hand in Mine". In the early 1970s, Shepard moved to United Artists Records, her first single for the label in 1973, the Bill Anderson-penned "Slippin' Away", was her biggest solo hit since the fifties.
The single peaked at No. 4 on the Billboard country chart and charted on the Billboard pop chart, peaking outside the Top 40. Shepard's hits continued throughout the 1970s, though as the decade wore on she hit the Top 40 less frequently, she had three top 20 hits in 1974, beginning with the No. 13 smash "At the Time", "I'll Do Anything it Takes". In 1975, Shepard recorded an album of songs written by Poor Sweet Baby. Both singles from the album were top 20 hits on the Billboard country chart between 1974 and 1975, were her last Top 40 singles. Shepard was known in country music as a "staunch traditionalist" and created some controversy when she served as president of the Association of Country Entertainers, formed in response to Olivia Newton-John's CMA Female Vocalist of the Year win in 1974; the organization was intended to keep country music "pure" and criticized the pop influences at the time. Shepard would come out in defense of "pure" country music again nearly forty years criticizing singer and TV personality Blake Shelton for a comment in which he refe
Vibrato systems for guitar
A vibrato system on a guitar is a mechanical device used to temporarily change the pitch of the strings. Instruments without a vibrato have other tailpiece systems, they add vibrato to the sound by changing the tension of the strings at the bridge or tailpiece of an electric guitar using a controlling lever. The lever enables the player to and temporarily vary the tension and sometimes length of the strings, changing the pitch to create a vibrato, portamento, or pitch bend effect; the pitch-bending effects have become an important part of many styles, allowing creation of sounds that could not be played without the device, such as the 1980s-era shred guitar "dive bombing" effect. The mechanical vibrato systems began as a device for more producing the vibrato effects that blues and jazz guitarists had achieved on arch top guitars by manipulating the tailpiece with their picking hand. Guitar makers developed a variety of vibrato systems since the 1920s. A vibrato-equipped guitar is more difficult to tune than a fixed-tailpiece guitar.
Since the regular appearance of mechanical vibrato systems in the 1950s, many guitarists have used them—from Chet Atkins to Duane Eddy and the surf music of The Ventures, The Shadows, Dick Dale. In the 1960s and 1970s, Jimi Hendrix, Jeff Beck, David Gilmour, Ritchie Blackmore, Jimmy Page, Frank Zappa used vibrato arms for more pronounced effects. In the 1980s, shred guitarists Eddie Van Halen, Eric Johnson, Joe Satriani and Steve Vai, metal guitarists Ritchie Blackmore, Kirk Hammett, Terje Rypdal, David Torn and David Duhig used vibrato in a range of metal-influenced styles; some electric guitarists have reversed the normal meanings of the terms vibrato and tremolo when referring to hardware devices and the effects they produce. This reversal of terminology is attributed to Leo Fender and the naming of his 1954 Stratocaster mechanical vibrato system as a "Tremolo Device for Stringed Instruments". Additionally, the 1956 Fender "Vibrolux" guitar amplifier, used electronically generated tremolo that Fender called “vibrato”.
Other classic guitar amplifiers contain electronic “vibrato units” which produce a tremolo effect via a tremolo circuit. This confusion of terms persists. While the "tremolo arm" can produce variations of pitch, including vibrato, it cannot produce tremolo. Other used names for the device include "vibrato bar" and "whammy bar", the latter attributed to guitarist Lonnie Mack's aggressive, rapid manipulation of the pitch-bending device in his 1963 song "Wham!". It has been called a "whang bar". Most vibrato systems for guitar are based on one of four basic designs: Bigsby Vibrato Tailpiece, introduced in the late 1940s and used in close to original form on many guitars Fender Synchronized Tremolo or strat trem, introduced on the Fender Stratocaster, which inspired many designs, including: Floyd Rose locking tremolo G&L Dual-fulcrum Vibrato, designed by Leo Fender Fender two-point synchronized tremolo Fender Floating Bridge, which has two main variants: Fender Floating Tremolo or jag trem, introduced on the Fender Jazzmaster Fender Dynamic Vibrato or stang trem, introduced on the Fender Mustang Cam-driven designs based on pedal steel guitar concepts, include: Kahler Tremolo System Washburn Wonderbar Stetsbar tremolo Many other designs exist in smaller numbers, notably several original designs marketed by Gibson under the Vibrola name, which they used for some licensed Bigsby units.
A design patented in 2006 from Trem King uses a fixed bridge with a moving tone block. The world's first patented mechanical vibrato unit was designed by Doc Kauffman; the initial patent was filed in August 1929 and was published in 1932. Between 1920 and 1980 Kauffman collaborated with many pioneering guitar manufacturers including Rickenbacker and Fender. In the late 1930s Rickenbacker produced the first commercial batch of electric Spanish guitars, utilizing the Kauffman "Vib-rol-a" as a stock option, thus setting precedence for electric guitars produced by Fender and Gibson; the Epiphone guitar company first offered the Vibrola as an option on some archtop guitars from 1935 to 1937. Epiphone sold the Vibrola as an aftermarket option as well; this Vibrola was used on some Rickenbacker lap steel guitars at around the same time and was introduced on their six string'Electro Spanish' guitars beginning about 1937. Some early Vibrolas on Rickenbacker guitars were not operated by hand, but rather moved with an electrical mechanism developed by Doc Kauffman to simulate the pitch manipulation available with steel guitars.
The Vibrola distributed as an option with Rickenbacker Electro Spanish guitars was hand operated like the earliest Epiphone Vibrolas. A unit was created and used on Rickenbacker's Capri line of guitars in the 1950s, such as John Lennon's 1958 Rickenbacker 325, it was a side-to-side action vibrato unit, notorious for throwing the guitar out of tune, hence Lennon's replacing his with a Bigsby B5 unit.. The first commercially successful vibrato system for guitar was the Bigsby vibrato tailpiece just called a Bigsby, invented by Paul Bigsby; the exact date of its first availability is uncertain, as Bigsby kept few records, but it was on Bigsby-built guitars photographed in 1952, in what became its standard form. In several interviews, the late Merle Travis
The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has continuously manufactured the Stratocaster from 1954 to the present, it is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top "horn" shape for balance. Along with the Gibson Les Paul and Fender Telecaster, it is one of the most-often emulated electric guitar shapes. "Stratocaster" and "Strat" are trademark terms belonging to Fender. Guitars that duplicate the Stratocaster by other manufacturers are called S-Type or ST-type guitars; the Stratocaster is a versatile guitar, usable for most styles of music and has been used in many genres, including country, rock, folk, soul and blues, jazz and heavy metal. The Fender Stratocaster was the first guitar to feature three pickups and a spring tension vibrato system, as well as being the first Fender with a contoured body; the Stratocaster's sleek, contoured body shape differed from the flat, slab-like design of the Telecaster.
The Stratocaster's double cutaways allowed players easier access to higher positions on the neck. Starting in 1954, the Stratocaster was offered with a solid contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays, Kluson tuning machines; the color was a two color sunburst pattern, although custom color guitars were produced. In 1956, Fender began using alder for most custom color Stratocaster bodies. In 1960, the available custom colors were standardized, many of which were automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. A unique single-ply, 8-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate—facilitating easy assembly. Original Stratocasters were manufactured with five tremolo springs, allowing the bridge set up to "float". In the floating position, players can move the bridge-mounted tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Hank Marvin, Jeff Beck and Ike Turner have used the Stratocaster's floating vibrato extensively in their playing.
As string gauges have changed, players have experimented with the number of tremolo springs, as the average gauge has decreased over the years, modern Stratocasters are equipped with three springs as a stock option in order to counteract the reduced string tension. While the floating bridge has unique advantages, the functionality of the "floating" has been accepted and disputed by many musicians; as the bridge floats, the instrument has a tendency to go out of tune during double-stop string bends. Many Stratocaster players opt to tighten the tremolo springs so that the bridge is anchored against the guitar body: in this configuration, the tremolo arm can still be used to slacken the strings and therefore lower the pitch, but it cannot be used to raise the pitch; some players, such as Eric Clapton and Ronnie Wood, feel that the floating bridge has an excessive propensity to detune guitars and so inhibit the bridge's movement with a chunk of wood wedged between the bridge block and the inside cutout of the tremolo cavity, by increasing the tension on the tremolo springs.
Some Stratocasters have a fixed bridge in place of the tremolo assembly. There is considerable debate about the effects on tone and sustain of the material used in the vibrato system's'inertia bar' and many aftermarket versions are available; the Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the output selected by a 3-way switch. Guitarists soon discovered that by jamming the switch in between the first and second position, both the bridge and middle pickups could be selected, the middle and neck pickups could be selected between the 2nd and 3rd position; when two pickups are selected they are wired in parallel which leads to a slight drop in output as more current is allowed to pass to the ground. However, since the middle pickup is always wired in reverse, this configuration creates a spaced humbucking pair, which reduces 50/60 cycle hum. In 1977 Fender introduced a 5-way selector making such pickup combinations more stable; the "quacky" tone of the middle and bridge pickups, popularized by players such as Jimi Hendrix, Stevie Ray Vaughan, David Gilmour, Rory Gallagher, Mark Knopfler, Bob Dylan, Scott Thurston, Ronnie Wood, John Mayer, Ed King, Eric Clapton and Robert Cray, can be obtained by using the pickup selector in positions 2 and 4.
This setting's characteristic tone is not caused by any electronic phenomenon—early Stratocasters used identical pickups for all positions. This "in between" tone is caused by phase cancellation due to the physical position of the pickups along the vibrating string; the neck and middle pickups are each wired to a tone control that incorporates a single, shared tone capacitor, whereas the bridge pickup, slanted towards the high strings for a more trebly sound, has no tone control for maximum brightness. On many modern Stratocasters, the first tone control affects the neck pickup.
The electric mandolin is an instrument tuned and played as the mandolin and amplified in similar fashion to an electric guitar. As with electric guitars, electric mandolins take many forms: Most common is a carved-top eight-string instrument fitted with an electric pickup in similar fashion to many arch top guitars. Solid body mandolins are common in 4-, 5-, 8-string forms. Acoustic electric and semi-acoustic mandolins exist in many forms. Electric mandolins were built in the United States as early as the late 1920s. Among the first companies to produce them were Stromberg-Voisinet, Vivi-Tone, National. Gibson and Vega introduced their electric mandolins in 1936. In the United States, luthier/inventor Paul Bigsby began building solidbody electric mandolins in 1949, his first one was built for Al Giddings. Bigsby's most famous mandolin, built in 1952, was owned and played by Western swing musician Tiny Moore; this instrument had five single courses rather than the more common four double courses, was patterned after a similar instrument built by Jim Harvey of La Jolla, for a player named Scotty Broyles.
Gibson and Rickenbacker introduced solid-body eight-string mandolins in the 1950s, while Fender followed the single-course idea with its four-string version. A related instrument, the Bahian guitar, was developed in Brazil beginning in the 1940s. Bahian guitars have a solid body and four or five strings tuned in fifths, but are considered to be electric versions of the cavaquinho rather than the mandolin. Both four-string single-course and eight-string double-course solid body mandolins have been produced by several makers, as well as five-string models combining the tonal ranges of the mandola and mandolin. From 1956 to 1976, Fender produced a four-string version, the Fender Electric Mandolin, with a body shape was based loosely on the Stratocaster, popularly nicknamed the "Mandocaster." More Fender produced an eight-string semi-acoustic electric mandolin with a similar body shape, reissued as the Mando-Strat in both four- and eight-string models. Gibson manufactured the EM-200 solid-body electric mandolin from 1954 to 1971.
They produced a solid-body mandolin known as the Mandobird, based on the Gibson Firebird body and sold under the Epiphone label, in both four- and eight-string versions. Eastwood Guitars manufactured a solid-body eight-string electric mandolin as the "Mandocaster" with a Telecaster-style body and two single-coil pickups.. While the electric mandolin has increased in popularity along with its acoustic cousin, there are still few recordings featuring it as a lead instrument on more than a song or two; the following artists have issued full-length recordings prominently featuring an electric mandolin throughout: Tiny Moore Yank Rachell John Kruth Mark Heard Michael Kang/String Cheese Incident Uppalapu Srinivas Warren Ellis Nash the Slash Kevin Jonas Ben Mink Charles O'Connor of Horslips Emando.com Mandobird 4 at the Epiphone website. Fender Electric Mandolin collector's site. Mando-Strat at the Fender website. Mandocaster at the Eastwood Guitars website
Ferlin Eugene Husky was an early American country music singer, adept at the genres of traditional honky-tonk, spoken recitations, rockabilly pop tunes. He had two dozen top-20 hits in the Billboard country charts between 1953 and 1975. In the 1950s and 1960s, Husky's hits included "Gone" and "Wings of a Dove", each reaching number one on the country charts, he created a comic outspoken hayseed character, Simon Crum. In 2010, Husky was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame. Husky was born in Gumbo, Missouri, an unincorporated community in Northwestern St. Francois County, Missouri, his mother named him Furland. Husky attended school in Irondale, he learned guitar from an uncle. After dropping out of high school, Husky moved to St. Louis, where he worked as a truck driver and steel mill worker while performing in honky tonks at night. During World War II, Husky served in the United States Merchant Marine for five years, entertaining troops on transport ships, his Crum character evolved from stories he told at the time about a Missouri neighbor named Simon Crump.
His website states. After the war, Husky continued to develop the Crum character while working as a disc jockey in Missouri and Bakersfield, California, in the late 1940s, he began using the moniker Terry Preston at the suggestion of Smiley Burnette, who claimed Ferlin Husky would never work on a marquee. As a honky-tonk singer, Husky signed with Capitol Records in 1953 under the guidance of Cliffie Stone the manager for Tennessee Ernie Ford. With Capitol Records, he returned to using his given name. A few singles failed before "A Dear John Letter"; the followup was called "Forgive Me John". In 1955, Husky had a solo hit with "I Feel Better All Over"/"Little Tom"; as Simon Crum, he signed a separate contract with Capitol Records and began releasing records, the biggest of, 1959's "Country Music is Here to Stay". In the late 1950s, Husky had a long string of hits, including the number-one "Gone" in 1957. "Gone" was a crossover success reaching number four on the pop music chart. It sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc.
The song's popularity led to a stint as a summer replacement host in 1957 on CBS-TV's Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts. He began acting, appearing on Kraft Television Theatre, portraying himself in the 1957 film Mister Rock and Roll, he received sole top billing in a 1971 low-budget backcountry film. Bob Ferguson's "Wings of a Dove" became his biggest hit in 1960, topping the country charts for 10 weeks and attaining number 12 on the pop chart. Husky was known for his ability to mimic other popular country singers, including Tennessee Ernie Ford and Kitty Wells. Although he did not have more chart-toppers, he charted three dozen hits between 1961 and 1972, with the biggest being "Once" and "Just for You". In late 1972, after over 20 years with Capitol, Husky signed with ABC Records, where he scored several top-40 hits into 1975, with the biggest being the top-20 "Rosie Cries a Lot". Husky retired in 1977 following heart surgery, but resumed touring, he remained a popular concert draw, performing at elsewhere.
He was married four times and for the last six years of his life lived with his long-time love, Leona Williams. Husky suffered from cardiopathy for many years and was hospitalized several times since the late 1970s, including for heart surgery in 2005 and blood clots in his legs in 2007, he was admitted to St. John's Hospital in Springfield, Missouri, on April 19, 2009, with congestive heart failure and pneumonia. On July 15, 2009, his spokesman said he was recuperating at home after being released from a Nashville hospital; as as 2009, he lived in Vienna, Missouri. On February 23, 2010, the Country Music Association announced his induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame, he was heralded for his vocal and comic prowess—and "all around showmanship"—that left a legacy as "one of the best entertainers country music has produced". On January 16, 2011, Husky was honored at West St. Francois County High School in Leadwood, where local singers and the high-school choir sang some of his hits. Husky donated several items of memorabilia, including his Country Music Hall of Fame award, to the city of Leadwood.
They will be permanently stored at the high school. On March 8, 2011, Husky was hospitalized again after several days of not feeling well. By the weekend, he had improved and was preparing to move out of the coronary care unit, but on March 17, Husky died at his daughter's home in Westmoreland, Tennessee, of congestive heart failure, he was interred next to his son, Danny Louis Husky, in Hendersonville Memory Gardens in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Husky was one of the first country singers to get a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6675 Hollywood Blvd; the street that runs through the city park in Leadwood, Missouri, is named for him. Roy, Don.. "Ferlin Husky". In The Encyclopedia of Country Music. Paul Kingsbury, Editor. New York: Oxford Univers
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC