Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Match Game is an American television panel game show that premiered on NBC in 1962 and was revived several times over the course of the next few decades. The game featured contestants trying to come up with answers to fill-in-the-blank questions that are formed as humorous double entendres, the object being to match answers given by celebrity panelists; the Match Game in its original version ran on NBC's daytime lineup from 1962 until 1969. The show returned with a changed format in 1973 on CBS and became a major success, with an expanded panel, larger cash payouts, emphasis on humor; the CBS series, referred to on air as Match Game 73 to start and updated every new year, ran until 1979 on CBS, at which point it moved to first-run syndication and ran for three more seasons, ending in 1982. Concurrently with the weekday run, from 1975 to 1981, a once-a-week fringe time version, Match Game PM, was offered in syndication for airing just before prime time hours. Match Game returned to NBC in 1983 as part of a sixty-minute hybrid series with Hollywood Squares saw a daytime run on ABC in 1990 and another for syndication in 1998.
It returned to ABC in a weekly prime time edition on June 26, 2016, running as an off-season replacement series. All of these revivals used the 1970s format with varying modifications; the series was a production of Mark Goodson/Bill Todman Productions, along with its successor companies, has been franchised around the world under the name Blankety Blanks. In 2013, TV Guide ranked the 1973–79 CBS version of Match Game as No. 4 on its list of the 60 greatest game shows ever. It was twice nominated for the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Game Show, in 1976 and 1977; the Match Game premiered on December 31, 1962. Gene Rayburn was Johnny Olson served as announcer; the show was taped in Studio 8H at 30 Rockefeller Plaza in New York City, NBC's largest New York studio, which since 1975 has housed Saturday Night Live, among other shows. A team scored 25 points if two teammates matched answers or 50 points if all three contestants matched; the first team to score 100 points won $100 and played the audience match, which featured three survey questions.
Each contestant who agreed with the most popular answer to a question earned the team $50, for a possible total of $450. The questions used in the game were pedestrian in nature: "Name a kind of muffin," "Write down one of the words to'Row, Row Your Boat' other than'Row,"Your,' or'Boat,'" or "John loves his _____." The humor in the original series came from the panelists' reactions to the other answers. In 1963, NBC cancelled the series with six weeks left to be recorded. Question writer Dick DeBartolo came up with a funnier set of questions, like "Mary likes to pour gravy all over John's _____," and submitted it to Mark Goodson. With the knowledge that the show couldn't be cancelled again, Goodson gave the go-ahead for the more risqué-sounding questions – a decision that caused a significant boost in ratings and an "un-cancellation" by NBC; the Match Game won its time slot from 1963 to 1966 and again from April 1967 to July 1968, with its ratings allowing it to finish third among all network daytime games for the 1963–64 and 1967–68 seasons.
NBC occasionally used special episodes of the series as a gap-filling program in prime time if one of its movies had an irregular time slot. Although the series still did well in the ratings, it was cancelled in 1969 along with other games in a major daytime programming overhaul, being replaced by Letters to Laugh-In which, although a spin-off of the popular prime time series Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In, ended in just three months, on December 26; the Match Game continued through September 26, 1969, on NBC for 1,760 episodes, airing at 4:00 p.m. Eastern, running 25 minutes due to a five minute newscast slot. Since Olson split time between New York and Miami to announce The Jackie Gleason Show, one of the network's New York staff announcers filled in for Olson when he could not attend a broadcast. On March 27, 1967, the show added a "telephone match" game, in which a home viewer and a studio audience member attempted to match a simple fill-in-the-blank question, similar to the 1970s' "head-to-head match".
A successful match won a jackpot, which increased by $100 per day until won. Few episodes of the 1960s The Match Game survive. In the early 1970s, CBS vice president Fred Silverman began overhauling the network's programming as part of what has colloquially become known as the rural purge; as part of this overhaul, the network reintroduced game shows beginning in 1972. One of the first new offerings was The New Price Is Right, a radically overhauled version of the 1950s game show The Price Is Right; the success of The New Price Is Right prompted Silverman to commission more game shows. In the summer of 1973, Mark Goodson and Bill Todman took a similar approach in adapting The Match Game by reworking the show, moving it to Los Angeles, adding more celebriti
Robert Ray "Rod" Roddy was an American radio and television announcer. He was known for his role as an offstage announcer on game shows. Among the shows that he announced are the CBS game shows Whew! and Press Your Luck. He is recognized by the signature line, "Come on down!" from The Price Is Right, it appears on his grave marker, although the phrase was originated and made popular by his predecessor Johnny Olson. Roddy succeeded original announcer Olson on The Price Is Right and held the role from 1986 until his death in 2003, as of 2015, is the longest-serving announcer on the current incarnation of the show. On many episodes of Press Your Luck and The Price Is Right, Roddy appeared on camera, he was the voice of Mike the microphone on Disney's House of Mouse from 2001 to 2003. After graduating from Texas Christian University, Roddy began his professional broadcasting career as a disc jockey and talk show host on KLIF and KNUS-FM, he worked overnights and mid-days at the Buffalo, New York radio station WKBW AM, a big-signal station covering the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, at other high-profile stations.
Returning to KLIF and KNUS during the 1970s, Roddy hosted a call-in program, Rod Roddy's Hotline, whose controversial host and topics made him a frequent target of death threats. He conducted a long-running on-air feud with an elderly woman, who claimed to represent the local Ku Klux Klan. Roddy announced the sitcom Soap from 1977 to 1981, where he provided the opening and closing narration: "Confused? You won't be after this week's episode of Soap!" He replaced Casey Kasem. Roddy's first work as a game show announcer was on Whew!, which aired from 1979 to 1980. From there, he went on to announce several other game shows, including Battlestars, Love Connection, Hit Man and the popular Press Your Luck. Roddy voiced a number of national television commercials, including those for Pennzoil and Public Storage. After Goodson-Todman announcer Johnny Olson died in October 1985, Roddy was chosen as one of several substitute announcers to announce The Price Is Right. According to former producer Roger Dobkowitz, he liked Roddy the best, CBS's favorite.
Despite only announcing for six episodes, on February 17, 1986, Roddy was announced as the show's regular announcer. Roddy was the announcer on Tom Kennedy's Nighttime Price Is Right after Olson's death. Roddy adopted a rigorous diet and exercise program. Overweight for much of his adult life, the program resulted in Roddy's loss of close to 200 pounds. With his weight-loss regimen becoming a much-lauded success, he was shown on-camera while he announced "the next contestant on The Price Is Right", was featured in Showcase skits aiding the "Barker's Beauties", similar to Olson's frequent on-camera appearances. Roddy was noted for wearing brightly colored and sequined sport jackets, a practice he first adopted as a trademark when making personal appearances emceeing teen dances and concerts for WKBW in Buffalo in the 1960s. On The Price Is Right he first wore pastel jackets made in Hong Kong, with the encouragement of Barker turned them into a staple of the show. Preferring Thai silk for its colorfulness, he traveled to Bangkok several times a year to have new clothing custom-made.
He would frequently travel to Thailand as the official ambassador to Chiang Mai. On September 11, 2001, Roddy was diagnosed with colon cancer, he took a leave of absence to undergo and recover from surgery and chemotherapy, returned a month later. One year the colon cancer returned, Roddy temporarily took another leave of absence to undergo and recover from surgery on September 20, 2002. Again, he recovered within a month. In March 2003, Roddy was diagnosed with male breast cancer, he underwent surgery and afterwards, experienced major complications. As a result, Roddy was unable to announce for The Price Is Right for the rest of Season 31; the diagnoses led to Roddy becoming a spokesperson for early detection of cancer in his last years. In an interview with CBS, Roddy commented to the general public: I could have prevented all this with a colonoscopy, of course, that's the campaign I've been on since I had the first surgery. To everybody out there, get a mammogram! It can happen to men, too. Roddy continued to announce for The Price Is Right until his last hospitalization two months before his death on October 27, 2003, less than a month after his 66th birthday.
After his departure from the show, Burton Richardson and Randy West filled in. Roddy was replaced by Rich Fields in April 2004. Roddy's final episode aired on October 2003, just one week before his death. Roddy is interred at Fort Worth's Greenwood Memorial Park, he had "Come on Down" inscribed on his tombstone, a phrase popularized by Johnny Olson. Roddy was given a short tribute recorded shortly afterwards as a segment that lasted eighteen seconds, narrated by Barker, which aired before the start of a episode, where he says, "As many of you know, we have lost our dear friend, Rod Roddy. Rod's many television friends and all of us associated with The Price Is Right, will miss his splendid talent and his great sense of humor. May God bless Rod." Was followed by "IN MEMORY of ROD RODDY 1937-2003." Craig Kilborn in his final season as host of The Late Late Show, paid tribute to Roddy in a lengthy clip montage to end the October 28, 2003 show. In a similar manner to the 18-second tr
A game show is a type of radio, television, or stage show in which contestants, individually or as teams, play a game which involves answering questions or solving puzzles for money or prizes. Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants. Game shows reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the show's sponsor prize suppliers. Game shows began to appear on television in the late 1930s; the first television game show, Spelling Bee, as well as the first radio game show, Information Please, were both broadcast in 1938. Q. a radio quiz show that began in 1939. Truth or Consequences was the first game, its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as television began to pervade the popular culture, game shows became a fixture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives. Higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty-One and The $64,000 Question began a rapid rise in popularity. However, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged and ratings declines led to most of the primetime games being canceled. An early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived. On shows like What's My Line?, I've Got A Secret, To Tell the Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were collectively dropped from television because of their perceived low budget nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game and Hollywood Squares. In the UK, commercial demographic pressures were not as prominent, restrictions on game shows made in the wake of the scandals limited the style of games that could be played and the amount of money that could be awarded.
Panel have continued to thrive. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in strong ratings, combined with low costs of production, have only spurred growth in the UK panel show phenomenon. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals. Lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s. Let's Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game. Though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game show genre in the late 1960s on all three networks; the 1970s saw a renaissance of the game show as new games and massive upgrades to existing games made debuts on the major networks. The New Price Is Right, an update of the 1950s-era game show The Price Is Right, debuted in 1972 and marked CBS's return to the game show format in its effort to draw wealthier, suburban viewers; the Match Game became "Big Money" Match Game 73, which proved popular enough to prompt a spin-off, Family Feud, on ABC in 1976.
The $10,000 Pyramid and its numerous higher-stakes derivatives debuted in 1973, while the 1970s saw the return of disgraced producer and host Jack Barry, who debuted The Joker's Wild and a clean version of the rigged Tic-Tac-Dough in the 1970s. Wheel of Fortune debuted on NBC in 1975; the Prime Time Access Rule, which took effect in 1971, barred networks from broadcasting in the 7–8 p.m. time slot preceding prime time, opening up time slots for syndicated programming. Most of the syndicated programs were "nighttime" adaptations of network daytime game shows; these game shows aired once a week, but by the late 1970s and early 1980s most of the games had transitioned to five days a week. Game shows were the lowest priority of television networks and were rotated out every thirteen weeks if unsuccessful. Most tapes were destroyed until the early 1980s. Over the course of the late 1980s and early 1990s, as fewer new hits were produced, game shows lost their permanent place in the daytime lineup. ABC transitioned out of the daytime game show format in the mid-1980s.
NBC's game block lasted until 1991, but the network attempted to bring them back in 1993 before cancelling its game show block again in 1994. CBS phased out most of its game shows, except for The Price Is Right, by 1993. To the benefit of the genre, the moves of Wheel of Fortune and a modernized revival of Jeopardy! to syndication in 1983 and 1984 was and remains successful. Cable television allowed for the debut of game shows such as Supermarket Sweep, Trivial Pursuit and Family Challenge, Double Dare, it opened up a underdeveloped ma
An announcer is a person who makes "announcements" in an audio medium or a physical location. Some announcers work in television production, radio or filmmaking providing narrations, news updates, station identification, or an introduction of a product in television commercials or a guest on a talk show. Music television announcers were called video jockeys. Announcers are voice actors who read prepared scripts, but in some cases, they have to ad-lib commentary on the air when presenting news, weather and television commercials. Announcers are involved in writing the screenplay or scripts when one is required. Sometimes announcers interview guests and moderate panels or discussions; some provide commentary for the audience during sporting events known as sports announcers and other events. Announcers perform a variety of tasks including presenting news, weather and music. Other duties include interviewing guests, making public appearances at promotional events, announcing station programming information.
Announcers are sometimes responsible for operating studio equipment and producing/selling advertisements. It is becoming more common to use social media networking sites to keep listeners up to date. In 2010, the median salary of an announcer in the United States was $27,010. Television and radio announcers have a bachelor’s degree in communications, broadcasting, or journalism. Radio announcers are known as disc jockeys. While some read from scripts, others ad-lib; these DJs’ tasks consist of on-air interviewing, taking/responding to listener requests, running contests, making remarks about various subjects like the weather, traffic and other news. Most radio announcers announce the artists and titles of songs, but don’t choose what song airs on the radio. Many stations have a management teams. Today radio stations have DJs update the station’s website with music, guest interviews, show schedules, photos. Public address announcers work including sporting venues, they will give the attendees information about performing acts, players, infractions, or the results of the event.
Announcers may be specialized according to sport. A baseball announcer may introduce the next batter or recap the previous half-inning. Public address announcers may be notable due to their longevity, or tenure with a popular team or venue; some announcers in horse racing, may be known for television or radio work. Announcer's test Continuity announcer Sportscaster News presenter List of American public address announcers List of Japanese announcers