American football positions
In American football each team has 11 players on the field at one time. The specific role that a player takes on the field is called their position. Under the modern rules of American football, teams are allowed unlimited substitutions; this has resulted in the development of three "platoons" of players: the offense, the defense, the special teams. Within those platoons, various specific positions exist depending on. In American football, the offense is the side, it is their job to advance the ball towards the opponent's end zone to score points. Broadly, the eleven players of the offense are broken into two groups: the five offensive linemen, whose primary job is to block, the six backs and receivers whose primary job is to advance the ball either running with the ball or passing it; the backs and receivers are commonly known as skill position players or as eligible receivers. Offensive linemen are not eligible to advance the ball past the line of scrimmage during a play; the organization of the offense is mandated by the rules.
The only players eligible to handle the ball during a normal play are the backs and the two players on the end of the line. The remaining players are "ineligible" to catch forward passes, so they only block. Within these strictures, creative coaches have developed a wide array of offensive formations to take advantage of different player skills and game situations; the following positions are standard in nearly every game, though different teams will use different arrangements of them. The offensive line is responsible for blocking. During normal play, offensive linemen do not handle the ball, unless the ball is fumbled by a ball carrier, a pass is deflected, or when a player, an offensive lineman takes a different position on the field; the offensive line consists of: Center The center is the player who begins the play from scrimmage by snapping the ball to the quarterback. As the name suggests, the center plays in the middle of the offensive line, though some teams may employ an unbalanced line where the center is offset to one side.
Like all offensive linemen, the center has the responsibility to block defensive players. The center also has the responsibility to call out blocking assignments and make last second adjustments depending on the defensive alignment. Offensive guard Two guards line up directly on either side of the center. Like all interior linemen, their function is to block on both passing plays. On some plays, rather than blocking straight ahead, a guard will "pull", whereby the guard comes out of their position in line to lead block for a ball carrier, on plays known as "traps", "sweeps", "screens". In such cases, the guard is referred to as a "pulling guard". Offensive tackle Two tackles play outside of the guards, their role is to block on both running and passing plays. The area from one tackle to the other is an area of "close line play" in which blocks from behind, which are prohibited elsewhere on the field, are allowed. For a right-handed quarterback, the left tackle is charged with protecting the quarterback from being hit from behind, this is the most skilled player on the offensive line.
Like a guard, the tackle may have to "pull", on a running play, when there is a tight end on their side. Tackles have a taller, longer build than interior offensive linemen, due to the need to keep separation from defensive linemen in pass blocking situations, they tend to have quick footwork skills as they engage against containing or rushing defensive ends. The six backs and receivers are those that line up behind the offensive line. There are four main positions in this set of players: Quarterback The quarterback is the player who receives the ball from the center to start the play; the most important position on the offensive side, the quarterback is responsible for receiving the play from the coaches on the sideline and communicating the play to the other offensive players in the huddle. The quarterback may need to make changes to the play at the line of scrimmage, depending on the defensive alignment. At the start of the play, the quarterback may be lined up in one of three positions. If they are positioned directly in contact with the center and receives the ball via the direct hand-to-hand pass, they are said to be "under center".
If they have lined up some distance behind the center, they are said to be in "shotgun formation". They can be in between; this is called a "pistol formation". Upon receiving the snap, the quarterback has three basic options, they may run the ball, they may hand it to another eligible ball carrier to run with it, or execute a forward pass to a player downfield. Running back Running backs are players who line up behind the offensive line, in a position to receive the ball from the quarterback and execute a rushing play. Anywhere from one to three running backs may be utilized on a play. Depending on where they line up, what role they have, running backs come in several varieties; the "tailback" (or so
The Indianapolis Colts are an American football team based in Indianapolis, Indiana. The Colts compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's American Football Conference South division. Since the 2008 season, the Colts have played their games in Lucas Oil Stadium; the team had played for over two decades at the RCA Dome. Since 1987, the Colts have been the host team for the NFL Scouting Combine; the Colts have been a member club of the NFL since their founding in Baltimore in 1953. They were one of three NFL teams to join those of the American Football League to form the AFC following the 1970 merger. While in Baltimore, the team advanced to the playoffs 10 times and won three NFL Championship games in 1958, 1959, 1968; the Colts played in two Super Bowls while they were based in Baltimore, losing to the New York Jets in Super Bowl III and defeating the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl V. The Colts relocated to Indianapolis in 1984 and have since appeared in the playoffs 16 times, won two conference championships, won one Super Bowl, in which they defeated the Chicago Bears in Super Bowl XLI.
Following World War II, a competing professional football league was organized known as the All America Football Conference which began to play in the 1946 season. In its second year the franchise assigned to the Miami Seahawks was relocated to Maryland's major commercial and manufacturing city of Baltimore. After a fan contest the team was renamed the Baltimore Colts and used the team colors of silver and green; the Colts played for the next three seasons in the old AAFC. until they agreed to merge with the old National Football League when the NFL was reorganized. The Baltimore Colts were one of the three former AAFC powerhouse teams to merge with the NFL at that time, the others being the San Francisco 49ers and the Cleveland Browns; this new Colts team, now in the "big league" of professional American football for the first time, although with shaky financing and ownership, played only in the 1950 season of the reorganized "third" NFL, was disbanded and moved. Two years in 1953, a new Baltimore-based group supported by the City's municipal government and with a large subscription-base of fan-purchased season tickets, led by local owner Carroll Rosenbloom won the rights to a new Baltimore NFL franchise.
Rosenbloom was awarded the remains of the former Dallas Texans team, who themselves had a long and winding history starting as the Boston Yanks in 1944, merging with the Brooklyn Tigers, who were known as the Dayton Triangles, one of the original old NFL teams established before the League itself, in 1913. With the organization in 1920 of the original "American Professional Football Conference" two years in 1922, renamed a second time, now permanently as the "National Football League"; that team became the New York Yanks in 1950, many of the players from the New York Yankees of the former competing All-America Football Conference were added to the team to begin playing in the newly merged League for the 1950 season. The Yanks moved to Dallas in Texas after the 1951 season having competed for two seasons, but played their final two "home" games of the 1952 season as a so-called "road team" at the Rubber Bowl football stadium in Akron, Ohio; the NFL considers the Texans and Colts to be separate teams, although many of the earlier teams shared the same colors of blue and white.
Thus, the Indianapolis Colts are considered to be a 1953 expansion team. The third version of the Colts football team played their first season in Baltimore in 1953, where the team compiled a 3–9 record under first-year head coach Keith Molesworth; the franchise struggled during the first few years in Baltimore, with the team not achieving their first winning record until the 1957 season. However, under head coach Weeb Ewbank and the leadership of quarterback Johnny Unitas, the Colts went on to a 9–3 record during the 1958 season and reached the NFL Championship Game for the first time in their history by winning the NFL Western Conference; the Colts faced the New York Giants in the 1958 NFL Championship Game, considered to be among the greatest contests in professional football history. The Colts defeated the Giants 23–17 in the first game to utilize the overtime rule, a game seen by 45 million people. Following the Colts first NFL championship, the team posted a 9–3 record during the 1959 season and once again defeated the Giants in the NFL Championship Game to claim their second title in back to back fashion.
Following the two championships in 1958 and 1959, the Colts did not return to the NFL Championship for four seasons and replaced the head coach Ewbank with the young Don Shula in 1963. In Shula's second season the Colts compiled a 12–2 record, but lost to the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship. However, in 1968 the Colts returned with the continued leadership of Unitas and Shula and went on to win the Colts' third NFL Championship and made an appearance in Super Bowl III. Leading up to the Super Bowl and following the 34–0 trouncing of the Cleveland Browns in the NFL Championship, many were calling the 1968 Colts team one of the "greatest pro football teams of all time" and were favored by 18 points against their counterparts from the American Football League, the New York Jets; the Colts, were stunned by the Jets, who won the game 16–7 in the first Super Bowl victory for the young AFL. The result of the game surprised many in the sports media as Joe Namath and Matt Snell led the Jets to the Super Bowl victory under head coach Weeb Ewbank, who had won
College football is American football played by teams of student athletes fielded by American universities and military academies, or Canadian football played by teams of student athletes fielded by Canadian universities. It was through college football play that American football rules first gained popularity in the United States. Unlike most other sports in North America, no minor league farm organizations exist in American or Canadian football. Therefore, college football is considered to be the second tier of American football in the United States and Canadian football in Canada. However, in some areas of the country, college football is more popular than professional football, for much of the early 20th century, college football was seen as more prestigious than professional football, it is in college football where a player's performance directly impacts his chances of playing professional football. The best collegiate players will declare for the professional draft after three to four years of collegiate competition, with the NFL holding its annual draft every spring in which 256 players are selected annually.
Those not selected can still attempt to land an NFL roster spot as an undrafted free agent. After the emergence of the professional National Football League, college football remained popular throughout the U. S. Although the college game has a much larger margin for talent than its pro counterpart, the sheer number of fans following major colleges provides a financial equalizer for the game, with Division I programs — the highest level — playing in huge stadiums, six of which have seating capacity exceeding 100,000 people. In many cases, college stadiums employ bench-style seating, as opposed to individual seats with backs and arm rests; this allows them to seat more fans in a given amount of space than the typical professional stadium, which tends to have more features and comforts for fans.. College athletes, unlike players in the NFL, are not permitted by the NCAA to be paid salaries. Colleges are only allowed to provide non-monetary compensation such as athletic scholarships that provide for tuition and books.
Modern North American football has its origins in various games, all known as "football", played at public schools in Great Britain in the mid-19th century. By the 1840s, students at Rugby School were playing a game in which players were able to pick up the ball and run with it, a sport known as Rugby football; the game was taken to Canada by British soldiers stationed there and was soon being played at Canadian colleges. The first documented gridiron football match was played at University College, a college of the University of Toronto, November 9, 1861. One of the participants in the game involving University of Toronto students was William Mulock Chancellor of the school. A football club was formed at the university soon afterward, although its rules of play at this stage are unclear. In 1864, at Trinity College a college of the University of Toronto, F. Barlow Cumberland and Frederick A. Bethune devised rules based on rugby football. Modern Canadian football is regarded as having originated with a game played in Montreal, in 1865, when British Army officers played local civilians.
The game gained a following, the Montreal Football Club was formed in 1868, the first recorded non-university football club in Canada. Early games appear to have had much in common with the traditional "mob football" played in Great Britain; the games remained unorganized until the 19th century, when intramural games of football began to be played on college campuses. Each school played its own variety of football. Princeton University students played a game called "ballown" as early as 1820. A Harvard tradition known as "Bloody Monday" began in 1827, which consisted of a mass ballgame between the freshman and sophomore classes. In 1860, both the town police and the college authorities agreed; the Harvard students responded by going into mourning for a mock figure called "Football Fightum", for whom they conducted funeral rites. The authorities held firm and it was a dozen years before football was once again played at Harvard. Dartmouth played its own version called "Old division football", the rules of which were first published in 1871, though the game dates to at least the 1830s.
All of these games, others, shared certain commonalities. They remained "mob" style games, with huge numbers of players attempting to advance the ball into a goal area by any means necessary. Rules were simple and injury were common; the violence of these mob-style games led to a decision to abandon them. Yale, under pressure from the city of New Haven, banned the play of all forms of football in 1860. American football historian Parke H. Davis described the period between 1869 and 1875 as the'Pioneer Period'. On November 6, 1869, Rutgers University faced Princeton University in the first-ever game of intercollegiate football, it was played with a round ball and, like all early games, used a set of rules suggested by Rutgers captain William J. Leggett, based
National Football League
The National Football League is a professional American football league consisting of 32 teams, divided between the National Football Conference and the American Football Conference. The NFL is one of the four major professional sports leagues in North America, the highest professional level of American football in the world; the NFL's 17-week regular season runs from early September to late December, with each team playing 16 games and having one bye week. Following the conclusion of the regular season, six teams from each conference advance to the playoffs, a single-elimination tournament culminating in the Super Bowl, held in the first Sunday in February, is played between the champions of the NFC and AFC; the NFL was formed in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association before renaming itself the National Football League for the 1922 season. The NFL agreed to merge with the American Football League in 1966, the first Super Bowl was held at the end of that season. Today, the NFL has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world and is the most popular sports league in the United States.
The Super Bowl is among the biggest club sporting events in the world and individual Super Bowl games account for many of the most watched television programs in American history, all occupying the Nielsen's Top 5 tally of the all-time most watched U. S. television broadcasts by 2015. The NFL's executive officer is the commissioner; the players in the league belong to the National Football League Players Association. The team with the most NFL championships is the Green Bay Packers with thirteen; the current NFL champions are the New England Patriots, who defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl LIII for their sixth Super Bowl championship. On August 20, 1920, a meeting was held by representatives of the Akron Pros, Canton Bulldogs, Cleveland Indians, Dayton Triangles at the Jordan and Hupmobile auto showroom in Canton, Ohio; this meeting resulted in the formation of the American Professional Football Conference, a group who, according to the Canton Evening Repository, intended to "raise the standard of professional football in every way possible, to eliminate bidding for players between rival clubs and to secure cooperation in the formation of schedules".
Another meeting was held on September 17, 1920 with representatives from teams from four states-Akron, Canton and Dayton from Ohio. The league was renamed to the American Professional Football Association; the league elected Jim Thorpe as its first president, consisted of 14 teams. The Massillon Tigers from Massillon, Ohio was at the September 17 meeting, but did not field a team in 1920. Only two of these teams, the Decatur Staleys and the Chicago Cardinals, remain. Although the league did not maintain official standings for its 1920 inaugural season and teams played schedules that included non-league opponents, the APFA awarded the Akron Pros the championship by virtue of their 8–0–3 record; the first event occurred on September 26, 1920 when the Rock Island Independents defeated the non-league St. Paul Ideals 48–0 at Douglas Park. On October 3, 1920, the first full week of league play occurred; the following season resulted in the Chicago Staleys controversially winning the title over the Buffalo All-Americans.
On June 24, 1922, the APFA changed its name to the National Football League. In 1932, the season ended with the Chicago Bears and the Portsmouth Spartans tied for first in the league standings. At the time, teams were ranked on a single table and the team with the highest winning percentage at the end of the season was declared the champion; this method had been used since the league's creation in 1920, but no situation had been encountered where two teams were tied for first. The league determined that a playoff game between Chicago and Portsmouth was needed to decide the league's champion; the teams were scheduled to play the playoff game a regular season game that would count towards the regular season standings, at Wrigley Field in Chicago, but a combination of heavy snow and extreme cold forced the game to be moved indoors to Chicago Stadium, which did not have a regulation-size football field. Playing with altered rules to accommodate the smaller playing field, the Bears won the game 9–0 and thus won the championship.
Fan interest in the de facto championship game led the NFL, beginning in 1933, to split into two divisions with a championship game to be played between the division champions. The 1934 season marked the first of 12 seasons in which African Americans were absent from the league; the de facto ban was rescinded in 1946, following public pressure and coinciding with the removal of a similar ban in Major League Baseball. The NFL was always the foremost pro
Wayne State University
Wayne State University is an American public research university located in Detroit, Michigan. Founded in 1868, WSU consists of 13 schools and colleges offering nearly 350 programs to more than 27,000 graduate and undergraduate students. Wayne State University is Michigan's third-largest university; the WSU main campus comprises 195 acres linking more than 100 research buildings. The Wayne State Warriors compete in the NCAA Division II Great Lakes Intercollegiate Athletic Conference; the first component of the modern Wayne State University was established in 1868 as the Detroit College of Medicine. In 1885, the Detroit College of Medicine merged with its competitor, the Michigan College of Medicine and its consolidated buildings. In 1913 the school was restructured as the Detroit College of Medicine and Surgery, passing under that name into the control of the Detroit Board of Education; these institutions are incarnated today as the Wayne State University School of Medicine. In 1881, the Detroit Normal Training School for Teachers was established by the Detroit Board of Education.
In 1920, after several re-locations to larger quarters, the school became the Detroit Teachers College. The Board of Education voted in 1924 to make the college a part of the new College of the City of Detroit; this became the Wayne State University College of Education. In 1917, the Detroit Board of Education founded the Detroit Junior College and would make Detroit Central High School's Old Main Hall its campus. Detroit's College of Pharmacy and the Detroit Teachers College were added to the campus in 1924, were organized into the College of the City of Detroit; the original junior college became the College of Liberal Arts. The first bachelor's degrees were awarded in 1925; the College of Liberal Arts of the College of the City of Detroit is today the Wayne State University College of Liberal Arts and Sciences. Recognizing the need for a good public law school, a group of lawyers, including Allan Campbell, the school's founding dean, established Detroit City Law School in 1927 as part of the College of the City of Detroit.
Structured as a part-time, evening program, the school graduated its first class with the bachelor of laws degree in 1928 and achieved full American Bar Association in 1939. The school is known today as Wayne State University Law School. In 1933, the Detroit Board of Education voted to unify the colleges. In January 1934, that institution was named Wayne University, taking its name from Wayne County in which the University and the City of Detroit reside, as well as Major General "Mad" Anthony Wayne. Continuing to grow, Wayne University added its School of Social Work in 1935, the School of Business Administration in 1946. Wayne University was renamed Wayne State University in 1956 and the institution became a constitutionally mandated university by a popularly adopted amendment to the Michigan Constitution in 1959; the Wayne State University Board of Governors created the Institute of Gerontology in 1965 in response to a State of Michigan mandate. The primary mission in that era was to engage in research and service in the field of aging.
Wayne State University grew again in 1973 with the addition of the College of Lifelong Learning. In 1985, the School of Fine and the Performing Arts, the College of Urban and Metropolitan Affairs grew the university further. In the 2000s, WSU constructed several new buildings, including the Integrative Biosciences Center, a 207,000-square-foot facility for interdisciplinary work in the biosciences. More than 500 researchers and principal investigators work out of the building, which opened in 2016. On June 5, 2013, the Board of Governors unanimously elected M. Roy Wilson as Wayne State's 12th president, he was sworn in on August 1, 2013. In 2015, WSU bestowed its first posthumous honorary doctorate degree on Viola Liuzzo. In 2015, the School of Business administration was renamed the Mike Ilitch School of Business; the name was changed in recognition of a $40 million grant from Marian Ilitch. This gift was used towards building a new business school facility in Detroit, which opened in late August 2018.
The new Mike Ilitch School of Business building is located on Woodward in the emerging'District Detroit' development. Wayne State's academic offerings are divided among 13 schools and colleges: the Mike Ilitch School of Business. Fall 2018 enrollment for the university consisted of 27,053 students. Wayne State University is Michigan's only urban research university and is classified as a research university with the highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation. Under the Michigan Constitution, the boards of governors of WSU are elected by the citizens of Michigan statewide. Wayne State University, Michigan State University, the University of Michigan are the three institutional members of the State of Michigan's University Research Corridor. Wayne State offers more than 350 undergraduate, post-graduate and certificate programs in 13 schools and colleges. Mike Ilitch School of Business The Mike Ilitch School of Business offers undergraduate degrees in accounting, global supply chain, information systems
John David Kasay is a former American football kicker in the National Football League. He was drafted by the Seattle Seahawks in the fourth round of the 1991 NFL Draft, he played for the Carolina Panthers and New Orleans Saints. He played college football at Georgia. Kasay attended Clarke Central High School in Athens, where he was a soccer standout and football kicker/punter, he was an all-state selection including a 54-yarder. Kasay was a four-year letterman at the University of Georgia, he finished his college career fifth on the school's career kick scoring list with 217 points, converting 46-of-65 field goals and 79-of-82 extra points. Kasay graduated from Georgia in 1991 with a degree in journalism. Kasay was drafted in the fourth round in 1991 by the Seattle Seahawks. During his tenure, he led the Seahawks in scoring all four years, left the team with the highest field goal percentage in team history; the Panthers signed him as a free agent prior to the team's debut in the 1995 season. He played for the Panthers in 15 seasons, but missed the whole 2000 season after breaking his left kneecap in August.
Super Bowl XXXVIII was bittersweet for Kasay. Although he converted a 50-yard field goal and made both extra points, his final kickoff went out of bounds, incurring an illegal procedure penalty that placed the ball on the 40; this assisted the New England Patriots on their drive for the winning field goal. Kasay continued to play for the Panthers through the 2010 season. On July 28, 2011, he was released by Carolina, he was the last remaining player left from the Panthers' 1995 inaugural season. The New Orleans Saints signed Kasay on August 30, 2011 after an injury to their starting kicker Garrett Hartley during a preseason game. According to Al Michaels during the Thursday Night Football broadcast against the Green Bay Packers on September 8, 2011, Kasay was at a "back-to-school" event when he received a phone call from the Saints wishing to sign him. Kasay played out the 2011 season in New Orleans, was re-signed through the 2012 NFL season by Saints on April 26, 2012. However, he was released by the Saints on August 2012 with the return of Hartley.
On May 7, 2013, the Panthers announced that Kasay would sign a one-day contract and retire as a Panther. The Panthers held a press conference at Bank of America Stadium that day to honor Kasay. Kasay will be eligible for induction in the team's Ring of Honor five years after his retirement. Career high/best bolded Kasay held the record for most field goals in a single season with 37 in 1996, he was awarded his only Pro Bowl appearance as a result; this has been surpassed by Olindo Mare, Neil Rackers, David Akers. Kasay holds many NFL records as a placekicker, he is second all-time for field goals made from 50+ yards made behind only Jason Hanson and is the only player to convert on four field goals from 46+ yards in a single game. Kasay hit his 400th field goal on December 2009 in a game against the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, he is only the 7th player in NFL history to accomplish that. Kasay is the longest tenured player to play for the Panthers; as of 2017's NFL off-season, John Kasay held at least 9 Panthers franchise records, including: Extra Points: career, playoffs Field Goals: career, game, playoff season, playoff game Points: as of September 8, 2017 he is the all-time scoring leader for the Carolina Panthers with 1,482 points.
Kasay is a Christian. He served as the athletic director for the Charlotte Christian School after retiring from football and is working to publish a biography. Current statistics Biography on Panthers.com Media related to John Kasay at Wikimedia Commons
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva