Northampton Town F.C.
Northampton Town Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Northampton, England. The team play in the fourth tier of English football; the club nickname is "The Cobblers", a reference to the town's historical shoe-making industry. They play their home games at the 7,798 capacity all-seater Sixfields Stadium, having moved from the County Ground in 1994, where they had played since their inception, they were formed in 1897, after meetings between the town's schoolteachers and local solicitor A. J. Darnell; the club traditionally play in claret and white, share rivalries with Peterborough United and Milton Keynes Dons. The club competed in the Midland League for two seasons, before joining the Southern League in 1901, they were crowned Southern League champions in 1908–09, allowing them to contest the 1909 FA Charity Shield. Admitted into the Football League in 1920, they spent the next 38 years in the Third Division South as they were unable to best second-place finishes in 1927–28 and 1949–50.
During this time Tommy Fowler and Jack English set club records for appearances and goals Fowler playing 552 first-team matches and English scoring 143 competitive goals. Becoming founder members of the Fourth Division, manager Dave Bowen saw the club promoted at the end of the 1960–61 season, before they went on to win the Third Division title in 1962–63 and promotion out of the Second Division in 1964–65. Relegated out of the First Division at the end of the 1965–66 season, this remains their only top-flight campaign, two further relegations in the next three seasons saw them back in the fourth tier. Promoted out of the Fourth Division in 1975–76, they were relegated, before winning the Fourth Division title in 1986–87. Relegated again after their third season in the third tier, they were promoted again after winning the 1997 play-off final. Relegated in 1998–99, they won immediate promotion after securing an automatic promotion place the following season; however were once more relegated after three seasons of struggle in the third tier, before securing promotion out of League Two in 2005–06 after two unsuccessful play-off campaigns.
Relegated at the end of their third season in League One, they won the League Two title in 2015–16, but only lasted two seasons in League One before again being relegated. In 1919–20, the first season after the war, Town conceded a club record 103 goals. Nonetheless, the club was allowed to join the Football League for the following season, in Division Three. 1922–23 saw the club become a public company and 8,000 shares were released at £1. The season produced a record crowd of 18,123 against Plymouth on Boxing day and gate receipts for the first time exceeded £1,000. 1923–24 started with the club raising £5,000 to build a stand with a players' tunnel underneath and improved terracing in the Hotel End. The following season saw the formation of the supporters' club. In 1925 the club's first foreign transfer took place. A new ground record was set for the F. A. Cup third-round replay with Sunderland, 21,148 turned up to see the Cobblers lose 3–0. However, disaster occurred at the County Ground during December 1929, when a fire destroyed three stands, with damage valued at around £5,000.
Only one stand was saved. The source of the fire was thought to be in the away dressing room. By August 1930, the stands were rebuilt. In 1932–33, the club created history when brothers Fred and Albert Dawes both scored in an 8–0 win over Newport County; the latter finished the season scoring 32 league goals and scored all four in a 4–0 win over the Netherlands national football team while the club was on tour. In 1933–34, the F. A. Cup fifth round was reached for the first time courtesy of a fourth round win away to Huddersfield Town who, at the time were top of Division One; the Cobblers lost to Preston North End 4–0 at Deepdale, setting a new ground record of 40,180. In the three seasons prior to the breakout of World War II, the Cobblers finished seventh, ninth and 17th in Division Three. In the final match prior to the war, they travelled to Dean Court and lost 10–0, the club's record league defeat. During the war the Cobblers had the record for the first transfer fee received during the hostilities when Bobby King was sold to Wolverhampton Wanderers for a substantial four-figure fee.
Northampton were promoted three times in the five years 1960 to 1965. Starting the 1960–61 season in the Fourth Division, they reached the First Division in 1965–66, their only season in the top division of English football, they were relegated back to the Fourth Division over the next five years, playing in the bottom tier again in 1969–70. During their top-flight season they earned a double against Aston Villa and victories at home over such luminaries as Leeds, West Ham, Blackburn, the latter being the only team Northampton would finish above in the table. In 1970, they lost 8–2 to Manchester United in the FA Cup fifth round. Six of the goals conceded were scored by George Best, who received the match ball as a reward for his performance. For the first time since becoming a league side the club had to apply for re-election in 1971, they finished the most favoured club with 49 votes. In the 1974–75 season, future England International Phil Neal was sold, after 200 games in all competitions for the Cobblers, Liverpool bought Neal for a club record of £65,000, whilst playing in the same side of another future England International, John Gregory.
During the 1975–76 season, the club finished 2nd in Division Four and were promoted behind champions Lincoln City. They did this without l
Hartwick College is a non-denominational, four-year liberal arts and sciences college in Oneonta, New York. The institution's origin is rooted in the founding of Hartwick Seminary in 1797 through the will of John Christopher Hartwick. In 1927, Hartwick Seminary moved to expand into a four-year college and was offered land by the city of Oneonta to move to Hartwick College's current location; the school has 1,200 undergraduate students from 30 states and 22 countries, 187 faculty members and the student-faculty ratio is 11-1. Hartwick Seminary was founded in 1797 through the will of John Christopher Hartwick, a Lutheran minister from Germany who led several mission congregations of early settlers along the Hudson River and the Mohawk River in what is now upstate New York, his dream of establishing an institution of higher learning became a reality shortly after his death, with the founding of Hartwick Seminary in 1797. In 1816, the New York State Legislature incorporated the new school—the first Lutheran seminary in America—as a classical academy and theological seminary in Hartwick, near Cooperstown.
The school moved to its present location in Oneonta in 1928, when Hartwick was incorporated as a four-year college. The land for the campus was donated by the City of Oneonta. Bresee Hall, today the oldest building on campus, was designed by noted architect John Russell Pope and built in 1928, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The college's ties to the Lutheran Church ended in the 1960s and it now carries no religious affiliation. In May, 2016, President Margaret L. Drugovich was awarded a new eight-year contract by the Board of Trustees to continue serving as president, which she subsequently accepted. In July, 2016, the college set a fundraising record by securing more than $34 million through its latest capital campaign, exceeding the original goal of $32 million. Hartwick College offers 31 majors and 24 areas of study leading to a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. In addition, it offers 11 minors, pre-professional programs in law, medicine and allied health professions.
Students can choose a concentration within their major. The pre-engineering program at Hartwick is has cooperative agreements with both at Columbia University and Clarkson University that allow students to spend three years at Hartwick and two years at one of the other schools studying engineering. Successful completion brings a bachelor's degree from Hartwick and an engineering degree from Clarkson or Columbia. Hartwick's three-year bachelor's degree program allows qualified students to receive a degree in three years, as opposed to the traditional four. Since its launch in 2009, the program has sparked national interest for quality; the Liberal Arts in Practice curriculum merges traditional liberal arts study, personalized teaching, experiential learning. Hartwick encourages students to gain real-world experience through internships, volunteer work, job shadowing. Hartwick assists in networking and job-shadowing programs in career locations such as Boston, New York City, other local venues Hartwick College is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, Middle States Commission on Higher Education and the Commission on Collegiate Nursing Education.
The American Chemical Society approved the Bachelor of Science degree program in chemistry. Since 2009, Hartwick has offered a three-year bachelor's degree program, which allows students to receive an undergraduate degree in liberal arts in three years instead of four; this reduces tuition by about 25%. No summer coursework is required, so three-year students can work, intern or travel during summer breaks. There is no required online component, all courses are taught by Hartwick faculty. Students in the program take on a larger course load in each of their six semesters. Most majors are included in the program; every year, about 200-300 Hartwick students participate in 15-23 off-campus courses, taught by Hartwick faculty. Nearly every off-campus program is open to new students. All are open to non-majors, with the exception of Trans-cultural Nursing in Jamaica. There are many scholarships available to support students who choose to study abroad during the college's January Term. Several international study-abroad scholarships are available: the Florence and George Hutman Scholarship, the Dobert Family Scholarship and the Andrew and Betty Anderson Scholarship.
Hartwick offers students two scholarships for international research: The Duffy Family Ambassador Scholarship, which supports students’ educational travel abroad with awards of up to $5,000. Awards go to students with demonstrated financial need who make a strong case for the value of their proposed program abroad; the Emerson Foundation Scholarship, which offers up to $5,000 for international academic internships or directed study. Scholarships are open to sophomore, junior or senior students of all majors who are pursuing an experience for academic credit. One of the hallmarks of a Hartwick education is faculty-student collaboration on research; each year, many student present their work at national conferences. Every spring, the college hosts a Student Scholar Showcase, a day-long event that highlights student-based research; the event is open to the public. In 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Hartwick College 159th in its National Liberal Arts College Rankings. In 2013, U. S. News & World Report ranked Hartwick 21st among all U.
S. colleges and universities for the percentage of students who study abroad. Hartwick College is ranked 59th for liberal arts colleges on Payscale.com's 2016-17 list of highest-paid graduates. Business I
Carlisle United F.C.
Carlisle United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Carlisle, England. The team compete in the fourth tier of the English football league system, they have played their home games at Brunton Park since 1909. The club's traditional kit is blue with white and red detail, whilst the badge takes elements from the city's coat of arms by including two wyverns, they are nicknamed the "Blues" due to their kit, as well as the "Cumbrians" due to their status as the county's only Football League side following local rivals Barrow and Workington dropping out of the league in the 1970s. Formed in 1904, the club entered the Lancashire Combination the following year and were crowned Division Two champions in 1906–07, they entered the North Eastern League in 1910 and went on to win the league title in 1921–22, before being elected into the Football League in 1928. They spent the next 30 years in the Third Division North, at which point they were assigned a place in the newly formed Fourth Division, from where they won promotion in 1961–62.
Relegated the following season, they won two consecutive promotions, finishing the 1964–65 season as champions of the Third Division under the stewardship of Alan Ashman. They secured promotion out of the Second Division in 1973–74, but stayed only one season in the First Division and were relegated back to the Third Division at the end of the 1976–77 campaign. Promoted again under Bob Stokoe in 1981–82, they suffered successive relegations to return to the fourth tier by 1987. Carlisle won promotion as champions of the fourth tier in 1994–95, but were relegated the next season, before winning promotion again in 1996–97, only to be relegated again the following year, their 76-year stay in the Football League came to an end with relegation in 2003–04, though player-manager Paul Simpson secured an immediate return after leading United to victory the 2005 Conference National play-off Final. They won the League Two title in 2005–06, remained in League One until their relegation at the end of the 2013–14 season.
The club has reached the final of the Football League Trophy six times, more than any other team, winning it in 1997 and 2011, finishing as runners-up in 1995, 2003, 2006 and 2010. The club was formed on 17 May 1904 at Shaddongate United's annual general meeting where the club's members voted to change the team's name to Carlisle United; the newly formed club played at Milhome Bank and at Devonshire Park settling at their current home Brunton Park in 1909. In 1905, Carlisle United joined the Lancashire Combination but were only admitted after agreeing to pay all visiting teams’ travel expenses for two years, due to Carlisle not being located in Lancashire. After the league reorganised four years the board at United decided it did not suit the club's best interests to be there any longer and the club entered the North Eastern League in place of their reserve team who had played in the league and been a founding member; when the Carlisle United first team left to join the Football League the reserve team resumed its place in the competition.
Carlisle United were crowned champions of the North Eastern League in 1922. The 1927–28 season was Carlisle's last in the North Eastern League. An excellent home record helped them to second in the table finishing a full 10 points behind Champions Sunderland Reserves; the close season meant the usual round of applications to join the Football League. Carlisle went up against Chester City, Durham City and York City. On 4 June 1928 a delegation of representatives from Carlisle United took their seats at the Football League meeting in London to hear the results of the vote. Carlisle received the second-most votes with 33, replaced Durham City, who had received just 11 votes, as members of the Football League. Carlisle United won their first game in the Football League Third Division North with the side of Prout, Cook, Ross, Agar, Hutchison, McConnell and Watson beating Accrington Stanley 3–2, their next game was played against Hartlepool United and still stands to this day as their record victory at 8 goals to nil.
When the Second World War began in 1939, Carlisle United withdrew from national and regional competitions and only played local football. When the war was over the club returned to the Football League and appointed Ivor Broadis as player-manager, making him the youngest league club manager in history, he had the distinction of becoming the first manager to transfer himself when he moved to Sunderland, he continued to live and train in Carlisle. Broadis returned to Carlisle United in 1955 an ex-England international. In 1949, the club became the first to appoint Bill Shankly as manager. Shankly, a former player at Carlisle went on to manage local rivals Workington before being appointed as manager of Liverpool in 1959, it is at Carlisle where he met local player Geoff Twentyman, who he would sign as head scout at Liverpool, lifelong friend Ivor Broadis. Broadis, playing for Sunderland but living and training with Carlisle, once arrived late for training and Shankly asserted that he would play by United's training rules if he didn't play there.
According to Shankly, he said to Broadis: "What do you think you're doing? Who do you think you are? If you do the training we do you can train with us and we'll play five-a-side and you'll run your guts out as an example to everybody else". Carlisle were members of the Third Division North until 1958 when it combined with the Third Division South to become the Fourth Division, they remained there until 1962 whe
English Football League
The English Football League is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales. Founded in 1888 as the Football League, the league is the oldest such competition in world football, it was the top-level football league in England from its foundation until 1992, when the top 22 clubs split away to form the Premier League. The three leagues below the Premier League are known as the Championship, League One and League Two, with 24 clubs in each division. Promotion and relegation between these divisions is a central feature of the League and is further extended to allow the top Championship clubs to exchange places with the lowest-placed clubs in the Premier League, the bottom clubs of League Two to switch with the top clubs of the National League, thus integrating the League into the English football league system. Although a competition for English clubs, clubs from Wales – Swansea City and Newport County – take part, while in the past Cardiff City, Merthyr Town and Aberdare Athletic have been members.
The Football League was associated with a title sponsor between 1983 and 2016. As this sponsor changed over the years the league too has been known by various names. Starting with the 2016–17 season, the league has moved away from having a title sponsor, rebranding itself as the English Football League, in much the same way the Premier League is known as the "EPL" internationally; the English Football League is the name of the governing body of the league competition, this body organises two knock-out cup competitions, the EFL Cup and the EFL Trophy. The operations centre of the Football League is in Preston, while its commercial office is in London; the commercial office was based in Lytham St Annes, after its original spell in Preston. The Football League consists of 70 professional association football clubs in England and 2 in Wales, it runs the oldest professional football league competition in the world. It organises two knockout cup competitions, the EFL Cup and EFL Trophy; the Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor with 12 member clubs.
Steady growth and the addition of more divisions meant. Financial considerations led to a major shake-up in 1992 when, in a step to maximise their revenue, the leading members of the Football League broke away to form their own competition, the FA Premier League, renamed in 2007 as the Premier League; the Football League therefore no longer includes the top 20 clubs who belong to this group, although promotion and relegation between the Football League and the Premier League continues. In total, 136 teams have played in the Football League up to 2013; the EFL's 72 member clubs are grouped into three divisions: the EFL Championship, EFL League One, EFL League Two. Each division has 24 clubs, in any given season a club plays each of the others in the same division twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents; this makes for a total of 46 games played each season. Clubs gain three points for a win, one for a draw, none for a defeat. At the end of the season, clubs at the top of their division may win promotion to the next higher division, while those at the bottom may be relegated to the next lower one.
At the top end of the competition, three Championship clubs win promotion from the Football League to the Premier League, with the bottom three Premier League clubs taking their places. At the lower end, two League Two clubs lose their Football League status with relegation to the National division of the National League, while two teams from that division join League Two of The Football League in their stead. Promotion and relegation are determined by final league positions, but to sustain interest for more clubs over the length of the season one promotion place from each division is decided according to a playoff between four clubs, which takes place at the end of the season, it is therefore possible for a team finishing sixth in the Championship or League One, or seventh in League Two, to be promoted rather than the clubs finishing above them in the standings. Since the 2004–05 season, penalties have existed for clubs entering financial administration during the season. If a club enters administration before 31 March of any given season, they will be deducted 12 points.
It is required that a club exiting administration agree a Creditor's Voluntary Agreement, pay in full any other footballing creditors. Failure to do either of these will result in a second unlimited points deduction; the other main situation in, a club may lose points is by fielding an improperly registered or otherwise ineligible player. If a club is found to have done this any points earned from any match that player participated in will be deducted; the EFL organises two knock-out cup competitions: the EFL Trophy. The EFL Cup was established in 1960 and is open to all EFL and Premier League
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under