A cadet is a trainee. The term is used to refer to those training to become an officer in the military a person, a junior trainee, its meaning may vary between countries. The term is used in civilian contexts and as a general attributive, for example in its original sense of a branch of a ruling house, not in the direct line of succession; the term comes from the French term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family. In Commonwealth countries, including the United Kingdom, a cadet is a member of one of the cadet forces. In the United Kingdom these are the Combined Cadet Force, the Sea/Royal Marine Cadets, Army Cadets and the Air Training Corps. Military officers in training are called officer cadets. In Canada, the term "cadet" refers to an officer in training, with the official rank names as Officer Cadet for the Air Force and Army and Naval Cadet for the Navy, it refers to any member of the Royal Canadian Army Cadets, Royal Canadian Air Cadets or Royal Canadian Sea Cadets. These three organizations are volunteer youth groups administered by the Department of National Defence.
In Germany, the rank Cadet only exists in the German Navy for officers in training. In the Army and the Luftwaffe, officers in training have the rank of a Fahnenjunker or Ensign before they are promoted into the rank of a Lieutenant. In the Philippines, the term cadet is used in military attached organizations, but it is more distinctive in the service academies of the Philippines, such as these are the Philippine Military Academy, the Philippine National Police Academy, Philippine Merchant Marine Academy. Graduates of these service academies, are automatically given officer commission in the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Philippine National Police, Philippine Coast Guard, the Bureau of Fire Protection, Bureau Of Jail Management and Penology. Graduates of PMMA are given reserve officer status in the Philippine Navy and go to private shipping firms; the term cadet is applicable to the enrollees of Citizen's Army Training and Reserve Officer Training Corps. Service academy cadets are thought to be between the NCO and Officers ranks, NCO consider cadets as rank higher to them.
Punishments for the cadets depends on their violations. If a cadet violated the rules and regulations of Philippine Military Training and the rules of the school itself, the cadet will get punished by either doing push-ups, pumping, or squat. In Ireland, a Cadet is a pupil of the Military College, which carries out officer training for the Air Corps and Naval Service. Training takes two years and the Cadets are split into Senior and Junior Grades and Classes. In Norway, a "cadet" is a pupil of either of the three Krigsskolen, which educate commanding officers for either the Army, the Navy or to the Air Force. In the United States, cadet refers to a full-time college student, concurrently in training to become a commissioned officer of the armed forces. Students at the United States Military Academy, the United States Air Force Academy, the United States Coast Guard Academy hold the rank of Cadet, United States Army. In contrast, students at the United States Naval Academy and those enrolled in the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps at civilian colleges and universities are referred to as "midshipman" vice cadet and hold Midshipman rank in the United States Navy and United States Naval Reserve, respectively.
Students at the United States Merchant Marine Academy and the preponderance of students at the Maine Maritime Academy, the Massachusetts Maritime Academy, the California Maritime Academy and the State University of New York Maritime College, though called cadets at their respective institutions hold the rank of Midshipman, United States Merchant Marine Reserve, United States Naval Reserve. Some state-sponsored military colleges, including The Citadel, Virginia Military Institute and private military college, Norwich University, refer to their students as cadets. In Australia Cadet refers to an officer in training; the official rank is Officer Cadet however OCDT's in the Royal Military College—Duntroon are referred to as Staff Cadet for historical reasons. In the British and Commonwealth as well as Russian service, these groups of boys or youths are organized and trained on volunteer military lines; the Antigua and Barbuda Cadet Corps consists of students between the ages of 12 and 19. It Is a voluntary youth organization, sponsored by the government and people of Antigua & Barbuda that acquires its membership from the Secondary School.
The main objective is to provide training and personal development to the youths through paramilitary activities and embrace community activities. The training is woman to become model citizens. Emphasis during training is based on discipline, loyalty and good citizenry. Presently, the cadet corps has 200 active members and falls under the direct command of Colonel Glyne V. Dunnah, a regular officer of the Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, is a part of the ABDF. There are two categories in the Cadet Corps: Infantry Cadets. Ranks start from Recruit—WNCO. In Australia, a "cadet" can be a person aged betwee
Emergency services and rescue services are organizations which ensure public safety and health by addressing different emergencies. Some of these agencies exist for addressing certain types of emergencies whilst others deal with ad hoc emergencies as part of their normal responsibilities. Many of these agencies engage in community awareness and prevention programs to help the public avoid and report emergencies effectively; the availability of emergency services depends heavily on location, may in some cases rely on the recipient giving payment or holding suitable insurance or other surety for receiving the service. There are three primary emergency services that can be summoned directly by the public: Police — law enforcement, criminal investigation, maintenance of public order. Fire — firefighting, hazardous materials response, technical rescue. EMS — emergency medical services and technical rescueEmergency services have one or more dedicated emergency telephone numbers reserved for critical emergency calls.
In some countries, one number is used for all the emergency services. In some countries, each emergency service has its own emergency number; these services can be provided by one of the core services or by a separate government or private body. Emergency management — incident management and coordination. Tactical teams — hostage rescue and counter-terrorism operations and high-risk arrests. Hazardous Devices Team/Public Safety Bomb Disposal Public Safety Dive Teams/Maritime Units Canine Units — drug detection, explosive detection, cadaver detection and accelerant detection and rescue, evidence search, suspect apprehension, handler protection. Aviation Units — law enforcement, emergency medical services and technical rescue, emergency management functions. Fire fighting Units Hazardous Materials — hazardous materials mitigation Search and Rescue Wildland firefighting Military These groups and organizations respond to emergencies and provide other safety-related services either as a part of their on-the-job duties, as part of the main mission of their business or concern, or as part of their hobbies.
Public utilities — safeguarding gas and water, which are all hazardous if infrastructure fails Public Works — assessing and repairing damage to buildings and bridges. Emergency road service — provide repair or recovery for disabled or crashed vehicles Civilian Traffic Officers — such as operated by the Highways Agency in the UK to facilitate clearup and traffic flow at road traffic collisions Emergency social services Community emergency response teams — help organize facilities such as rest centers during large emergencies Disaster relief — such as services provided by the Red Cross and Salvation Army Famine relief teams Amateur radio communications groups — provide communications support during emergencies Poison Control — providing specialist support for poisoning Animal control — can assist or lead response to emergencies involving animals Voluntary medical services — medical & first aid support. Providers of these services include: St. John Ambulance / Red Cross / Order of Malta Ambulance Corps.
Some locations have emergency services dedicated to them, whilst this does not preclude employees using their skills outside this area, they are focused on the safety or security of a given geographical place. Lifeguards — charged with reacting to emergencies within their own given remit area a pool, beach or open water area Park rangers — looking after many emergencies within their given area, including fire and security issues Ski patrol — provides emergency medical care and rescue services within their area, such as a ski resort or backcountry. Effective emergency service management requires agencies from many different services to work together and to have open lines of communication. Most services do, or should, have procedures and liaisons in place to ensure this, although absence of these can be detrimental to good working. There can sometimes be tension between services for a number of other reasons, including professional versus voluntary crew members, or based on area or division.
To aid effective communications, different services may share common practices and protocol for certain large-scale emergencies. In the UK used shared protocols include CHALET and ETHANE while in the US, the Department of Homeland Security has called for nationwide implementation of the National Incident Management System, of which the Incident Command System is a part. Smart Emergency Response System prototype was built in the SmartAmerica Challenge 2013-2014, a United States government initiative. SERS was created by a team of nine organizations; the project was featured at the White House in June 2014 and called an exemplary achievement by Todd Park. The SmartAmerica initiative challenges the participants to build cyber-physical systems as a glimpse of the future to save lives, create jobs, foster businesses, improve the economy. SERS saves lives; the system provides the survivors and the emergency personnel with information to locate and assist each other during a disaster. SERS allows organization to submit help requests to a MATLAB-based mission center connecting first responders, search-and-rescue dogs, a 6-feet-tall humanoid, robots and autonomous aircraft and ground vehicles.
The command and control center optimizes the available resources to serve every incoming requests and generates an acti
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
National Air and Space Museum
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution called the Air and Space Museum, is a museum in Washington, D. C, it was established in 1946 as the National Air Museum and opened its main building on the National Mall near L'Enfant Plaza in 1976. In 2016, the museum saw 7.5 million visitors, making it the third most visited museum in the world, the most visited museum in the United States. The museum contains the Apollo 11 command module, the Friendship 7 capsule, flown by John Glenn, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-1 which broke the sound barrier, the model of the starship Enterprise used in the science fiction television show Star Trek: The Original Series, the Wright brothers' airplane near the entrance; the National Air and Space Museum is a center for research into the history and science of aviation and spaceflight, as well as planetary science and terrestrial geology and geophysics. All space and aircraft on display are originals or the original backup craft.
It operates an annex, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, at Dulles International Airport, which opened in 2003 and itself encompasses 760,000 square feet; the museum conducts restoration of its collection at the Paul E. Garber Preservation and Storage Facility in Suitland, while moving such restoration and archival activities into the Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar, a part of the Udvar-Hazy annex facilities as of 2014; because of the museum's close proximity to the United States Capitol, the Smithsonian wanted a building that would be architecturally impressive but would not stand out too boldly against the Capitol building. St. Louis-based architect Gyo Obata of HOK designed the museum as four simple marble-encased cubes containing the smaller and more theatrical exhibits, connected by three spacious steel-and-glass atria which house the larger exhibits such as missiles and spacecraft; the mass of the museum is similar to the National Gallery of Art across the National Mall, uses the same pink Tennessee marble as the National Gallery.
Built by Gilbane Building Company, the museum was completed in 1976. The west glass wall of the building is used for the installation of airplanes, functioning as a giant door; the museum's prominent site on the National Mall once housed the city's armory, during the Civil War, Armory Square Hospital nursed the worst wounded cases who were transported to Washington after battles. The Air and Space Museum was called the National Air Museum when formed on August 12, 1946 by an act of Congress and signed into law by President Harry S. Truman; some pieces in the National Air and Space Museum collection date back to the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia after which the Chinese Imperial Commission donated a group of kites to the Smithsonian after Smithsonian Secretary Spencer Fullerton Baird convinced exhibiters that shipping them home would be too costly. The Stringfellow steam engine intended for aircraft was added to the collection in 1889, the first piece acquired by the Smithsonian now in the current NASM collection.
After the establishment of the museum, there was no one building that could hold all the items to be displayed, many obtained from the United States Army and United States Navy collections of domestic and captured aircraft from World War I. Some pieces were on display in the Arts and Industries Building, some were stored in the Aircraft Building, a large temporary metal shed in the Smithsonian Castle's south yard. Larger missiles and rockets were displayed outdoors in; the shed housed a large Martin bomber, a LePere fighter-bomber, an Aeromarine 39B floatplane. Still, much of the collection remained in storage due to a lack of display space; the combination of the large numbers of aircraft donated to the Smithsonian after World War II and the need for hangar and factory space for the Korean War drove the Smithsonian to look for its own facility to store and restore aircraft. The current Garber Facility was ceded to the Smithsonian by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission in 1952 after the curator Paul E. Garber spotted the wooded area from the air.
Bulldozers from Fort Belvoir and prefabricated buildings from the United States Navy kept the initial costs low. The space race in the 1950s and 1960s led to the renaming of the museum to the National Air and Space Museum, congressional passage of appropriations for the construction of the new exhibition hall, which opened July 1, 1976 at the height of the United States Bicentennial festivities under the leadership of Director Michael Collins, who had flown to the Moon on Apollo 11; the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center opened in 2003, funded by a private donation; the museum received COSTAR, the corrective optics instrument installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during its first servicing mission, when it was removed and returned to Earth after Space Shuttle mission STS-125. The museum holds the backup mirror for the Hubble which, unlike the one, launched, was ground to the correct shape. There were once plans for it to be installed to the Hubble itself, but plans to return the satellite to Earth were scrapped after the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003.
The Smithsonian has been promised the International Cometary Explorer, in a solar orbit that brings it back to Earth, should NASA attempt to recover it. The Air and Space Museum announced a two-year renovation of its main entrance hall, "Milestones of Flight" in April 2014; the renovation to the main hall was funded by a $30 mil
Civil Air Patrol
The Civil Air Patrol is a congressionally chartered, federally supported non-profit corporation that serves as the official civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force. CAP is a volunteer organization with an aviation-minded membership that includes people from all backgrounds and occupations, it performs three congressionally assigned key missions: emergency services, which includes search and rescue and disaster relief operations. In addition, CAP has been tasked with homeland security and courier service missions. CAP performs non-auxiliary missions for various governmental and private agencies, such as local law enforcement and the American Red Cross; the program is established as an organization by Title 10 of the United States Code and its purposes defined by Title 36. Membership in the organization consists of cadets ranging from 12 to just under 21 years of age, senior members 18 years of age and up; these two groups each have the opportunity to participate in a wide variety of pursuits.
All members wear uniforms while performing their duties. Nationwide, CAP is a major operator of single-engine general aviation aircraft, used in the execution of its various missions, including orientation flights for cadets and the provision of significant emergency services capabilities; because of these extensive flying opportunities, many CAP members become licensed pilots. The hierarchical and military auxiliary organization is headed by the National Headquarters followed by eight regional commands and 52 wings; each wing supervises the individual groups and squadrons that comprise the basic operational unit of the organization. The Civil Air Patrol was conceived in the late 1930s by aviation advocate Gill Robb Wilson, who foresaw general aviation's potential to supplement America's military operations. With the help of New York Mayor Fiorello H. LaGuardia, in his capacity as then-Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, CAP was created with Administrative Order 9, signed by LaGuardia on 1 December 1941 and published 8 December 1941.
The Civil Air Patrol had 90 days to prove themselves to Congress. Major General John F. Curry was appointed as the first national commander. Texas oilman David Harold Byrd was a co-founder of CAP. During World War II, CAP was seen as a way to use America's civilian aviation resources to aid the war effort instead of grounding them; the organization assumed many missions including anti-submarine patrol and warfare, border patrols, courier services. During World War II, CAP's coastal patrol flew 24 million miles and sighted 173 enemy U-boats, dropping a total of 82 bombs and depth charges throughout the conflict. Two submarines were destroyed by CAP aircraft, but research found there was no basis for this claim. By the end of the war, 68 CAP members had lost their lives in the line of duty. After the end of World War II, CAP became the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force, its incorporating charter declared that it would never again be involved in direct combat activities, but would be of a benevolent nature.
The "supervisory" USAF organization overseeing CAP has changed several times. This has included the former Continental Air Command in 1959, the former Headquarters Command, USAF in 1968, to the Air University in 1976. Following Air University's reassignment as a subordinate command to the Air Education and Training Command in 1993, USAF oversight of CAP has flowed from AETC at the 4-star level, to AU at the 3-star level, to AU's Jeanne M. Holm Center for Officer Accessions and Citizen Development at the 1-star level, to a subordinate unit of 1st Air Force at the 3-star level with Civil Air Patrol-U. S. Air Force as a stand-alone unit lead at the Colonel level. Since its incorporation charter, CAP has maintained its relationship with the USAF, has continued its three congressionally mandated missions. On 14 June 2011, Civil Air Patrol was awarded the Roving Ambassador of Peace by the World Peace Prize Awarding Council for its positive impact in American communities, its lifesaving efforts, for "preserving liberty for all".
During the 113th United States Congress, both the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives voted to pass a bill that would award the Congressional Gold Medal to the World War II members of the Civil Air Patrol. The medal would be presented "in recognition of their military service and exemplary record during World War II." Civil Air Patrol has five congressionally mandated missions: To provide an organization to encourage and aid citizens of the United States in contributing their efforts and resources in developing aviation and in maintaining air supremacy. To provide aviation education and training to its senior and cadet members. To encourage and foster civil aviation in local communities. To provide an organization of private citizens with adequate facilities to assist in meeting local and national emergencies. To assist the Department of the Air Force in fulfilling its non-combat programs and missions; the organization condenses these mandates into three core missions, which Civil Air Patrol was chartered with by Congress in 1946: aerospace education, cadet programs and emergency services.
Civil Air P
Aerospace is the human effort in science and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Aerospace organizations research, manufacture, operate, or maintain aircraft or spacecraft. Aerospace activity is diverse, with a multitude of commercial and military applications. Aerospace is not the same as airspace, the physical air space directly above a location on the ground; the beginning of space and the ending of the air is considered as 100km above the ground according to the physical explanation that the air pressure is too low for a lifting body to generate meaningful lift force without exceeding orbital velocity. In most industrial countries, the aerospace industry is a cooperation of public and private industries. For example, several countries have a civilian space program funded by the government through tax collection, such as National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the United States, European Space Agency in Europe, the Canadian Space Agency in Canada, Indian Space Research Organisation in India, Japanese Aeronautics Exploration Agency in Japan, RKA in Russia, China National Space Administration in China, SUPARCO in Pakistan, Iranian Space Agency in Iran, Korea Aerospace Research Institute in South Korea.
Along with these public space programs, many companies produce technical tools and components such as spaceships and satellites. Some known companies involved in space programs include Boeing, Airbus, SpaceX, Lockheed Martin, United Technologies, MacDonald Dettwiler and Northrop Grumman; these companies are involved in other areas of aerospace such as the construction of aircraft. Modern aerospace began with Engineer George Cayley in 1799. Cayley proposed an aircraft with a "fixed wing and a horizontal and vertical tail," defining characteristics of the modern airplane; the 19th century saw the creation of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain, the American Rocketry Society, the Institute of Aeronautical Sciences, all of which made aeronautics a more serious scientific discipline. Airmen like Otto Lilienthal, who introduced cambered airfoils in 1891, used gliders to analyze aerodynamic forces; the Wright brothers read several of his publications. They found inspiration in Octave Chanute, an airman and the author of Progress in Flying Machines.
It was the preliminary work of Cayley, Lilienthal and other early aerospace engineers that brought about the first powered sustained flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina on December 17, 1903, by the Wright brothers. War and science fiction inspired great minds like Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Wernher von Braun to achieve flight beyond the atmosphere; the launch of Sputnik 1 in October 1957 started the Space Age, on July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 achieved the first manned moon landing. In April 1981, the Space Shuttle Columbia launched, the start of regular manned access to orbital space. A sustained human presence in orbital space started with "Mir" in 1986 and is continued by the "International Space Station". Space commercialization and space tourism are more recent features of aerospace. Aerospace manufacturing is a high-technology industry that produces "aircraft, guided missiles, space vehicles, aircraft engines, propulsion units, related parts". Most of the industry is geared toward governmental work.
For each original equipment manufacturer, the US government has assigned a Commercial and Government Entity code. These codes help to identify each manufacturer, repair facilities, other critical aftermarket vendors in the aerospace industry. In the United States, the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are the two largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. Others include the large airline industry; the aerospace industry employed 472,000 wage and salary workers in 2006. Most of those jobs were in Washington state and in California, with Missouri, New York and Texas being important; the leading aerospace manufacturers in the U. S. are United Technologies Corporation, SpaceX, Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin. These manufacturers are facing an increasing labor shortage as skilled U. S. workers retire. Apprenticeship programs such as the Aerospace Joint Apprenticeship Council work in collaboration with Washington state aerospace employers and community colleges to train new manufacturing employees to keep the industry supplied.
Important locations of the civilian aerospace industry worldwide include Washington state, California. In the European Union, aerospace companies such as EADS, BAE Systems, Dassault, Saab AB and Leonardo S.p. A. account for a large share of the global aerospace industry and research effort, with the European Space Agency as one of the largest consumers of aerospace technology and products. In India, Bangalore is a major center of the aerospace industry, where Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, the National Aerospace Laboratories and the Indian Space Research Organisation are headquartered; the Indian Space Research Organisation launched India's first Moon orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008. In Russia, large aerospace companies like Oboronprom and the United Aircraft Building Corporation are among the major global players