Kitzingen is a town in the German state of Bavaria, capital of the district Kitzingen. It has around 21,000 inhabitants. Surrounded by vineyards, Kitzingen County is the largest wine producer in Bavaria, it is said to be Franconia's wine trade center. According to legend, Kitzingen was founded when the Countess of Schwanberg lost her jeweled scarf while standing on the ramparts of her castle; the castle was located high above the fertile section of the Main River Valley where Kitzingen now lies. The Countess promised to build a cloister on the spot; when it was found by a shepherd named Kitz, she kept her word and built a cloister which she called Kitzingen. That Benedictine cloister, founded in the 8th century on the site of the present town of Kitzingen, defended the ford across the Main River. Kitzingen's history is tied to Würzburg. Kitzingen became a free imperial city around the year 1000. During the next century the town changed rulers mostly being ruled by Würzburg prince-bishops who sold the town twice to fill their empty treasury.
In 1629, Prince-Bishop Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg of Würzburg took up his option to repurchase Kitzingen after the Peasants' Revolt in 1525. He forced more than 1,000 residents to leave the town; this blow to the town's strength was followed by the Swedish three-year occupation during the Thirty Years' War. Kitzingen's revival is credited to the wisdom of Prince-Bishop Johann Philipp von Schönborn of Würzburg, whose Edict of Toleration in 1650 encouraged the return of the expelled Protestants; this is why both Protestantism are present in Kitzingen today. The resulting prosperity carried Kitzingen through the 18th century as one of the most important ports on the Main River. Kitzingen's life under the Prince-Bishops ended with the coming of French revolutionary armies and Napoleon. In 1814 the Congress of Vienna confirmed Kitzingen's passing, along with the rest of the region, to the Kingdom of Bavaria. During World War II Harvey and Larsen Barracks were both German military bases; the German Air Force used Harvey Barracks for an airport and they would flood the landing strip there when Allied forces would fly overhead.
Below Harvey Barracks were multiple levels of hangars which still contain some German World War II aircraft. The hangars were booby-trapped by the retreating Germans close to the end of World War II. Underground tunnels were said to have been constructed by the Germans from the airfield out to the nearest highway, so that aircraft could be launched off of the road to intercept allied planes; because of the danger involved, no one had been inside the tunnels. In the late 1970s and early 1980s when the 2nd Brigade, Third Infantry Division was located there, private exploration companies offered to descend into those underground hangars and tunnels, but that idea was rejected for safety reasons. Again for safety reasons no one has explored those tunnels since World War II. During the Cold War, Kitzingen was a staging area for the U. S. European Command's air defenses against nuclear attack. Two U. S. Army Bases, Larson Barracks and Harvey Barracks, were located in the town. For many years it housed the 2nd Brigade of the Third infantry division.
One of these battalions, 6-41 Field Artillery,as well as portions of other units including 2 platoons from the 1-15 Infantry Battalion, were deployed to Operation Desert Storm in 1990 and served with distinction. These units were reflagged units of the First infantry division. On March 29, 2007, Larson Barracks and Harvey Barracks were handed back to the German government, with the move of the 1st Infantry Division back to the United States. Marshall Heights Housing Area contained apartment houses for the majority of the American dependents, it included a commissary, dependent schools for Grades Kindergarten - 8th Grade, an AYA. High School students rode buses to Wurzburg American High School. Since January 2007 there have been no more US Army personnel based in Kitzingen. Facilities are closed down and surveillance is discontinued. Konrad Döppert Richard Wildhagen Siegfried Wilke Dr. Oskar Klemmert Rudolf Schardt Dr. Erwin Rumpel Bernd Moser Siegfried Müller The city's main landmark is the Leaning Tower, built during the 13th century.
It is distinctive for its crooked roof. According to town legend, the tower was being built during a drought, workers used wine instead of water to make the mortar causing the top of the tower to lean. Today the tower holds a carnival museum. A local legend is that the golden ball atop the crooked tower contains the heart of Vlad Dracula of Romania. If you follow the path of the crooked tower, the golden ball leans directly toward a grave in the Kitzingen Old Cemetery located across the street from the tower, called the Grave of Dracula. Another local U. S. army legend is the upside down crosses that make up the small windows on the tower, appear right side up when light casts towards the grave yard to ward off vampires. The crosses alternate such that every other one is upside down. Some, believe that the grave, called "Dracula's Grave" is not where Vlad Dracula is buried, but rather a decorated grave of a rich family that resided in Kitzingen. Kitzingen is twinned with: - Montevarchi, Italy - Prades, Pyrénées-Orientales, France Konrad Stürtzel, during Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, court chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation Friedrich Spiegel, orientalist Bella Fromm, journalist
First Lutheran hymnal
The First Lutheran hymnal, published in 1524 as Etlich Cristlich lider / Lobgesang und Psalm also referred to as the Achtliederbuch, was the first Lutheran hymnal. The hymnal was created by Paul Speratus working in collaboration, it contains eight hymns: four by Luther, three by Speratus, one anonymous, attributed to Justus Jonas. The creators declared their intentions on the title page: "Lobgesang / un Psalm / dem rainen wort Gottes gemeß / auß der heylige schrifft / durch mancherley hochgelerter gemacht / in der Kirch zu singen / wie es dann zum tayl Berayt in Wittenberg in übung ist." The hymnal is rather "eine lose buchhändlerische Zusammenfassung", a loose collection of songs which existed as broadsheets, than a hymnal with a concept. It was printed around the turn of the year 1523/1524 in Nuremberg by Jobst Gutknecht; the title page showed Wittenberg as the location of print. The booklet of twelve pages contained eight songs on five different melodies; the little hymnal was distributed in Europe.
Luther's adversaries complained that "the whole people are singing themselves into his doctrines." Because of the great demand, another collection was published the same year, the Erfurt Enchiridion, containing 26 hymns, 18 of them by Luther. Nun freut euch, lieben Christen g'mein Es ist das Heil uns kommen her In Gott gelaub ich, das er hat Hilf Gott, wie ist der Menschen Not Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein Es spricht der Unweisen Mund wohl Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir In Jesu Namen wir heben an Konrad Ameln: Das Achtliederbuch, facsimile Nürnberg, 1523/24, Jahrbuch für Liturgik und Hymnologie 2, 1956 From The “Eight Songs,” Wittenberg, 1524. With English Translations and Music, as part of the Online Library of Liberty: A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets. Stephen A. Crist Video- An Introduction to the Achtliederbuch, held by Pitts Theology Library at Emory University Achtliederbuch Portal zu Bibliotheken, Museen 2011
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
The Becker Psalter is a German metrical psalter authored by the Leipzig theologian Cornelius Becker and first published by Jakob Apel in Leipzig in 1602 under the title Der Psalter Davids Gesangweis. Several composers set the psalms contained in the volume, notably Heinrich Schütz, whose four-part chorales were published in 1628 and revised and expanded in 1661. Becker included in his Psalter earlier Lutheran paraphrases of psalms, such as "Aus tiefer Not schrei ich zu dir", "Ach Gott, vom Himmel sieh darein", "Erbarm dich mein", "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" and "An Wasserflüssen Babylon"; the 1602 publication, titled Der Psalter Dauids Gesangweis, was without melodies and meant to be sung to the tunes of other well-known Lutheran hymns. Heinrich Schütz welcomed the theological intentions of Becker's metrical versions of the psalms, wrote four-part settings which he published in 1628 as Psalmen Davids: Hiebevorn in Teutzsche Reimen gebracht durch D. Cornelium Beckern; the collection was reprinted in 1640, appeared in a revised and enlarged version in 1661.
In number of prints and editions it was Schütz's most successful work from the 17th to the early 18th century. Herbst, Wolfgang. Liederkunde zum Evangelischen Gesangbuch. 17. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 9783525503409. Schütz, Heinrich. "47. Becker Psalter: Title Page and Dedication to Electress Hedwig, Duchess of Saxony". A Heinrich Schütz Reader: Letters and Documents in Translation. Translated by Johnston, Gregory S. United States: Oxford University Press. Pp. 62–64. ISBN 0199812209. Zahn, Johannes. Die Melodien der deutschen evangelischen Kirchenlieder. VI. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann. Facsimile of the 1602 publication of the Becker Psalter at Bavarian State Library website Becker Psalter, Op. 5, by Heinrich Schütz: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
Evangelical Lutheran Worship
Evangelical Lutheran Worship is the current primary liturgical and worship guidebook and hymnal for use in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, replacing its predecessor, the Lutheran Book of Worship of 1978, its supplements, Hymnal Supplement 1991 and With One Voice. Evangelical Lutheran Worship was first published in October 2006. Though not all ELCA and ELCIC congregations adopted the book, demand for it was so great that it sold out its first and second printings and some congregations had to delay its adoption until more were available; the book includes ten musical settings of the liturgy for the Holy Communion service, three of which were published in the Lutheran Book of Worship, as well as a Service of the Word. Morning Prayer, Evening Prayer, Night Prayer are all included, as are occasional and pastoral offices such as baptism, burial, individual confession, proper services for Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, the Triduum. Martin Luther's Small Catechism is printed in the book.
A Prayer of the Day or Collect is included for each Sunday of each year of the lectionary cycle. Unlike the abbreviated Psalter included in the LBW, ELW includes the entire Book of Psalms in a version for congregational prayer and singing. Compared to the LBW, the selection of hymns is expanded, including many options from published Evangelical Lutheran worship/liturgical books and hymnal supplements in America in the last two centuries. List of English-language hymnals by denomination Evangelical Lutheran Worship
Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg
The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as BA, BSc, MA, MSc, doctoral degrees and Habilitation; the university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle. The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU's convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains; the University of Wittenberg was founded in 1502 by Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony, as the Renaissance was becoming more and more popular. The foundation of the university was criticized when the Ninety-five Theses reached Albert of Brandenburg, the Archbishop of Mainz.
Ecclesiastically speaking, the Electorate of Saxony was subordinate to Albert. He criticized the elector for Luther's theses, viewing the founded university as a breeding ground for heretical ideas. Under the influence of Philipp Melanchthon, building on the works of Martin Luther, the university became a centre of the Protestant Reformation incorporating, at one point in time, Luther's house in Wittenberg, the Lutherhaus, as part of the campus. Notable alumni include George Müller, Georg Joachim Rheticus and – in fiction – William Shakespeare's Prince Hamlet and Horatio and Christopher Marlowe's Doctor Faustus; the University of Halle was founded in 1694 by Frederick III, Elector of Brandenburg, who became Frederick I, King in Prussia, in 1701. In the late 17th century and early 18th century, Halle became a centre for Pietism within Prussia. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the universities were centers of the German Enlightenment. Christian Wolff was an important proponent of rationalism, he influenced many German scholars, such as Immanuel Kant.
Christian Thomasius was at the same time the first philosopher in Germany to hold his lectures not in Latin, but German. He contributed to a rational programme in philosophy but tried to establish a more common-sense point of view, aimed against the unquestioned superiority of aristocracy and theology; the institutionalisation of the local language as the language of instruction, the prioritisation of rationalism over religious orthodoxy, new modes of teaching, the ceding of control over their work to the professors themselves, were among various innovations which characterised the University of Halle, have led to its being referred to as the first "modern" university, whose liberalism was adopted by the University of Göttingen about a generation and subsequently by other German and most North American universities. The University of Wittenberg was closed in 1813 during the Napoleonic Wars; the town of Wittenberg was granted to Prussia in the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the university was merged with the Prussian University of Halle in 1817.
It took its present name on 10 November 1933. More than a dozen professors were expelled. Others were shifted to Halle-Wittenberg from universities regarded as "better" at the time, which led to the university being called an academic Vorkuta – after the largest center of the Gulag camps in European Russia). Following the continental European academic tradition, MLU has 9 faculties, regrouping academic staff and students according to their field of studies: Faculty of Theology Faculty of Law and Economics Faculty of Medicine Faculty of Philosophy I Faculty of Philosophy II Faculty of Philosophy III Faculty of Natural Sciences I Faculty of Natural Sciences II Faculty of Natural Sciences III The Botanical Garden of Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, founded in 1698. MLU's historical observatory, built in 1788 by Carl Gotthard Langhans. MLU is enclosed by a variety of research institutions, which have either institutional or personal links with the university or cooperate in their respective fields of studies: The German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina The Halle Institute for Economic Research The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials The Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe The Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry The Max Planck Research Unit for Enzymology of Protein Folding The Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology The Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics The Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Even though MLU is an academic, research oriented institution, not an academy of music or conservatory, the university has an academic orchestra, founded in 1779, a rather prestigious choir, founded in 1950, which together constitute the so-called Collegium musicum.
Members are gifted students of all faculties, but academic staff and alumni. The university choir performs at the international Handel Festival in George Frideric Handel’s birthplace, Halle. MLU has many international partner universities, including: Argentina: National University of La Plata Australia: University of Queensland Austria: Johannes Kepler University Linz Canada: University of Ottawa Colombi
Gethsemane is an urban garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. In Christianity, it is the place where Jesus underwent the agony in the garden and was arrested the night before his crucifixion. Gethsemane appears in the Greek original of the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Mark as Γεθσημανή; the name is derived from the Aramaic ܓܕܣܡܢ, meaning "oil press". Matthew 26:36 and Mark 14:32 call it χωρἰον, meaning a estate; the Gospel of John says. According to the New Testament it was a place that Jesus and his disciples customarily visited, which allowed Judas to find him on the night of his arrest. There are four locations claimed to be the place; the Church of All Nations overlooking a garden with the "Rock of the Agony". The location near the Tomb of the Virgin Mary to the north; the Greek Orthodox location to the east. The Russian Orthodox orchard, next to the Church of Maria Magdalene. William McClure Thomson, author of The Land and the Book, first published in 1880, wrote: "When I first came to Jerusalem, for many years afterward, this plot of ground was open to all whenever they chose to come and meditate beneath its old olive trees.
The Latins, have within the last few years succeeded in gaining sole possession, have built a high wall around it. The Greeks have invented another site a little to the north of it. My own impression is; the position is too near the city, so close to what must have always been the great thoroughfare eastward, that our Lord would scarcely have selected it for retirement on that dangerous and dismal night. I am inclined to place the garden in the secluded vale several hundred yards to the north-east of the present Gethsemane."All of the foregoing is based on long-held tradition and the conflating of the synoptic accounts of Mark and Matthew with the Johannine account. Mark and Matthew record that Jesus went to "a place called the oil press" and John states he went to a garden near the Kidron Valley. Modern scholarship acknowledges. According to Luke 22:43–44, Jesus' anguish on the Mount of Olives was so deep that "his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground." According to the Eastern Orthodox Church tradition, Gethsemane is the garden where the Virgin Mary was buried and was assumed into heaven after her dormition on Mount Zion.
The Garden of Gethsemane became a focal site for early Christian pilgrims. It was visited in 333 by the anonymous "Pilgrim of Bordeaux", whose Itinerarium Burdigalense is the earliest description left by a Christian traveler in the Holy Land. In his Onomasticon, Eusebius of Caesarea notes the site of Gethsemane located "at the foot of the Mount of Olives", he adds that "the faithful were accustomed to go there to pray". Eight ancient olive trees growing in the Latin site of the garden may be 900 years old. In 1681 Croatian knights of the Holy Order of Jerusalem, Paul and James bought the Gethsemane Garden and donated it to the Franciscan community, who owns it until this day. A three-dimensional plate on the right side next to the entrance to the garden describes the aforementioned gift to the community.. A study conducted by the National Research Council of Italy in 2012 found that several olive trees in the garden are amongst the oldest known to science. Dates of 1092, 1166 and 1198 AD were obtained by carbon dating from older parts of the trunks of three trees.
DNA tests show that the trees were planted from the same parent plant. This could indicate an attempt to keep the lineage of an older species intact. Again, the three trees tested could have been sprouts reviving from the older roots. "The results of tests on trees in the Garden of Gethsemane have not settled the question of whether the gnarled trees are the same which sheltered Jesus because olive trees can grow back from roots after being cut down", researchers said. However Bernabei writes, "All the tree trunks are hollow inside so that the central, older wood is missing... In the end, only three from a total of eight olive trees could be dated; the dated ancient olive trees do, not allow any hypothesis to be made with regard to the age of the remaining five giant olive trees." Babcox said that the roots of the oldest trees are much older and points out the traditional claim that the trees are two thousand years old. In 2014, an archaeological survey of the site was conducted by Amit Re'em and David Yeger on behalf of the Israel Antiquities Authority.
Abbey of Our Lady of Gethsemani Agony in the Garden Holy Hour Works cited Taylor, Joan E. "The Garden of Gethsemane", Biblical Archaeology Review 21/4 26–35: www.bib-arch.org/online-exclusives/Easter-03.asp Catholic Encyclopedia on Gethsemane Paul’s Knowledge of the Garden of Gethsemane Narrative, by Christopher Price FotoTagger Annotated Galleries – Gethsemane in the art and reality Article on the history of the Russian monastery itself