World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
De Tomaso Modena SpA was an Italian car-manufacturing company. It was founded by the Argentine-born Alejandro de Tomaso in Modena in 1959, it produced various prototypes and racing cars, including a Formula One car for Frank Williams's team in 1970. Most of the funding for the automaker came from de Tomaso's brother-in-law, Armory Haskell Jr, Rowan Industries. In 1971, Ford acquired an 84% stake in De Tomaso from Rowan with Alejandro de Tomaso himself holding the balance. Ford would sell back their stake in the automaker in 1974 to Alejandro; the blue and white stripes of the logo's background are the colors of the national flag of Argentina. The symbol in the foreground that looks like a letter "T" is the cattle branding symbol of the Ceballos estate where Alejandro grew up; the company went on to develop and produce both sports cars and luxury vehicles, most notably the Ford-powered Italian-bodied Mangusta and Pantera grand tourers. From 1976 to 1993 De Tomaso owned Italian sports car maker Maserati, was responsible for producing cars including the Biturbo, the Kyalami, Quattroporte III, the Chrysler TC.
De Tomaso owned motorcycle company Moto Guzzi from 1973 to 1993. De Tomaso went into liquidation in 2004. By 2008 a buyer was being sought for the De Tomaso factory and trademarks, as per the court-appointed liquidators. In 2009 Gian Mario Rossignolo bought the De Tomaso trademark and founded a new company named De Tomaso Automobili SpA. Rossignolo planned to assemble chassis and bodies in one of Delphi Automotive's old production facilities in Livorno and to fit bodywork and finish its cars in the former Pininfarina factory in Grugliasco. In May 2012, De Tomaso was again for sale after their business plan failed to gather sufficient financial backing. In July 2012, Rossignolo was arrested following allegations that he misused €7,500,000 worth of government funds. In September 2012, speculation emerged that BMW might be interested in the brand factory to produce new BMW models. In 2014 the original workshop in Modena was in abandonment. In April 2015 an Italian bankruptcy court approved the sale of the company to China's Consolidated Ideal TeamVenture, for €1,050,000.
Per that sale report "A lawyer for the buyer announced that Ideal TeamVenture plans to produce cars in China bearing the De Tomaso name." De Tomaso's first road-going production model was the Vallelunga introduced in 1963. This mid-engined sports car had a 104 bhp Ford Cortina engine, reached a top speed of 215 km/h, it had an aluminium backbone chassis, to become a common feature of De Tomaso cars. The first 5 cars were produced in aluminium; the Mangusta, introduced in 1966 was the first De Tomaso produced in significant numbers. With the Mangusta, De Tomaso moved from European to American Ford engines; the car had a 4.7-litre iron-block V8 engine and steel and aluminium coupé bodywork from Ghia—an Italian coachbuilder controlled by Alejandro de Tomaso. About 400 Mangustas were built before production ended in 1971; the Mangusta was succeeded by the Pantera. It appeared in 1971 with a 351 Cleveland Ford V8 and a low, wedge-shaped body designed by Ghia's Tom Tjaarda. Through an agreement with Ford, De Tomaso sold Panteras in the USA through Ford's Lincoln and Mercury dealers.
Between 1971 and 1973, 6,128 Panteras were produced in Modena, the largest number of a single marque of De Tomaso produced. The 1973 oil crisis and other factors compelled Ford to pull out of the Pantera deal at the end of 1973, a few months after buying all De Tomaso's shares and getting control of the entire production process in the three factories that shared the workload in northern Italy, but the Argentinian retained from Ford the right to produce the car for the "rest of the world" market, so he continued Pantera production at a reduced scale of less than 100 cars per year during the 1970s and 1980s. From on, the cars were hand-built more than before. Incorporating a Marcello Gandini facelift, suspension redesign, partial chassis redesign and a new, smaller Ford engine, the Pantera 90 Si model was introduced in 1990. There were 41 90 Si models manufactured with 2 crash tested, 38 sold, 1 example went directly into a museum before the Pantera was phased out in 1993 to make way for the radical, carbon-fibre-bodied Guarà.
The Guarà was De Tomaso's most recent production car, produced beginning in 1993. The Guarà was designed by Carlo Gaino of an Italian design house. Based on a Maserati competition car from 1991, using Ford and BMW parts in a composite body, the Guarà s available in coupé and barchetta versions; as with all De Tomasos except the Pantera, production has been both sporadic. In the early 2000s two other cars were planned by De Tomaso. A two-seat Gandini-styled convertible, the Biguà, was developed from a 1996 Geneva concept in partnership with Qvale, an American firm which had long imported European sports cars into the USA, but as production of the Biguà—renamed the Mangusta—began, the relationship between De Tomaso and Qvale soured. Production was short-lived, Qvale's Italian factory was bought in 2003 by MG Rover and the Mangusta mechanics used as the basis of the MG XPower SV. In April 2002, De Tomaso began a project to build off-road vehicles in a new factory in Calabria in partnership with the Russian company UAZ, but this too foundered.
The deal projected a production rate of 10,000 cars a year by 2006: however, no cars were built and De Tomaso wen
Scuderia Toro Rosso
Scuderia Toro Rosso known as Toro Rosso or by its abbreviation STR and competing as Red Bull Toro Rosso Honda, is an Italian Formula One racing team. When the name "Toro Rosso" is translated to English, it is the exact same word as its sister team - Red Bull, it is one of two Formula One teams owned by Austrian beverage company Red Bull, the other being Red Bull Racing. Toro Rosso functions as a junior team to Red Bull Racing, with the aim of developing the skills of promising drivers for the senior team; the team made its racing debut in the 2006 season, moving to complete independence from its sister team in 2010. The team was established after Paul Stoddart sold his remaining interest in the Minardi team at the end of 2005 to Red Bull's owner, Dietrich Mateschitz and Minardi was renamed Toro Rosso. Mateschitz subsequently struck a 50/50 joint-ownership deal with former Formula One driver Gerhard Berger before the start of the season. In late November 2008, Red Bull regained total ownership of Toro Rosso after buying back Berger's share of the team.
From 2007 to 2013, Toro Rosso used Ferrari V8 engines, taking over the contract that their senior team broke from at the end of 2006 to switch engine builders to Renault. For 2014, Toro Rosso switched to Renault engines as well, but in 2016 returned to using Ferrari power. However, they switched back to Renault in 2017 in 2018 to Honda; the team principal is Franz Tost of BMW's motor sport division. Vitantonio Liuzzi scored the team's first point in its first season at the 2006 United States Grand Prix; the team's first and only pole position and victory were scored by Sebastian Vettel at the 2008 Italian Grand Prix. The team's set 2008 driver line-up was Sebastian Vettel, third driver for BMW Sauber in 2006 before switching to a race seat at Toro Rosso midway through the 2007 season, Sébastien Bourdais, the four-time winner of the Champ Car World Series. For the 2009 season, Sébastien Buemi took Vettel's seat when he moved to the Red Bull team, while Bourdais was dropped after the German Grand Prix, following a series of poor performances that had only scored him two points.
Jaime Alguersuari took over Bourdais' seat at the Hungarian Grand Prix, kept the seat for the remaining part of the year. Both Alguersuari and Buemi raced for the team for all of the 2011 seasons, it was announced on 14 December 2011, that Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Éric Vergne would be the team's drivers for the 2012 season. At the 2013 Italian Grand Prix it was announced that Daniel Ricciardo had been chosen to succeed Mark Webber at Red Bull Racing. For 2014, Toro Rosso signed newcomer Daniil Kvyat. Kvyat spent one season with Toro Rosso before being promoted to Red Bull, the team elected to overhaul their line-up by signing Carlos Sainz Jr. and Max Verstappen, who in 2015 became the youngest driver in Formula One history at just 17 years and 166 days old. Minardi had competed in Formula One from 1985 to 2005. Despite having a large fan base, it had been one of the least competitive teams in the sport, never achieving a podium finish and only finishing as high as fourth in three races. Minardi owner Paul Stoddart claimed to have had 41 approaches to buy the team, but preferred to sell it to someone who could'take it further' than he could and who would maintain it in its traditional base in Italy.
Included in the terms of the deal with Red Bull GmbH was the clause that the team must keep its headquarters in Faenza, Italy until at least the 2007 season. Whilst Red Bull have abandoned the Minardi name in line with their own sponsorship and marketing plans, the use of the Italian language in the name is intended to hint at the team's Italian heritage. Red Bull changed the name of the team after taking control of the team on 1 November 2005, it was reported as'Squadra Toro Rosso' but changed because squadra in Italian depicts a'squad' like a football team, to'Scuderia Toro Rosso'. Scuderia is Italian for a stable reserved for racing horses, is commonly applied to Italian motor racing teams, such as Ferrari. Many Minardi fans were upset by the name change to Scuderia Toro Rosso and over 15,000 signed an online petition to keep the Minardi name, but were unsuccessful. Vitantonio Liuzzi and Scott Speed were the 2006 race drivers of the STR1, with Neel Jani filling the test/third driver role.
Liuzzi had raced part-time for Red Bull Racing in 2005, while Speed entered F1 following the Red Bull Driver Search in the United States. Jani was the test driver for Sauber Petronas in 2004; the 2006 chassis was a modified version of the 2005 Red Bull Racing RB1. Some teams felt that this infringed the Concorde Agreement as each team is expected to design their own car. Toro Rosso claim that this design was produced during 2004 by Jaguar Racing, Red Bull's predecessor, that the intellectual rights had belonged to the Ford Motor Company, Jaguar Racing's parent company before passing to Toro Rosso; the team used Minardi's contracted supply of rev limited and air restricted Cosworth 3.0l V10 engines. This concession had been granted to assist less well funded teams by avoiding the cost of sourcing a new supply of V8 engines as required by the 2006 regulations; the continuation of this arrangement after the Red Bull takeover caused friction with other teams, in particular Super Aguri and Midland who felt that the engine conferred too much of an advantage.
They contended that the concession to allow the team use a V10 engine was based on Minardi's poor financial situation, should not have continued to apply after the team achieved a different financial footing. As the season progressed, the Toro Rossos began to struggle in qualifying as their competitors developed their new V8
Cisitalia was an Italian sports and racing car brand. The name "Cisitalia" derives from "Compagnia Industriale Sportiva Italia", a business conglomerate founded in Turin in 1946 and controlled by the wealthy industrialist and sportsman Piero Dusio; the Cisitalia 202 GT of 1946 is well known in the world as a "rolling sculpture". Using Fiat parts as a base Dante Giacosa designed the D46 which made its successful debut in 1946. Giacosa had a vast knowledge of Fiat bits and pieces as he had designed the legendary 500 Fiat Topolino before WWII; the engine and suspension were directly derived from the small Fiat but extensively modified for racing. The engine received dry sump lubrication and further tweaks increased the power output to 60-70 bhp. With a spaceframe chassis and weighing under 400 kg the available power was more than enough for competitive performance. Dusio's dream of a one model series came to nothing, but instead his D46s started to dominate the voiturette series. Talented drivers like Tazio Nuvolari piloted the D46 to multiple successes against more advanced but older racing cars.
This successes led to a much more ambitious single seater project that would prove too much for the small company. Ferdinand Porsche was commissioned to design and construct a full Grand Prix car which led to the innovative but complex Cisitalia 360. With a mid engined layout and four wheel drive the Type 360 was far too expensive for Dusio to support and the attempt killed any further racing cars. Dusio commissioned several automobiles from Europe's leading designers, he provided Pinin Farina with the chassis. When first presented to the public at the Villa d'Este Gold Cup show in Como, at the 1947 Paris Motor Show, the two-seat 202GT was a resounding success; the 202 was an technical achievement that transformed postwar automobile body design. The Pinin Farina design was honored by New York's Museum of Modern Art in 1951. In the MOMA's first exhibit on automotive design, called "Eight Automobiles", the Cisitalia was displayed with seven other cars, it is still part of the MoMA permanent collection.
It was a commercial success. Most cars were coachbuilt by Pinin Farina with some by Stabilimenti Farina. Building on aerodynamic studies developed for racing cars, the Cisitalia offers one of the most accomplished examples of coachwork conceived as a single shell; the hood, body and headlights are integral to the continuously flowing surface, rather than added on. Before the Cisitalia, the prevailing approach followed by automobile designers when defining a volume and shaping the shell was to treat each part of the body as a separate, distinct element—a box to house the passengers, another for the motor, headlights as appendages. In the Cisitalia, there are no sharp edges. Swellings and depressions maintain the overall unity, creating a sense of speed; the 202 is featured in the 2011 video game L. A. Noire by Rockstar Games and Team Bondi as a secret car called the Cisitalia Coupe. Since the 202 never made large scale production and all the cars were handmade, the small talented group at Cisitalia, including Carlo Abarth, Dante Giacosa and Giovanni Savonuzzi, made several variants of the 202.
Of the more important versions, the SMM Nuvolari Spider was built and named after a class victory at the 1947 Mille Miglia by famed driver Tazio Nuvolari. It is identified by its large rear fins, twin windscreens and usual Italian red paint scheme. In total, around 200 cars were made which made a large impact on the marques, including Abarth's range of cars. For the upcoming 1947 season, Giovanni Savonuzzi, who had designed most of the 202, sketched a coupe body for Cisitalia's competition car; the design was executed by Stabilimenti Farina upon both chassis #101 and #102. After two coupes had been finished, a spider version, Called the SMM for Spider Mille Miglia, was completed which would adorn all subsequent competition cars bearing the MM designation. At the 1947 Mille Miglia, the Cistitalia spider proved itself by leading most of the race in capable hands of Tazio Nuvolari. Despite having competition with engines three times larger, Nuvolari held back the competition until troubles ensued in the rain.
In the end, the Cistitalia took second first in class. For this epic effort, subsequent competition spiders were known as 202 SMM Nuvolaris. Since the 202 SMM received much attention at the Mille Miglia, Stabilimenti Farina continued production of the design for several customers. In total around 20 cars were made similar to Nuvolari's winning car. D46 Monoposto D47 Monoposto D48 Monoposto 202SMM Spyder Nuvolari 202SC 202C Coupe 202C Cabriolet 202 Streamliner 202 MM Razzo 202 Giacossa 202 Cassone 204 Spyder Sport 360 Grand Prix 808XF 202D Coupe and Spyder 303 DF Spyder 303 DF Coupe 33DF Voloradente DF85 Coupé 750GT 505 DF Cisitalia Museum Museum of Modern Art New York Cisitalia Club of North America
2019 Formula One World Championship
The 2019 FIA Formula One World Championship is an ongoing motor racing championship for Formula One cars which marks the 70th running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the governing body of international motorsport, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars. Starting in March and ending in December, the championship is being contested over 21 Grands Prix. Drivers are competing for the title of World Drivers' Champion, teams for the World Constructors' Champion; the 2019 championship is scheduled to see the running of the 1000th World Championship race, in China. Lewis Hamilton is the defending World Drivers' Champion, after winning his fifth championship title in the previous season, Mercedes are the defending World Constructors' Champions, after winning their fifth consecutive championship. Ten teams, with two drivers each, are competing in the championship in 2019. Red Bull Racing switched to Honda engines.
In doing so, Red Bull Racing joined sister team Scuderia Toro Rosso in using Honda power after Scuderia Toro Rosso joined the Japanese manufacturer in 2018. Neither team will be recognised as Honda's official factory team under the terms of the agreement. Racing Point F1 Team completed their transition from the Racing Point Force India identity that they used after their purchase of the assets of Sahara Force India in August 2018. Sauber was renamed Alfa Romeo Racing in an extension of the sponsorship deal that began in 2018; the Sauber name will disappear from the Formula One grid, but will still be used in the Formula 2 and Formula 3 support categories. The lead up to the 2019 championship saw several driver changes. Daniel Ricciardo moved to Renault after five years with Red Bull Racing, replacing Carlos Sainz Jr.. Ricciardo's drive at Red Bull Racing has been taken by Pierre Gasly, promoted from Scuderia Toro Rosso, the team with whom he made his first Formula One start in 2017. Daniil Kvyat rejoined Toro Rosso after last racing for the team in 2017.
He was partnered with Formula 2 driver Alexander Albon. Albon subsequently became only the second Thai driver to race in Formula One after Prince Bira. Sainz, on loan to Renault in 2018, did not have his deal with Red Bull renewed and subsequently moved to McLaren to replace two-time World Drivers' Champion Fernando Alonso, who had earlier announced that he would not compete in Formula One in 2019. Sainz was partnered with 2017 European Formula 3 champion Lando Norris. Stoffel Vandoorne left McLaren after the 2018 season to race in Formula E with the Mercedes-affiliated HWA Team. Charles Leclerc left Sauber after one year with the team, joining Ferrari where he took the place of Kimi Räikkönen. Räikkönen returned to Sauber, now renamed Alfa Romeo, with whom he had started his career in 2001, he was partnered with Antonio Giovinazzi, who made two starts for the team when he replaced the injured Pascal Wehrlein in 2017. Marcus Ericsson will race in the IndyCar Series in 2019 with Schmidt Peterson Motorsports but will remain at Alfa Romeo as third driver and brand ambassador.
Reigning Formula 2 champion George Russell joined Williams. Robert Kubica made his return to Formula 1. Kubica's return comes after an eight-year absence brought on by a near-fatal rally car crash in 2011 that left him with serious arm injuries. Esteban Ocon joined Mercedes as reserve driver. Ocon will share the role of simulator driver with Stoffel Vandoorne. Ocon has been replaced at Racing Point by Lance Stroll; the following twenty-one Grands Prix are due to be run as part of the 2019 World Championship. Each race is run over a minimum number of laps; the Mexican and United States Grands Prix swapped places on the calendar so that the United States round follows the Mexican Grand Prix. Race Director and Technical Delegate Charlie Whiting died unexpectedly just days before the opening race of the season in Australia. Deputy Race Director Michael Masi was named as his temporary successor. In a bid to improve overtaking, teams agreed to a series of aerodynamic changes that affect the profile of the front and rear wings.
The front wing endplates were reshaped to alter the airflow across the car and reduce the effects of aerodynamic turbulence, winglets above the main plane of the front wing have been banned. The slot in the rear wing was widened; the agreed-upon changes were drawn from the findings of a working group set up to investigate potential changes to the technical regulations in preparation for the 2021 championship. Parts of the technical regulations governing bodywork were rewritten in a bid to promote sponsorship opportunities for teams; the agreed changes are to mandate smaller bargeboards and limit aerodynamic development of the rear wing endplates to create more space for sponsor logos. The changes were introduced as a response to falling revenues amid teams and the struggles of smaller teams to secure new sponsors; the mandated maximum fuel levels were raised from 105 kg to 110 kg so as to minimise the need for drivers to conserve fuel during a race. Driver weights are no longer considered; this change was agreed to following concerns that drivers were being forced to lose dangerous amounts of weight in order to offset the additional weight of the post-2014 generation of turbo-hybrid engines.
Drivers who weigh less than 80 kg will have to make up this weight with ballast, loc
Suhl is a city in Thuringia, located 50 kilometres SW of Erfurt, 110 kilometres NE of Würzburg and 130 kilometres N of Nuremberg. With its 37,000 inhabitants, it is the smallest of the six urban districts within Thuringia. Together with its northern neighbour-town Zella-Mehlis, Suhl forms the largest urban area in the Thuringian Forest with a population of 46,000; the region around Suhl is marked by up to 1,000-meter high mountains, including Thuringia's highest peak, the Großer Beerberg 5 kilometres NE of the city centre. Suhl was first mentioned in 1318 and stayed a small mining and metalworking town, until industrialization broke through in late 19th century and Suhl became a centre of Germany's arms production, specialized on rifles and guns with companies such as Sauer & Sohn. Furthermore, the engineering industry was based in Suhl with Simson, a famous car and moped producer. In 1952, Suhl became one of East Germany's 14 district capitals, which led to a government-directed period of urban growth and conversion.
Its results – a typical 1960s concrete architecture-marked city centre – are defining to the present. With the loss of its administrative and industrial functions, Suhl saw a lasting period of urban decline starting in 1990. Suhl is known for its sportsmen in shooting, winter sports, volleyball. Though first appearing in a 1318 deed, several entries in the annals of Fulda Abbey mentioned a place named Sulaha between 900 and 1155 AD; the coat of arms from 1365 shows two hammers, indicating the city's most important livelihood: metal processing. The region belonged to the territories held by the Franconian counts of Henneberg since the 11th century. Suhl was located on an important trade route from Gotha and Arnstadt passing the Thuringian Forest mountain range at Oberhof and continuing to the Henneberg's residence, Schleusingen. From 1500 onwards, the Henneberg lands belonged to the Franconian Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. Suhl has been a Flecken since 1445 and the full municipal rights were granted in 1527, making Suhl one of the youngest cities in present-day Thuringia.
Iron ore mining created the basis for the development of Suhl as a centre of gunsmith trade. The Reformation was introduced in 1544. Several witch-hunts took place in the area from 1553 until the late 17th century; when the Henneberg counts became extinct in 1583, Suhl passed to the Wettin electors of Saxony, where it remained until 1815. Unlike most of present Thuringia, it didn't belong to the Ernestine line of the Wettins, but to the Albertine cadet branch of Saxe-Zeitz from 1660, so that it had been a Saxonian and Prussian exclave within Thuringia for nearly 300 years. During the 16th century, iron mining and metalworking saw a boom, finished by the Thirty Years' War, when marauding Croat mercenaries under Imperial general Johann Ludwig Hektor von Isolani burnt down the city in 1634. From about 1690, Duke Moritz Wilhelm of Saxe-Zeitz supported the reconstruction of Suhl as a mining town; the Congress of Vienna in 1815 led to the Saxonian loss of Suhl. Staying an exclave within Ernestine territories, Suhl was part of the Schleusingen district until the dissolution of Prussia in 1945.
The 19th century brought the connection to the railway in 1882 and the industrialisation of the metalworking business. About 1920, Suhl has been a centre of left-wing revolutionary groups, so that the Reichswehr occupied the city during the Kapp Putsch and ended the workers uprising. After 1935, the military industry saw another boom, caused by the Nazi armament. About 10,000 forced labourers had to work in the city's arms industry after 1940; the US Army reached Suhl on 3 April 1945 and was replaced by Soviet troops on 1 July 1945. At the same year, Suhl became part of Thuringia, replaced by three Bezirks in 1952. Suhl became the capital of the south-western Bezirk, reaching from Bad Salzungen in the north-west to Sonneberg in the south-east with a population of 550,000. During the GDR period, the upgraded city saw a period of rapid urban growth, defining until today. After the German reunification in 1990, Suhl lost its administrative functions when Thuringia was refounded and replaced the Bezirks.
Furthermore, the industry collapsed. Both led to a structural crises; the population of Suhl declined about 35% since 1988. The metal processing of Suhl led, during the Renaissance, to other major local industries, including gunsmithing and armoring. Suhl was a major producer of cannons throughout the seventeenth and subsequent centuries, Suhl cannons were used by many European powers. A major arms company, located in Suhl for 200 years was J. P. Sauer und Sohn GmbH, producer of hunting rifles and pistols, such as the Sauer 38H, until moving operations to Eckernförde at the end of World War II. Other prominent firearms manufacturers in Suhl included: Simson, Waffenfabrik August Menz, noted for having produced in the 1920s the Liliput pistol, one of the smallest semiautomatic handguns made. C. G. Haenel; the largest manufacturer producing firearms in Suhl is Merkel GmbH, who make both rifles and shotguns. During the Cold War, the East German national shooting arena was located at Suhl, hosted many top-level competitions, including the 1986 ISSF World Championships.
Although surpassed in this respect in the unified Germany by the Olympic shooting centre at Munich, Suhl remains an important place to the sport. It hosts Germany's only school for armorers, a well equipped museum of weapons. ¹ Census Suhl is locat
Williams Grand Prix Engineering
Williams Grand Prix Engineering Limited racing in Formula One as ROKiT Williams Racing, is a British Formula One motor racing team and constructor. It was founded by team owner Sir Frank Williams and automotive engineer Sir Patrick Head, it is still run by Williams; the team was formed in 1977 after Frank Williams's two earlier unsuccessful F1 operations: Frank Williams Racing Cars and Wolf–Williams Racing. All of Williams F1 chassis are called "FW" a number, the FW being the initials of team owner, Frank Williams; the team's first race was the 1977 Spanish Grand Prix, where the new team ran a March chassis for Patrick Nève. Williams started manufacturing its own cars the following year, Switzerland's Clay Regazzoni won Williams's first race at the 1979 British Grand Prix. At the 1997 British Grand Prix, Canadian Jacques Villeneuve scored the team's 100th race victory, making Williams one of only three teams in Formula One, alongside Ferrari and fellow British team McLaren, to win 100 races.
Williams won nine Constructors' Championships between 1980 and 1997. This stood as a record until Ferrari surpassed it in 2000. Drivers for Williams have included Australia's Alan Jones; each of these drivers, with the exception of Senna and Button, have captured one Drivers' title with the team. Of those who have won the championship with Williams, only Jones and Villeneuve defended their title while still with the team. Piquet moved to Lotus after winning the 1987 championship, Mansell moved to the American-based Indy Cars after winning the 1992 championship, Prost retired from racing after his 4th World Championship in 1993, while Hill moved to Arrows after winning in 1996. No driver who has won a drivers' title with Williams has managed to win a title again. Williams have worked with many engine manufacturers, most with Renault, winning five of their nine Constructors' titles with the French company. Along with Ferrari, McLaren and Renault, Williams is one of a group of five teams that won every Constructors' Championship between 1979 and 2008 and every Drivers' Championship from 1984 to 2008.
Williams F1 has business interests beyond Formula One racing. Based in Grove, Oxfordshire, UK, Williams has established Williams Advanced Engineering and Williams Hybrid Power which take technology developed for Formula One and adapt it for commercial applications. In April 2014, Williams Hybrid Power were sold to GKN. Williams Advanced Engineering had a technology centre in Qatar until it was closed in 2014. Frank Williams started the current Williams team in 1977 after his previous outfit, Frank Williams Racing Cars, failed to achieve the success he desired. Despite the promise of a new owner, Canadian millionaire Walter Wolf, the team's rebranding as Wolf–Williams Racing in 1976, the cars were not competitive. Williams left the rechristened Walter Wolf Racing and moved to Didcot to rebuild his team as "Williams Grand Prix Engineering". Frank recruited young engineer Patrick Head to work for the team, creating the "Williams–Head" partnership. Reuters reported on 20 November 2009 that Williams and Patrick Head had sold a minority stake in the team to an investment company led by Austrian Toto Wolff who said that it was purely a commercial decision.
In February 2011, Williams F1 announced plans to raise capital through an initial public offering on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in March 2011, with Sir Frank Williams remaining the majority shareholder and team principal after the IPO. As of December 2017, ownership is as follows: Frank Williams. Williams entered a custom March 761 for the 1977 season. Lone driver Patrick Nève appeared at 11 races that year, starting with the Spanish Grand Prix; the new team failed to score a point. For the 1978 season, Patrick Head designed his first Williams car: the FW06. Williams signed Australian Alan Jones, who had won the Austrian Grand Prix the previous season for a devastated Shadow team following the death of their lead driver, Tom Pryce. Jones's first race for the team was the Argentine Grand Prix where he qualified the lone Williams car in 14th position, but retired after 36 laps with a fuel system failure; the team scored its first championship points two rounds at the South African Grand Prix when Jones finished fourth.
Williams managed their first podium position at the United States Grand Prix, where the Australian came second, some 20 seconds behind the Ferrari of future Williams driver Carlos Reutemann. Williams ended the season in tenth place in the Constructors' Championship, with a respectable 16 points, while Alan Jones finished 12th in the Drivers' Championship. Towards the end of 1978 Frank Williams recruited Frank Dernie to join Patrick Head in the design office. Head designed the FW07 for the 1979 season with Frank Dernie picking up the aerodynamic development and skirt design; this was the team's first ground effect car, a technology first introduced by Colin Chapman and Team Lotus. Williams obtained membership of the Formula One Constructors' Association which expressed a preference for teams to run two cars, so Jones was partnered by Swiss driver Clay Regazzoni, it was not until the seventh round of the championship, the Monaco Grand Prix, that they achieved a points-scoring position. Regazzoni came close to taking the team's first win but finished second, less than a second behind race winner Jody Scheckter.
The next round at Dijon is remembered for