A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
Peter Plagens is an American artist, art critic, novelist based in New York City. He is most known for his longstanding contributions to Artforum and Newsweek, for what critics have called a remarkably consistent, five-decade-long body of abstract formalist painting. Plagens has written three books on art, Bruce Nauman: The True Artist, Moonlight Blues: An Artist’s Art Criticism and Sunshine Muse: Modern Art on the West Coast, 1945-70, two novels, The Art Critic and Time for Robo, he has been awarded major fellowships for both his writing. Plagens's work has been featured in surveys at the Museum of Modern Art, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Whitney Museum, PS1, in solo exhibitions at the Hirshhorn Museum and Las Vegas Art Museum. In 2004, the USC Fisher Gallery held a 30-year traveling retrospective of his work. Critics have contrasted the purely visual dialogue his art creates—often generating more questions than answers—with the directness of his writing. Los Angeles Times critic David Pagel described Plagens's painting as a "fusion of high-flying refinement and everyday awkwardness" with an intellectual savvy, disdain for snobbery and ungainliness he likened to Willem de Kooning's work.
Reviewing Plagens's 2018 exhibition, New York Times critic Roberta Smith called the show an "eye-teasing sandwich of contrasting formalist strategies," the hard-won result of a decade of focused experimentation. Plagens grew up in Los Angeles, he attended the University of Southern California, where he majored in painting and drew cartoons for the Daily Trojan. He left USC an abstract painter, influenced by Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning, Richard Diebenkorn and Elmer Bischoff, which set him at odds with the somewhat conservative painting faculty at Syracuse University where he did his graduate studies, he moved back to California in 1965 and took an Assistant Curator position at the Long Beach Museum of Art. In 1966, Plagens accepted a teaching position at the University of Texas, remaining until 1969, when he accepted a position at California State University, Northridge, he taught there until 1978, at the University of California, the University of Southern California, the University of North Carolina, where he chaired the art department.
During his time at Cal State, Plagens shared a 3,000-square-foot studio with painter Walter Gabrielson on the same block in Pasadena as artist Bruce Nauman's. Plagens began exhibiting professionally in 1967, was featured in the 1971 LACMA show, "24 Young Los Angeles Artists" and the 1972 Whitney Biennial, he has shown at Nancy Hoffman Gallery in New York since 1975, showed at the Jan Baum Gallery in Los Angeles and Jan Cicero Gallery in Chicago. His 2004 retrospective at USC traveled to Columbia College Chicago and the Butler Institute of American Art in Akron. Plagens married the painter, Laurie Fendrich, in 1981, they moved to New York City in 1985 where they continue to reside, while maintaining a studio outside the city. Critic Dave Hickey, among others, has characterized Plagens as "an irrevocably abstract formalist painter," who, regardless of fashion, has rooted his work in modernist and Abstract Expressionism syntax, formal rigor, a willful embrace of dissonance and contradictions—such as hard-edged geometry and messy, gestural abstraction, "happy accident and copious correction," and beauty and intentional clunkiness.
David Pagel wrote that Plagens's 2004 retrospective traced "a remarkably consistent arc" of stubbornly held abstract work of "sophisticated inelegance." Plagens works improvisationally, sometimes pushing his paintings to the edge of failure, by his own admission and according to critics. He maintains. Throughout his career, he has produced works on paper that correspond in style to his paintings, incorporating collaged photographs, fragments of commercial packaging, colored and textured paper. Plagens's early work featured single, emphatic shapes—circles with wedges removed, diamonds and thin letter "C"-like rings—which he placed on vivid red-orange or creamy white color fields that sometimes disintegrated at the canvas edges into irregular, soft bands of subtle color. Minimal works, such as Cleveland Defaults on Its Debts or Cubist Landscape, have been recognized for calibrated compositions that challenged conventional rules about balance and probed the line between elegance and awkwardness, friction and harmony.
In pivotal paintings of the mid-1980s, such as Wheels of Wonder and Wedge of Life, Plagens incorporated angular, eccentric polygons, greater surface variation and a new sense of movement that reviewers such as Grace Glueck deemed "witty balancing acts." During this time, he created the drawing series “My Father Worked in Advertising”, which featured dappled, abstract expressionist-like areas around the edges over which he painted and collaged fields of color and hard-edged and irregular shapes. Critics noted a building complexity and im
A documentary film is a nonfictional motion picture intended to document some aspect of reality for the purposes of instruction, education, or maintaining a historical record. "Documentary" has been described as a "filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, mode of audience reception", continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. Documentary films were called'actuality' films and were only a minute or less in length. Over time documentaries have evolved to be longer in length and to include more categories, such as educational and even'docufiction'. Documentaries are educational and used in schools to teach various principles. Social media platforms such as YouTube, have allowed documentary films to improve the ways the films are distributed and able to educate and broaden the reach of people who receive the information. Polish writer and filmmaker Bolesław Matuszewski was among those who identified the mode of documentary film, he wrote two of the earliest texts on cinema Une nouvelle source de l'histoire and La photographie animée.
Both were published in 1898 in French and among the early written works to consider the historical and documentary value of the film. Matuszewski is among the first filmmakers to propose the creation of a Film Archive to collect and keep safe visual materials. In popular myth, the word documentary was coined by Scottish documentary filmmaker John Grierson in his review of Robert Flaherty's film Moana, published in the New York Sun on 8 February 1926, written by "The Moviegoer". Grierson's principles of documentary were that cinema's potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form. In this regard, Grierson's definition of documentary as "creative treatment of actuality" has gained some acceptance, with this position at variance with Soviet film-maker Dziga Vertov's provocation to present "life as it is" and "life caught unawares"; the American film critic Pare Lorentz defines a documentary film as "a factual film, dramatic." Others further state that a documentary stands out from the other types of non-fiction films for providing an opinion, a specific message, along with the facts it presents.
Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content and production strategies in order to address the creative and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. Documentary filmmaking can be used as a form of advocacy, or personal expression. Early film was dominated by the novelty of showing an event, they were single-shot moments captured on film: a train entering a station, a boat docking, or factory workers leaving work. These short films were called "actuality" films. Many of the first films, such as those made by Auguste and Louis Lumière, were a minute or less in length, due to technological limitations. Films showing many people were made for commercial reasons: the people being filmed were eager to see, for payment, the film showing them. One notable film clocked in at over an hour and The Corbett-Fitzsimmons Fight. Using pioneering film-looping technology, Enoch J. Rector presented the entirety of a famous 1897 prize-fight on cinema screens across the United States.
In May 1896, Bolesław Matuszewski recorded on film few surigical operations in Warsaw and Saint Petersburg hospitals. In 1898, French surgeon Eugène-Louis Doyen invited Bolesław Matuszewski and Clément Maurice and proposed them to recorded his surigical operations, they started in Paris a series of surgical films sometime before July 1898. Until 1906, the year of his last film, Doyen recorded more than 60 operations. Doyen said that his first films taught him how to correct professional errors he had been unaware of. For scientific purposes, after 1906, Doyen combined 15 of his films into three compilations, two of which survive, the six-film series Extirpation des tumeurs encapsulées, the four-film Les Opérations sur la cavité crânienne; these and five other of Doyen's films survive. Between July 1898 and 1901, the Romanian professor Gheorghe Marinescu made several science films in his neurology clinic in Bucharest: Walking Troubles of Organic Hemiplegy, The Walking Troubles of Organic Paraplegies, A Case of Hysteric Hemiplegy Healed Through Hypnosis, The Walking Troubles of Progressive Locomotion Ataxy, Illnesses of the Muscles.
All these short films have been preserved. The professor called his works "studies with the help of the cinematograph," and published the results, along with several consecutive frames, in issues of "La Semaine Médicale" magazine from Paris, between 1899 and 1902. In 1924, Auguste Lumiere recognized the merits of Marinescu's science films: "I've seen your scientific reports about the usage of the cinematograph in studies of nervous illnesses, when I was still receiving "La Semaine Médicale," but back I had other concerns, which left me no spare time to begin biological studies. I must say I am thankful to you that you reminded them to me. Not many scientists have followed your way." Travelogue films were popular in the early part of the 20th century. They were referred to by distributors as "scenics." Scenics were among the most popu
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues in a single city or region. Film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival's focus, can include international and domestic releases; some festivals focus on genre or subject matter. A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are annual events; some film historians, including Jerry Beck, do not consider film festivals official releases of film. The most prestigious film festivals in the world are considered to be Cannes and Venice; these festivals are sometimes called the "Big Three." The Toronto International Film Festival is North America's most popular festival in terms of attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world; the Venice Film Festival in Italy began in 1932, is the oldest film festival still running. Raindance Film Festival is the UK's largest celebration of independent film-making, takes place in London in October.
Mainland Europe's biggest independent film festival is ÉCU The European Independent Film Festival, that started in 2006 and takes place every spring in Paris, France. Edinburgh International Film Festival is the longest running festival in Great Britain. Australia's first and longest running film festival is the Melbourne International Film Festival, followed by the Sydney Film Festival. North America's first and longest running short film festival is the Yorkton Film Festival, established in 1947; the first film festival in the United States was the Columbus International Film & Video Festival known as The Chris Awards, held in 1953. According to the Film Arts Foundation in San Francisco, "The Chris Awards one of the most prestigious documentary, educational and informational competitions in the U. S, it was followed four years by the San Francisco International Film Festival, held in March 1957, which emphasized feature-length dramatic films. The festival played a major role in introducing foreign films to American audiences.
Films in the first year included Akira Kurosawa's Throne of Blood and Satyajit Ray's Pather Panchali. Today, thousands of film festivals take place around the world—from high-profile festivals such as Sundance Film Festival and Slamdance Film Festival, to horror festivals such as Terror Film Festival, the Park City Film Music Festival, the first U. S. film festival dedicated to honoring music in film. Film Funding competitions such as Writers and Filmmakers were introduced when the cost of production could be lowered and internet technology allowed for the collaboration of film production. Although there are notable for-profit festivals such as SXSW, most festivals operate on a nonprofit membership-based model, with a combination of ticket sales, membership fees, corporate sponsorship constituting the majority of revenue. Unlike other arts nonprofits, film festivals receive few donations from the general public and are organized as nonprofit business associations instead of public charities.
Film industry members have significant curatorial input, corporate sponsors are given opportunities to promote their brand to festival audiences in exchange for cash contributions. Private parties to raise investments for film projects, constitute significant "fringe" events. Larger festivals maintain year-round staffs engaging in community and charitable projects outside festival season. While entries from established filmmakers are considered pluses by the organizers, most festivals require new or unknown filmmakers to pay an entry fee to have their works considered for screening; this is so in larger film festivals, such as the Cannes Film Festival, Toronto International Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, South by Southwest, Montreal World Film Festival, smaller "boutique" festivals such as the Miami International Film Festival, British Urban Film Festival in London and Mumbai Women's International Film Festival in India. On the other hand, some festivals—usually those accepting fewer films, not attracting as many "big names" in their audiences as do Sundance and Telluride—require no entry fee.
Rotterdam Film Festival, Mumbai Film Festival, many smaller film festivals in the United States, are examples. The Portland International Film Festival charges an entry fee, but waives it for filmmakers from the Northwestern United States, some others with regional focuses have similar approaches. Several film festival submission portal websites exist to streamline filmmakers' entries into multiple festivals, they provide databases of festival calls for entry and offer filmmakers a convenient "describe once, submit many" service. The core tradition of film festivals is competition, that is, the consideration of films with the intention of judging which are most deserving of various forms of recognition. In contrast to those films, some festivals may screen some films without treating them as part of the competition; the three most prestigious film festivals are considered to be Cannes, B
Lawrence B. "Larry" Wilkerson is a retired United States Army Colonel and former chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell. Since the end of his military career, Wilkerson has publicly criticized many aspects of the Iraq War, including his own preparation of Powell's presentation to the UN, as well as other aspects of American policy in the Middle East. Wilkerson was born in South Carolina. After three years of studying philosophy and English literature at Bucknell University, Wilkerson dropped out in 1966 and volunteered to serve in the Vietnam War, he told the Washington Post: "I felt an obligation because my dad had fought, I thought, kind of your duty."Wilkerson arrived as an Army officer piloting an OH-6A Cayuse observation helicopter and logged about 1100 combat hours over a year. He flew low and slow through Vietnam, was involved in one incident in which he says he prevented a war crime by purposely placing his helicopter between a position, full of civilians, another helicopter that wanted to launch an attack on the position.
He had many vocal disagreements with his superiors and his own gunner crew over free-fire zones, including an incident in which one of his crew shot a wagon that wound up having a little girl inside it. He went on to Airborne School and Ranger School before receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature and graduate degrees in international relations and national security, he attended the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, returned there to teach. He served as deputy director of the Marine Corps War College at Quantico. Wilkerson spent some years in the United States Navy's Pacific Command in South Korea and Hawaii, where he was well regarded by his superiors; these recommendations led in early 1989 to a successful interview to become the assistant to Colin Powell, finishing his stint as National Security Advisor in the Reagan administration and moving to a position in the United States Army Forces Command at Fort McPherson. He continued this supporting role as Powell became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff through the Gulf War, following Powell into civilian life and back into public service when President George W. Bush appointed Powell Secretary of State.
Wilkerson was responsible for a review of information from the Central Intelligence Agency, used to prepare Powell for his February 2003 presentation to the United Nations Security Council. His failure to realize that the evidence was faulty has been attributed to the limited time that he had to review the data; the subsequent developments led Wilkerson to become disillusioned: "Combine the detainee abuse issue with the ineptitude of post-invasion planning for Iraq, wrap both in this blanket of secretive decision-making...and you get the overall reason for my speaking out." Since his retirement from the public sector Wilkerson has on several occasions spoken out against what he perceives as the poor planning and execution of the Iraq War as well as the global politics leading up to and following it. In particular he has denounced the decision-making process of the Bush Administration and Vice President Dick Cheney's and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's parts in it. On April 2018, Wilkerson explained in an interview with Sharmini Peries of the Real News Network, why he believes the U.
S. president "can do anything he pleases with regard to the armed forces of the United States anytime he pleases." That reason, says Wilkerson, "is because the American people are apathetic" and "their representatives in the Congress are… cowards" who, but for "few exceptions like Mike Lee and Bernie Sanders and some of the others," will not do anything to restrain such exercise of presidential power. He goes on to state that commercial interests related to oil and gas is why the U. S. would intervene in various places overseas including Afghanistan. S. intervention "is just lying to the American people" and that the U. S. has a long history of lying to justify intervention, giving the examples of the Vietnam and Afghanistan wars. In September 2018, Wilkerson further said that the neoconservative agenda regarding war on Syria and Iran threatens conflict between the U. S. and Russia and the long-term bogging down of U. S. military forces in major conflict. Wilkerson states, "My serious concern is about the way U.
S. National Security Advisor John Bolton and others in their positions of power now are orchestrating a scenario whereby Donald Trump, for political reasons or whatever, can use force in a significant way against Assad and Iran, because Iran's forces are there, against Russia, because their forces are there in Syria, this is most disquieting.” The neoconservatives' military plan, argues Wilkerson, is "a recipe for" the U. S. military being in the region for "the next generation" with significant force "mired deeper in this morass" and with the "day after day" attrition of dollars and lives. Wilkerson made comments in a radio interview in November 2005 that the Vice President had decided that the Third Geneva Convention would not apply to "al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda look-alike detainees" and that the February 2002 White House memorandum regarding the "Humane Treatment of Taliban and al Qaeda Detainees" contained a loophole designed to avoid applying the Geneva convention to the detainees. According to Wilkerson, the phrase "the detainees be treated humanely and, to the extent appropriate and consistent with military necessity, in a manner consistent with the principles of Geneva" was a way to appear to play by the rules while in reality, the "military necessities" would always overrule conce
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Bret Sergeant Hart is a Canadian-American retired professional wrestler, amateur wrestler and actor. A member of the Hart wrestling family and a second-generation wrestler, he has an amateur wrestling background, wrestling at Ernest Manning High School and Mount Royal College. A major international draw within professional wrestling, he has been credited with changing the perception of mainstream North-American professional wrestling in the early 1990s by bringing technical in-ring performance to the fore. Hart is regarded as one of the greatest professional wrestlers of all time. For most of his career, he used the nickname, "Hitman". Hart joined his father Stu Hart's promotion Stampede Wrestling in 1976 as a referee, made his in-ring debut in 1978, he gained championship success throughout the 1980s and 1990s in the World Wrestling Federation, where he helmed The Hart Foundation stable. He left for World Championship Wrestling following the controversial "Montreal Screwjob" in November 1997, where he remained until October 2000.
Having been inactive from in-ring competition since January 2000, owing to a December 1999 concussion, he retired in October 2000, shortly after his departure from the company. He returned to sporadic in-ring competition from 2010–2011 with WWE, where he won his final championship, headlined the 2010 SummerSlam event, served as the general manager of Raw. Throughout his career, Hart headlined WrestleMania IX, X, XII, participated in the main event of Starrcade 1997 and 1999 – as a special enforcer and referee in the former. Hart has held championships in five decades from the 1970s to the 2010s, with a total of 32 held throughout his career, 17 held between the WWF/WWE and WCW. Among other accolades, he is a five-time WWF World Heavyweight Champion and a two-time WCW World Heavyweight Champion. Hart has most combined days as WWF World Heavyweight Champion during the 1990s, was the first WCW World Heavyweight Champion born outside the United States, he is the second WWF Triple Crown Champion and fifth WCW Triple Crown Champion, the first man to win both the WWF and WCW Triple Crown Championships.
Hart is the 1994 Royal Rumble match winner, the only two-time King of the Ring, winning the 1991 tournament and the first King of the Ring pay-per-view in 1993. Stone Cold Steve Austin, with whom Hart headlined multiple pay-per-view events as part of an acclaimed rivalry from 1996 to 1997, inducted him into the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2006. In 2019, Hart became one of only four people to be inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame twice. Outside of wrestling Hart has appeared in numerous films and television shows such as The Simpsons as well as featuring in several documentaries, both about himself and others about his family or the wrestling industry in general. Hart helped found and lent his name to the major junior ice hockey team the Calgary Hitmen, has written two biographies along with a weekly column for the Calgary Sun for over a decade. After his retirement Hart has spent much of his time on charitable efforts concerning stroke recovery and cancer awareness since his personal experiences with the two.
The eighth child of wrestling patriarch Stu Hart and his wife Helen, Bret Hart was born in Calgary, Alberta into the Hart wrestling family. He is of Greek descent through Irish through his maternal grandfather, his father was of Scots-Irish descent but had Scottish and English ancestry. Hart is a dual citizen of the United States since his mother Helen was born in New York. Hart has stated that he considers himself to be North American and that he is proud of his U. S. and Canadian nationality. His maternal grandfather was long-distance runner Harry Smith. Hart grew up in a household with eleven siblings, seven brothers Smith, Keith, Dean and Owen, as well as four sisters, Georgia and Diana; as a child he was the closest with his older brother Dean, the nearest to him in age of all his older brothers, being three years his senior. Together they would fight with Bret's two older sisters, two years older, Georgia, one year older. Hart's family were non-denominational Christians, but he and all of his siblings were baptized by a local Catholic priest.
Hart spent the vast majority of his childhood in the Hart family mansion, owned by his father. During one period his father was housing a bear known as Terrible Ted chained under the building, the bear had had all of its teeth removed and Hart would sometimes as a young child let the bear lick ice cream off his toes since he thought it was a good way to keep them clean, his introduction to professional wrestling came at an early age. As a child, he witnessed his father training future wrestlers like Billy Graham in the Dungeon, his household basement which served as a training room. Before school, Hart's father a wrestling promoter, had him hand out fliers to local wrestling shows. In the 1998 documentary Hitman Hart: Wrestling with Shadows, Hart reflected on his father's discipline, describing how Stu uttered morbid words while inflicting excruciating submission holds that left broken blood vessels in Bret's eyes. Hart claimed. Hart's first work in wrestling involved pulling out lucky numbers out of a metal box during intermission at the Stampede Wrestling shows when he was four years old.
When he got older he would sell programs to the shows, something all Hart's s