Anthony Rocca is a former Australian rules footballer who has played with the Sydney Swans and Collingwood in the Australian Football League. Rocca is serving as Collingwood's Defensive Development Coach. Of Italian descent, Rocca is the younger brother of former Australian rules footballer and NFL punter Saverio Rocca. Known as a family man, Anthony was rated highly as a youngster and was selected with the second overall pick in the 1994 AFL Draft by the Sydney Swans. A lifelong Collingwood Magpies supporter, Rocca has said in recent interviews that at the time he was at Sydney his heart was not in it and he was homesick. After two seasons at the Swans, Rocca was traded to Collingwood. Rocca was traded for fellow 1994 draftee full forward Ben Wilson, Mark Orchard and Collingwood's first two draft selections; the trade was controversially allowed to be submitted three hours after the trading deadline, as Wilson and Orchard were holidaying in Mauritius and were unable to be contacted in time. He made a name for himself as a strong forward, with a booming 70+ metre kick, just like his brother.
However, unlike his brother, Anthony was used in the ruck. His importance to the Magpies forward structure was crucial, he led the team's goalkicking, albeit with 38 goals in the year his team made a Grand Final in 2002. In 2003, with the Magpies again facing Brisbane in the Grand Final, Rocca was suspended in the Preliminary Final against Port Adelaide, shattering his dream of playing in another Grand Final. Without Rocca, the Magpies forward line structure was changed from the one, so successful throughout 2003, by coincidence or not, Collingwood lost the match by a whopping 50 points. In 2004 he missed 7 matches with injuries, fared worse in 2005, snapping an achilles tendon during the Round 4 clash against the Kangaroos, ruling him out for the rest of the season. During the 2006 season Rocca returned to the side and proved important to the Magpies' structure up forward. In the Round 2 match against Hawthorn he booted 8 goals against unheralded young defender Zac Dawson; the decision by Hawks coach Alistair Clarkson to play Dawson on the much stronger and athletic Rocca was criticised in the media.
Rocca spoke out on this and was quoted as saying "he has to learn". He kicked a career best season return of 55 goals and was the club's leading goalkicker for the third time, his first half of the season was fantastic. He made the news in the Round 16 clash against the West Coast Eagles where he had shown the ball to umpire Hayden Kennedy, while walking off his mark, after Rocca turned-over a free kick, after a mistake by Kennedy minutes before. In round 22, Anthony played against his brother, for Sav's farewell game before heading to the United States to become a gridiron punter. Rocca's 2008 season was highlighted by mixed inconsistency, he spent much of the first half of 2009 in the reserves, having been dropped from the senior side due to poor form and injury. With the continued rise of Travis Cloke and Jack Anthony, there was media speculation as to whether Rocca was needed in the senior side and some speculated that at his age he may never return; however Rocca answered his critics with some impressive form in the reserves earning a return in round 4 against the Brisbane Lions, in which he had a solid match up forward.
Anthony Rocca announced his retirement on 21 September 2009. Rocca finished his AFL career with 415 goals. In early January 2011, Rocca took up the job of assistant coach of the Magpies' VFL team alongside its new coach Tarkyn Lockyer. At the end of 2010 Rocca was promoted to Collingwood's defensive development coach, working under Craig McRae. Rocca is married to Enza Colosimo and has a daughter, a son, Max. Anthony Rocca's playing statistics from AFL Tables Anthony Rocca at the Collingwood Football Club website
The Seven Network is a major Australian commercial free-to-air television network. It is owned by Seven West Media Limited, is one of five main free-to-air television networks in Australia. Channel Seven head. Since 2007, the Seven Network has been the highest rated television network and primary channel in Australia; the Seven Network is the broadcaster of popular franchises and programs, including the AFL, the Cricket, the Olympics, Sunrise, My Kitchen Rules, The Chase Australia, Australia's Got Talent, House Rules and Away, Better Homes & Gardens and Seven News. In 2011 the Seven Network won all 40 out of 40 weeks of the ratings season for total viewers. Seven is the first to achieve this since the introduction of the OzTAM ratings system in 2001; as of 2014, it is the second largest network in the country in terms of population reach. Seven's administration headquarters are in Eveleigh, completed in 2003. National news and current affairs programming are based between flagship station ATN-7 in Sydney and HSV-7 in Melbourne.
In 2009, Seven moved its Sydney-based production operations from Epping to a purpose-built high-definition television production facility at the Australian Technology Park in Eveleigh. The present Seven Network began as a group of independent stations in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth. HSV-7 Melbourne, licensed to The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, was launched on 4 November 1956, the first station in the country to use the VHF7 frequency. ATN-7 Sydney, licensed to Amalgamated Television Services, a subsidiary of Fairfax, was launched on 2 December 1956; the two stations did not share resources, instead formed content-sharing partnerships with their VHF9 counterparts by 1957: ATN-7 partnered with Melbourne's GTV-9, while HSV-7 paired up with Sydney's TCN-9. TVW-7 Perth, licensed to TVW Limited, a subsidiary of West Australian Newspapers, publisher of The West Australian, began broadcasting two years on 16 October 1959, as the city's first commercial station. BTQ-7 Brisbane followed on 1 November, signing on as Brisbane's second commercial television station.
ADS-7 Adelaide was launched on 24 October 1959 as the final capital city VHF7 station. The station swapped frequencies with SAS-10, with the latter becoming SAS-7HSV-7 began its relationship with the Victorian Football League in April 1957, when the station broadcast the first live Australian rules football match. Throughout this time, the stations operated independently of each other, with schedules made up of various simple, inexpensive, such as Pick a Box and spinoffs of popular radio shows. In the early 1960s, coaxial cable links, formed between Sydney and Melbourne, allowed the sharing of programmes and simultaneous broadcasts of live shows. In 1960, Frank Packer, the owner of Sydney's TCN-9, bought a controlling share of Melbourne's GTV-9, in the process creating the country's first television network and dissolving the ATN-7/GTV-9 and HSV-7/TCN-9 partnerships. Left without their original partners, ATN-7 and HSV-7 joined to form the Australian Television Network in 1963; the new grouping was soon joined by other capital-city channel 7 stations, ADS-7 Adelaide and BTQ-7 Brisbane.
The new network began to produce and screen higher-budget programs to attract viewers, most notably Homicide, a series which would continue for another 12 years to become the nation's longest running drama series. However, it was not until 1970 that a national network logo was adopted, albeit still with independently owned and operated stations with local advertising campaigns. Colour television was introduced across the network in 1975. Rupert Murdoch made an unsuccessful bid for the Herald and Weekly Times, owners of HSV-7, in 1979 going on to gain control of rival ATV-10. Fairfax, however bought a 14.9% share of the company in the same year. The 1980s saw the introduction of stereo sound, as well as a number of successful shows, most notably A Country Practice in 1981, Sons and Daughters, which began in 1982. Wheel of Fortune began its 25-year run in July 1981, produced from ADS-7's studios in Adelaide; the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow were shown live on the network the year before. Neighbours began on Seven in 1985, but low ratings in Sydney led to the cancellation of the new series at the end of the year, which moved to Network Ten and went on to achieve international success.
Perth based businessman Robert Holmes à Court, through his business the Bell Group, bought TVW-7 from its original owners, West Australian Newspapers in 1982. The Herald and Weekly Times, owner of HSV-7 and ADS-7, was sold to Rupert Murdoch in December 1986 for an estimated A$1.8 billion. Murdoch's company, News Limited, sold off HSV-7 to Fairfax soon afterwards, for $320 million. Fairfax went on to axe a number of locally produced shows in favour of networked content from its Sydney counterpart, ATN-7. Cross-media ownership laws introduced in 1987 forced Fairfax to choose between its print and television operations – it chose the former, sold off its stations to Qintex Ltd. owned by businessman Christopher Skase. Qintex had bought, subsequently sold off, stations in Brisbane and regional Queensland before taking control of the network; the next year, another new logo was introduced along with evening soap Home and Away and a relaunched Seven Nightly News, now known as Seven News. The network became national in 1988 when Skase bought TVW-7 for $130 million.
In 1989, the network cha
Port Adelaide Football Club
Port Adelaide Football Club is a professional Australian rules football club based in Alberton, Port Adelaide, South Australia. The club's senior team plays in the Australian Football League, whilst its reserves team competes in the South Australian National Football League. Port Adelaide is the oldest professional sporting club in South Australia and the fifth-oldest club in the AFL. Since the club's first game on 24 May 1870, the club has won 36 South Australian league premierships, including six in a row; the club won the Champions of Australia competition on a record four occasions. After winning an AFL licence in 1994 the club began competing in the Australian Football League in 1997 as the only pre-existing non-Victorian club—and has subsequently added the 2004 AFL premiership to its achievements. By the late 1860s Port Adelaide's river traffic was growing rapidly; the increasing economic activity around the waterways resulted in a meeting being organised by Port Adelaide locals John Rann, Mr. Leicester and Mr. Ireland with the intention to form a sporting club to benefit the growing number of workers associated with the wharfes and surrounding industries.
As a result of their meeting the Port Adelaide Football Club was established on 12 May 1870 as part of a joint Australian football and cricket club. The first training session of the newly formed club took place two days later; the Port Adelaide Football Club played its first match against a team from North Adelaide known as the'Young Australians' on 24 May 1870 at the family property of inaugural club president John Hart Jr in Glanville. John Hart Sr would become premier of South Australia the week following the first match. During these early years, football in South Australia was yet to be formally organised by a single body and as a result there were two main sets of rules in use across the state. Port Adelaide's main opponents during the years prior to the foundation of a governing body for the code in South Australia were the now defunct Kensington and Old Adelaide club; the rules of the Old Adelaide club, which more resembled the rules used in Melbourne at the time, were adopted across Adelaide in 1876.
In 1877, Port Adelaide joined seven other clubs to form the South Australian Football Association, the first governing body of Australian rules football. For the first few seasons in the SAFA the club competed in white shorts. In 1878, Port Adelaide hosted its first game against the established Norwood Football Club with the visitors winning 1-0. A rivalry between these clubs would soon develop into one of the fiercest in Australian sport. In 1879, the club played reigning Victorian Football Association premiers Geelong at Adelaide Oval in what was Port Adelaide's first game against an interstate club. In 1880, Port Adelaide moved to Alberton Oval which remains to this day the club's training and administrative headquarters. In 1881, Port Adelaide played its first game against Carlton at Adelaide Oval; that year the club travelled to Victoria and played its first game outside South Australia against the Sale Football Club. During the 1882 season Port Adelaide overcame Norwood for the first time after nine previous attempts winning by 1 goal at Adelaide Oval.
On 2 July 1883 Port Adelaide played its first game at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against Melbourne. In 1884 Port Adelaide won its first SAFA premiership. On 25 May 1885, Port Adelaide played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground against South Melbourne, drawing with the eventual VFA premiers in front of 10,000 spectators. In 1887 immense interest led into the round 8 meeting against Norwood as the previous two matches between the clubs resulted in draws. Norwood won in front of a then-record 11,000 spectators at Adelaide Oval. Attending the match were Chinese Commissioners to the Jubilee Exhibition General Wong Yang Ho and Console-General Yu Chiung who were provided the South Australian premiers private box at Adelaide Oval. During 1889 the club played against the Richmond Football Club at Punt Road, with Port prevailing by a goal; the 1889 SAFA season ended with Port Adelaide and Norwood equal top, leading to the staging of Australia's first grand final. Norwood went on to defeat Port Adelaide by two goals.
In 1890 Port Adelaide won its second SAFA premiership and would go on to be crowned "Champions of Australia" for the first time after defeating VFA premiers South Melbourne. In 1891 the club defeated Fitzroy at Adelaide Oval with Indigenous Australian Harry Hewitt playing for Port Adelaide; as the 1890s continued Australia would be affected by a severe depression with many players were being forced to move interstate to find work. This exodus translated into poor on field results for the club. By 1896, the club was in crisis and finished last causing the clubs committee to meet with the aim of revitalising the club. Historian John Devaney suggested that there was a "conscious and deliberate cultivation by both the committee and the team's on field leaders of a revitalised club spirit, whereby playing for Port Adelaide became a genuine source of pride", it had immediate results and in 1897 Port Adelaide won a third premiership finishing the season with a record of 14-2-1 with a scoring record two and a half times its conceded total.
This is one of only four occurrences since 1877 that the team that finished last won a premiership the following year. Stan Malin won Port Adelaide's first Magarey Medal in 1899. During the 19th century the club had nicknames including the Cockledivers, the Seaside Men, the Seasiders and the Magentas. In 1900, Port finished bottom in the six-team competition, which it has not done in any senior league since. In 1902, Port Adelaide took the field i
Crying is the shedding of tears in response to an emotional state, pain or a physical irritation of the eye. Emotions that can lead to crying include happiness, or sadness; the act of crying has been defined as "a complex secretomotor phenomenon characterized by the shedding of tears from the lacrimal apparatus, without any irritation of the ocular structures", giving a relief which protects from conjunctivitis. A related medical term is lacrimation, which refers to non-emotional shedding of tears. Various forms of crying are known as sobbing, wailing, whimpering and blubbering. For crying to be described as sobbing, it has to be accompanied by a set of other symptoms, such as slow but erratic inhalation, occasional instances of breath holding and muscular tremor. A neuronal connection between the lacrimal gland and the areas of the human brain involved with emotion has been established. Scientists debate over whether humans are the only animals that produce tears in response to emotional states.
Charles Darwin wrote in The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals that the keepers of Indian elephants in the London Zoo told him that their charges shed tears in sorrow. Tears produced during emotional crying have a chemical composition which differs from other types of tears, they contain greater quantities of the hormones prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, Leu-enkephalin, the elements potassium and manganese. The question of the function or origin of emotional tears remains open. Theories range from the simple, such as response to inflicted pain, to the more complex, including nonverbal communication in order to elicit altruistic behavior from others; some have claimed that crying can serve several biochemical purposes, such as relieving stress. Crying is believed to be an outlet or a result of a burst of intense emotional sensations, such as agony, surprise or joy; this theory could explain why people cry during cheerful events, as well as painful events. Individuals tend to remember the positive aspects of crying, may create a link between other simultaneous positive events, such as resolving feelings of grief.
Together, these features of memory reinforce the idea. In Hippocratic and medieval medicine, tears were associated with the bodily humors, crying was seen as purgation of excess humors from the brain. William James thought of emotions as reflexes prior to rational thought, believing that the physiological response, as if to stress or irritation, is a precondition to cognitively becoming aware of emotions such as fear or anger. William H. Frey II, a biochemist at the University of Minnesota, proposed that people feel "better" after crying due to the elimination of hormones associated with stress adrenocorticotropic hormone. This, paired with increased mucosal secretion during crying, could lead to a theory that crying is a mechanism developed in humans to dispose of this stress hormone when levels grow too high. However, tears have a limited ability to eliminate chemicals, reducing the likelihood of this theory. Recent psychological theories of crying emphasize the relationship of crying to the experience of perceived helplessness.
From this perspective, an underlying experience of helplessness can explain why people cry. For example, a person may cry after receiving happy news, ostensibly because the person feels powerless or unable to influence what is happening. Emotional tears have been put into an evolutionary context. One study proposes that crying, by blurring vision, can handicap aggressive or defensive actions, may function as a reliable signal of appeasement, need, or attachment. Oren Hasson, an evolutionary psychologist in the zoology department at Tel Aviv University believes that crying shows vulnerability and submission to an attacker, solicits sympathy and aid from bystanders, signals shared emotional attachments. Another theory that follows evolutionary psychology is given by Paul D. MacLean, who suggests that the vocal part of crying was used first as a "separation cry" to help reunite parents and offspring; the tears, he speculates, are a result of a link between the development of the cerebrum and the discovery of fire.
MacLean figures that since early humans must have relied on fire, their eyes were producing reflexive tears in response to the smoke. As humans evolved the smoke gained a strong association with the loss of life and, sorrow. More CVBellieni analysed the weeping behavior, concluded that most animals can cry but only humans have psychoemotional shedding of tears known as “weeping”. Weeping is a behavior that induces empathy with the mediation of the mirror neurons network, influences the mood through the release of hormones elicited by the massage effect made by the tears on the cheeks, or through the relief of the sobbing rhythm, it can be difficult to observe biological effects of crying considering many psychologists believe the environment in which a person cries can alter the experience of the crier. However, crying studies in laboratories have shown several physical effects of crying, such as increased heart rate and slowed breathing. Although it appears that the type of effects an individual experiences depends on the individual, for many it seems that the calming effects of crying, such as slowed breathing, outlast the negative effects, which could explain why people remember crying as being helpful and beneficial.
The most common side effect of crying is feeling a lump in the throat of the crier, otherwise known as a globus sensation. Although many things can cause a globus sensation, the one experienced in crying i
The Italians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to the Italian peninsula and its neighbouring insular territories. Most Italians share a common culture, ancestry or language. All Italian nationals are citizens of the Italian Republic, regardless of ancestry or nation of residence and may be distinguished from people of Italian descent without Italian citizenship and from ethnic Italians living in territories adjacent to the Italian Peninsula without Italian citizenship; the majority of Italian nationals are speakers of a regional variety thereof. However, many of them speak another regional or minority language native to Italy. In 2017, in addition to about 55 million Italians in Italy, Italian-speaking autonomous groups are found in neighbouring nations: a quarter million are in Switzerland, a large population is in France, the entire population of San Marino, there are smaller groups in Slovenia and Croatia in Istria and Dalmatia; because of the wide-ranging diaspora, about 5 million Italian citizens and nearly 80 million people of full or partial Italian ancestry live outside their own homeland, which include the 62.5% of Argentina's population, 1/3 of Uruguayans, 40% of Paraguayans, 15% of Brazilians, people in other parts of Europe bordering Italy, the Americas and the Middle East.
Italians have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and music and technology, cuisine, jurisprudence and business both abroad and worldwide. Furthermore, Italian people are known for their localism, both regionalist and municipalist; the Latin name Italia according to Strabo's Geographica was used by Greeks to indicate the southwestern tip of the Italian peninsula, corresponding to the current region of Calabria, from the strait of Messina to the line connecting the gulf of Salerno and gulf of Taranto. It most originates with Oscan Víteliú, meaning "land of young cattle"; the bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. The name was extended to include all the Italian peninsula south of the Rubicon, still by the end of the 1st century BC, to all of the peninsula and beyond. Latin Italicus as a substantive meaning "a man of Italy" is first recorded in Pliny the Elder, Letters 9.23.
The adjective italianus, from which are derived the Italian name of the Italians is medieval. The Italian peninsula was divided into a multitude of tribal or ethnic territory prior to the Roman conquest of Italy in the 3rd century BC. After a series of wars between Greeks and Etruscans, the Latins, with Rome as their capital, gained the ascendancy by 272 BC, completed the conquest of the Italian peninsula by 218 BC; this period of unification was followed by one of conquest in the Mediterranean, beginning with the First Punic War against Carthage. In the course of the century-long struggle against Carthage, the Romans conquered Sicily and Corsica. In 146 BC, at the conclusion of the Third Punic War, with Carthage destroyed and its inhabitants enslaved, Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean; the process of Italian unification, the associated Romanization, culminated in 88 BC, when, in the aftermath of the Social War, Rome granted its Italian allies full rights in Roman society, extending Roman citizenship to all Italic peoples.
From its inception, Rome was a republican city-state, but four famous civil conflicts destroyed the republic: Lucius Cornelius Sulla against Gaius Marius and his son, Julius Caesar against Pompey, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus against Mark Antony and Octavian, Mark Antony against Octavian. Octavian, the final victor, was accorded the title of Augustus by the Senate and thereby became the first Roman emperor. Augustus created for the first time an administrative region called Italia with inhabitants called "Italicus populus", stretching from the Alps to Sicily: for this reason historians like Emilio Gentile called him Father of Italians. In the 1st century BC, Italia was still a collection of territories with different political statuses; some cities, called municipia, had some independence from Rome, while others, the coloniae, were founded by the Romans themselves. Around 7 BC, Augustus divided Italy into eleven regiones. During the Crisis of the Third Century the Roman Empire nearly collapsed under the combined pressures of invasions, military anarchy and civil wars, hyperinflation.
In 284, emperor Diocletian restored political stability. The importance of Rome declined; the seats of the Caesars were Augusta Treverorum for Constantius Chlorus and Sirmium (on the Riv
Jack Murphy (footballer)
John Patrick "Jack" Murphy was an Australian rules footballer who played with Collingwood in the Victorian Football League. Murphy played 160 games for the Magpies in defence, won the 1941 Copeland Trophy for Collingwood's best and fairest player, his son John played for Sturt in the South Melbourne. Jack Murphy's playing statistics from AFL Tables Biographical details for Jack Murphy
Albert Pannam was an Australian rules footballer who played in the VFL between 1933 and 1943 and again in 1945 for the Collingwood Football Club. He was captain/coach for the Richmond Football Club Seconds side from 1946 to 1952, leading them to the premiership in 1946. During this tenure he played twice for the Richmond senior side in 1947, he was senior coach of Richmond from 1953 to 1955. He coached Oakleigh in the VFA to the 1960 premiership, he was the son of a Greek immigrant father, Charlie Pannam, a dual premiership player, leading goalkicker and captain of Collingwood and senior coach of Richmond. Hogan P: The Tigers Of Old, Richmond FC, Melbourne 1996 Albert Pannam's playing statistics from AFL Tables Albert Pannam's statistics from AFL Tables