Tegucigalpa, colloquially referred to as Téguz, is the capital and largest city of Honduras along with its twin sister, Comayagüela. Claimed on 29 September 1578 by the Spaniards, Tegucigalpa became the country's capital on October 30, 1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto; the current Constitution of Honduras, enacted in 1982, names the sister cities of Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District to serve as the permanent national capital, under articles 8 and 295. After a failed attempt to create a Central American republic in 1821, Honduras became an individual sovereign nation. On January 30, 1937, Article 179 of the 1936 Honduran Constitution was changed under Decree 53 to establish Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District. Tegucigalpa is located in the southern-central highland region known as the department of Francisco Morazán of which it is the departmental capital, it is situated in a valley, surrounded by mountains. Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela, being sister cities, are physically separated by the Choluteca River.
The Central District is the largest of the 28 municipalities in the Francisco Morazán department. Tegucigalpa is Honduras' largest and most populous city as well as the nation's political and administrative center. Tegucigalpa is host to 16 consulates, it is the home base of several state-owned entities such as ENEE and Hondutel, the national energy and telecommunications companies, respectively. The city is home to the country's most important public university, the National Autonomous University of Honduras, as well as the national soccer team; the capital's international airport, Toncontín, is known for its short runway and the unusual maneuvers pilots must undertake upon landing or taking off to avoid the nearby mountains. The Central District Mayor's Office is the city's governing body, headed by a mayor and 10 aldermen forming the Municipal Corporation. Being the department's seat as well, the governor's office of Francisco Morazán is located in the capital. In 2008, the city operated on an approved budget of 1.555 billion lempiras.
In 2009, the city government reported a revenue of 1.955 billion lempiras, more than any other capital city in Central America except Panama City. Tegucigalpa's infrastructure has not kept up with its population growth. Deficient urban planning, densely condensed urbanization, poverty are ongoing problems. Congested roadways where current road infrastructure is unable to efficiently handle over 400,000 vehicles create havoc on a daily basis. Both current national and local governments have taken steps to improve and expand infrastructure as well as to reduce poverty in the city. Most sources indicate the origin and meaning of the word Tegucigalpa is derived from the Nahuatl language; the most accepted version suggests that it comes from the Nahuatl word Taguz-galpa, which means "hills of silver", but this interpretation is uncertain since the natives who occupied the region at time were unaware of the existence of mineral deposits in the area. Another source suggests that Tegucigalpa derives from another language in which it means painted rocks, as explained by Leticia Oyuela in her book Minimum History of Tegucigalpa.
Other theories indicate it may derive from the term Togogalpa, which refers to tototi and Toncontín, a small town near Tegucigalpa. In Mexico, it is believed the word Tegucigalpa is from the Nahuatl word Tecuztlicallipan, meaning "place of residence of the noble" or Tecuhtzincalpan, meaning "place on the home of the beloved master". Honduran philologist Alberto de Jesús Membreño, in his book Indigenous Toponymies of Central America, states that Tegucigalpa is a Nahuatl word meaning "in the homes of the sharp stones" and rules out the traditional meaning "hills of silver" arguing that Taguzgalpa was the name of the ancient eastern zone of Honduras. Tegucigalpa was founded by Spanish settlers as Real de Minas de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa on September 29, 1578 on the site of an existing native settlement of the Pech and the Twahkas; the first mayor of Tegucigalpa was Juan de la Cueva, who took office in 1579. The Dolores Church, the San Miguel Cathedral, the Casa de la Moneda, the Immaculate Conception Church were some of the first important buildings constructed.
200 years on June 10, 1762, this mining town became Real Villa de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa y Heredia under the rule of Alonso Fernández de Heredia, then-acting governor of Honduras. The late 18th and early 19th centuries saw disruption in Tegucigalpa's local government, from being extinguished in 1788 to becoming part of Comayagua in 1791 to returning to self-city governance in 1817. In 1817, then-mayor Narciso Mallol started the construction of the first bridge, a ten-arch masonry, connecting both sides of the Choluteca River. Upon completion four years it linked Tegucigalpa with her neighbor city of Comayagüela. In 1821, Tegucigalpa became a city. In 1824, the first Congress of the Republic of Honduras declared Tegucigalpa and Comayagua the two most important cities in the country, to alternate as capital of the country. After October 1838, following Honduras' independence as a single republic, the capital continued to switch back and forth between Tegucigalpa and Comayagua until October 30, 1880, when Tegucigalpa was declared the permanent capital of Honduras by then-president Marco Aurelio Soto.
A popular myth claims that the s
Dangriga known as Stann Creek Town, is a town in southern Belize, located on the Caribbean coast at the mouth of the North Stann Creek River. It is the capital of Belize's Stann Creek District. Dangriga is served by the Dangriga Airport. Known as the "culture capital of Belize" due to its influence on punta music and other forms of Garifuna culture, Dangriga is the largest settlement in southern Belize. Dangriga was settled before 1832 by Garinagu from Honduras. For years it was the second largest population centre in the country behind Belize City, but in recent years has been surpassed by San Ignacio and Orange Walk Town. Since the early 1980s Garífuna culture has undergone a revival, as part of which the town's name of Dangriga, a Garífuna word meaning "standing waters", became more used; the population is a mixture of Garinagu and Mestizos. According to the Statistical Institute of Belize, Dangriga's population in 2010 was 8,767 – 4,302 males and 4,465 females. Dangriga is home to the Garifuna, a cultural and ethnic group, descendants of shipwrecked slaves and native Caribs.
The Garifuna have adopted the Carib language but kept their African musical and religious traditions, while holding a central place in the history of the Catholic church and Catholic education in Belize. Dangriga is where the Caribbean music, Punta Rock and where some of Belize's folk bands can be found. In November each year there is a week-long festivity leading up to Garifuna Settlement Day, attended by Garifuna people from around the region, it includes a torchlit parade and wreath-laying ceremony at the monument of the patriot and social activist Thomas Vincent Ramos, selection of Miss Garifuna and special church services, The T. V. Ramos Classic Bike Race; the 19 November is Garifuna Settlement Day. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, located southwest of Dangriga. Mayflower Archeological Reserve, consisting of three ruins, two waterfalls and a view of Hopkins village as well as of the Caribbean Sea. Dangriga is a mainland access point to popular cayes in Southern Belize, including Tobacco Caye and Royal Belize.
The city is served by Southern Regional Hospital. Arlie Petters and astrophysicist Pen Cayetano and musician residing in Germany. Originator of Punta Rock. Maxime Faget, designer of the Mercury capsule, contributed to the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft as well as the Space Shuttle. T. V. Ramos, Garifuna civil rights activist from Puerto Cortez, Honduras. Ada Mari Cayetano-Kax'Oxo / Pan Africanist, Nurse-Midwife and PhD Nursing Professor. Benjamin Nicholas / Artist and Painter. Osmond P. Martin, first native Belizean Catholic bishop. Rebecca Rath and Miss Belize 2016. Rakeem Nuñez-Roches, American football player for the Kansas City Chiefs Official Dangriga website About 100 photos with Garifuna, from early 20th century
Aurelio Martínez, professionally known as Aurelio, is a Honduran musician and politician. He is a singer and guitarist known for his Garifuna music and is considered a Cultural Ambassador of the Garifuna people. According to the Guardian, he became the leading Garifuna performer after the death of musician Andy Palacio. From 2006-2010, Martinez served as a congressman for the National Congress of Honduras, becoming its first black member. Singer-songwriter and percussionist, Aurelio Martinez aka AURELIO, is one of Central America's most gifted performers. Born in Honduras, the artist is known for his evocative voice, he is a major tradition-bearer of the Garifuna culture and music and he is considered nowadays as the Cultural Ambassador of the Garifuna nation. The Garinagu known as the Garifuna are people of Amerindian and West African descents who live along the coasts of Belize, Guatemala and Nicaragua; the original home of the Garifuna is St. Vincent from which they were deported in 1796 by the British government and landed on Roatan island, situated in the Bay Islands of Honduras.
Aurelio grew up in a small Caribbean village called Plaplaya, surrounded by a family of talented musicians. His father was a well-known local troubadour who improvised Paranda songs containing Garifuna roots rhythms and Latin sounds. Following the influence of his uncles and grandfather, he became a brilliant drummer in his early childhood. From his vocally gifted mother, he picked up many songs she crafted. Aurelio began performing at Garifuna ceremonies when just a boy at the most sacred events where children were not allowed. At the age of 14, the young man became a respected musician with a firm grounding in Garifuna rhythms and songs. While attending secondary school at the provincial capital of La Ceiba, Aurelio dove into diverse and innovative musical projects that took him outside the traditional sphere of performance. By this time, he refined his musical skills. In the late 80's, he created his first group called Lita Ariran, one of the first Garifuna traditional music and dance group to appear on the international scene and most in Japan.
His first album was produced by his friend Akira Tomita with the Japanese company JVC World Sounds (Grupo Garifuna de Honduras, LITA ARIRAN. Aurelio received the award for the Best singer of Garifuna music and his group Lita Ariran was rewarded for the Best cultural group of the year at the Garifuna World Music Awards, in New York; the less we could say is that Lita Ariran's first and unique album remains most a legendary treasure of the Garifuna music nowadays. In 1997, Aurelio meets fellow musician Andy Palacio; the two artists struck up a decades-long friendship thanks in part to their shared hopes for the future of Garifuna music and culture. Through Palacio, Aurelio met the tireless producer behind Belize's Stonetree Records; the same year, the young artist participated in a paranda project, including the King of Paranda Paul Nabor “Nabi”, Junie Aranda, Jursino Cayetano, Andy Palacio, among others. Critics around the world acknowledge PARANDA: AFRICA IN CENTRAL AMERICA as being one of the best albums to come out of this part of the world.
It is in fact a rich collection of three generations of paranderos with a depth and range that grows with each listen. From the haunting, bluesy exuberance of Paul Nabor's "Naguya Nei" to the fresh sounds of Aurelio's "Africa", this album takes the listener through the tapestry of feeling and soulful striving that lies at the heart of the Garifuna culture. In 2004, Aurelio releases his first solo album called GARIFUNA SOUL produced by his friend and long time collaborator Ivan Duran, backed by some of Belize's and Honduras’ best studio musicians who improvised adeptly on Garifuna percussion, saxophone and bass guitars. Undoubtedly, the artist takes the music into the future without compromising whatsoever the cultural foundations of his inspiration. Aurelio's rich resonant voice and soulful acoustic songs caught the attention of the global music press and saw him as a tradition-bearer with an innate musicality and subtle innovative streak. Indeed, AfroPop Worldwide names him “Newcomer of the year”.
Two years Aurelio, a new born gifted musician takes on another role as a politician in the Honduran National Congress, becoming this way the first Garifunacongressman of his region in the country's history. For this occasion, the politician's main goal was to represent and support the Garifuna people through concrete manifestations that would protect their integrity as a whole; the idea was to lead innovative actions to improve the daily life of this population as well as to feed and preserve their cultural treasures. In the mean time, the Spanish public television produces: Honduras y Belice: la Aventura Garifuna, an original documentary that features the encounter between old paranda's singers and the Garifuna's way of life of yesterday and today's generations. Aurelio is the star of this journey: a popular young musician who becomes known as one of the best paranderos. Thanks to its richness, this documentary is an interesting audiovisual reference to introduce oneself into the surrounding world of the artist.
In 2007, Aurelio was invited to participate in the album WATINA featuring Andy Palacio and The Garifuna Collective who received the prestigious WOMEX Award, a respected acknowledgment from the world music industry. Additi
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Andy Vivian Palacio was a Belizean Punta musician and government official. He was a leading activist for the Garifuna people and their culture. Palacio was born and raised in the coastal village of Barranco and worked as a teacher before turning to music, he received the award for "Best New Artist" at the Caribbean Music Awards in 1991 and was posthumously awarded the BBC3 Awards for World Music award in the Americas Category, in 2008. In addition to the traditional Garifuna music that he played, Palacio absorbed the diverse sounds disseminated by radio from neighboring Mexico, Honduras, Cuba and the United States. Palacio pursued his musical ambitions in a series of high school bands, covering a diversity of popular music from abroad. Attracted by the ideals of the Nicaraguan revolution, he joined the literacy campaign in that nation's African-Amerindian Caribbean coast region and developed a deeper appreciation for his own threatened cultural and linguistic traditions; those insights made their way into his own creativity, influencing him to delve more into the roots of Garifuna music.
Palacio returned from Nicaragua to discover the emergence of new Garifuna pride in their culture and identity, a development expressed in the sudden popularity of punta rock, a fusion of traditional Garifuna music with electric guitar and the influences of R&B, rock and roll. The Original Turtle Shell Band, led by Belizean Garifuna musician and painter Delvin "Pen" Cayetano, burst into national consciousness in the early 1980s just as Belize gained independence; the Turtle Shell Band's invitation to perform with their mentor Isabel Flores at the 1983 New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Festival encouraged Andy Palacio to pursue a musical career. In 1987, after Pen Cayetano turned down an invitation to work in England with Cultural Partnerships Limited, a community arts organization, Palacio stepped in, he returned to Belize six months with professional experience, a broadened perspective, connections that led to his involvement with the short-lived Sunrise recording project, the first effort to record, document and distribute Belizean roots music.
The following year Palacio's career took off, buoyed by circulated cassette recordings released by Sunrise, a string of invitations to represent Belize musically at the Festival Internacional de Cultura del Caribe, Carifesta VI, Carifesta VII, the Rainforest World Music Festival, the Antillanse Feesten, the World Traditional Performing Arts Festival and countless performances in the United States, Colombia, France and Great Britain. Two critically acclaimed recordings on the Stonetree label, Belize's only record company, cemented Palacio's fame at home while reinforcing his stature as the country's foremost overseas cultural ambassador. Recorded in Havana and Belize, Keimoun showcased Palacio's vocal and composition talents, enlisting first-rate Cuban and Belizean studio artists; the first CD to be produced in Belize, Keimoun put the country on the world music map, is listed by The Rough Guide as one of 100 essential recordings from Latin America and the Caribbean. Two years Palacio returned with Til Da Mawnin, an energetic mix of dance tunes backed by Belize's top instrumentalists and singers.
Appointed Belizean Cultural Ambassador and Deputy Administrator of the National Institute of Culture and History in 2004, Palacio devoted himself to the preservation of Garifuna music and culture. In 2007, Palacio's years of work with the Stonetree's Garifuna All-Stars project came to fruition with the release of the acclaimed Wátina album. Wátina featured a multigenerational crew of Garifuna musicians from Belize and Honduras that delved into traditional Garifuna rhythms and songs; the album was a critical success that garnered worldwide attention for the Garifuna people and language. Thanks to Wátina, Palacio was named a UNESCO Artist for Peace and won the prestigious WOMEX Award in 2007. Palacio served as a head of the National Institute of Culture and History and was named a cultural ambassador, he released over five original albums beginning with Nabi in 1990. He traveled promoting and performing his music. Palacio hosted a television program on Channel 5 named after him and featuring works from Belizeans.
He wrote the theme music for Channel 5's newscast. On 14 March 2007, Palacio released his last studio album, Wátina, which he considered his masterpiece; the album features guest appearances from other prominent Garifuna artists including Paul Nabor and was produced by Ivan Duran at Stonetree Records. On 16 January 2008, Palacio fell ill with two apparent "stroke-like seizures" at his home in San Ignacio and hospitalized in Belmopan and Belize City. In Belize City Palacio was referred to go to Chicago for more specialized medical treatment via air ambulance, but his condition deteriorated en route. While stopped to clear United States customs in Mobile, Palacio was found unconscious and rushed to a local hospital, where his prognosis was deemed bleak, his family requested. According to a press release from his record label, Palacio died in Belize City at 21:00 local time on 19 January of "a massive and extensive stroke to the brain, a heart attack, respiratory failure." AlbumsGreatest Hits Keimoun Til Da Mawnin Wátina Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to the Music of Central America Obituary in The Times, 23 Janua
The Garifuna are an indigenous people from the Caribbean island of St. Vincent who speak an eponymous Arawakan language. While they are ancestrally and genealogically descended from groups that migrated from the Lesser Antilles Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, many Garifuna today are of mixed ancestry with West African, Central African, Island Carib and Arawak admixture. Most Garifuna people live along the Caribbean coast of Honduras, with smaller populations in Belize and Nicaragua, they arrived there after being exiled from the islands of the Lesser Antilles by British colonial administration as "Black Caribs" after a series of slave rebellions. Those Caribs deemed to have had less African admixture were not exiled and are still present in the Caribbean. There is now a large number that have moved to the United States; the Carib people migrated from the mainland to the islands circa 1200, according to carbon dating of artifacts. They displaced and assimilated the Taíno who were resident on the islands at the time.
The French missionary Raymond Breton arrived in the Lesser Antilles in 1635, lived on Guadeloupe and Dominica until 1653. He took ethnographic and linguistic notes on the native peoples of these islands, including St. Vincent, which he visited briefly. According to oral history noted by the English governor William Young in 1795, Carib-speaking people of the Orinoco area on the mainland came to Saint Vincent long before the arrival of Europeans to the New World, they subdued the local inhabitants called Galibeis, unions took place between the peoples. According to Young's record, the first Africans arrived in 1675 following the wreck of a slave ship from the Bight of Biafra; the survivors, members of the Mokko people of today's Nigeria and the British sailors, reached the small island of Bequia. The Carib took them to Saint Vincent and intermarried with them, supplying the men with wives, as it was taboo in their society for men to go unwed. In 1635 the Carib were overwhelmed by French forces led by the adventurer Pierre Belain d'Esnambuc and his nephew Jacques Dyel du Parquet.
They imposed French colonial rule. Cardinal Richelieu of France gave the island to the Compagnie de Saint-Christophe, in which he was a shareholder; the company was reorganized as the Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique. The French colonists imposed French Law on the inhabitants, Jesuit missionaries arrived to forcibly convert them to the Catholic Church; because the Carib people resisted working as laborers to build and maintain the sugar and cocoa plantations which the French began to develop in the Caribbean, in 1636, Louis XIII of France proclaimed La Traité des Noirs. This authorized the capture and purchase of slaves from sub-Saharan Africa and their transportation as labor to Martinique and other parts of the French West Indies. In 1650, the Company liquidated, he held this position until his death in 1658. His widow Mme. du Parquet took over control of the island from France. As more French colonists arrived, they were attracted to the fertile area known as Cabesterre; the French had pushed the remaining Carib people to this northeastern coast and the Caravalle Peninsula, but the colonists wanted the additional land.
The Jesuits and the Dominicans agreed that whichever order arrived there first, would get all future parishes in that part of the island. The Jesuits came by sea and the Dominicans by land, with the Dominicans' prevailing; when the Carib revolted against French rule in 1660, the Governor Charles Houël du Petit Pré retaliated with war against them. Many were killed. On Martinique, the French colonists signed a peace treaty with the few remaining Carib; some Carib had fled to Saint Vincent, where the French agreed to leave them at peace. Britain and France both made conflicting claims on Saint Vincent from the late seventeenth century onward. French pioneers began informally cultivating plots on the island around 1710. In 1719 the governor of Martinique sent a force to occupy it, but was repulsed by the Carib inhabitants. A British attempt in 1723 was repelled. In 1748, Britain and France agreed to put aside their claims and declared Saint Vincent to be a neutral island, under no European sovereign.
Throughout this period, unofficial French settlement took place on the island on the Leeward side. African refugees continued to reach Saint Vincent, a mixed-race population developed through unions with the Carib. In 1763 by the Treaty of Paris, Britain gained rule over Saint Vincent following its defeat of France in the Seven Years' War, fought in both Europe and North America, it took over all French territory in North America east of the Mississippi River. Through the rest of the century, the Carib-African natives mounted a series of Carib Wars, which were encouraged and supported by the French. By the end of the 18th century, the indigenous population was mixed race. Following the death of their leader Satuye, the Carib on Saint Vincent surrendered to the British in 1796 after the Second Carib War, having resisted for much longer than natives on other islands. "St. Vincent was the last of the Windward Islands to be subjugated."This was in the period of the violent slave revolts in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which led to the slaves gaining the independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
The French lost thousands of troops in an attempt to take back the island in 1803, many to yellow fever epidemics. Thousands of whites and free people of color were ki
Belize is a country located on the eastern coast of Central America. Belize is bordered on the northwest by Mexico, on the east by the Caribbean Sea, on the south and west by Guatemala, it has an area of 22,970 square kilometres and a population of 387,879. Its mainland is 68 mi wide, it has the lowest population density in Central America. The country's population growth rate of 1.87% per year is the second highest in the region and one of the highest in the Western Hemisphere. The Mayan civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 B. C. and 300 A. D. and flourished until about 1200. European exploration campaigns began in 1502 when Christopher Columbus sailed along the Gulf of Honduras. European settlement was begun by English settlers in 1638; this period was marked by Spain and Britain both laying claim to the land until Britain defeated the Spanish in the Battle of St. George's Caye, it became a British colony in 1840, known as British Honduras, a Crown colony in 1862. Independence was achieved from the United Kingdom on 21 September 1981.
Belize has a diverse society, composed of many cultures and languages that reflect its rich history. English is the official language of Belize. Over half the population is multilingual, with Spanish being the second most common spoken language, it is known for its extensive barrier reef coral reefs and punta music. Belize's abundance of terrestrial and marine species and its diversity of ecosystems give it a key place in the globally significant Mesoamerican Biological Corridor, it is considered a Central American and Caribbean nation with strong ties to both the American and Caribbean regions. It is a member of the Caribbean Community, the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States, the Central American Integration System, the only country to hold full membership in all three regional organisations. Belize is a Commonwealth realm, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state; the earliest known record of the name "Belize" appears in the journal of the Dominican priest Fray José Delgado, dating to 1677.
Delgado recorded the names of three major rivers that he crossed while travelling north along the Caribbean coast: Rio Soyte, Rio Xibum and Rio Balis. The names of these waterways, which correspond to the Sittee River, Sibun River and Belize River, were provided to Delgado by his translator, it is that Delgado's "Balis" was the Mayan word belix, meaning "muddy-watered". Some have suggested that the name derives from a Spanish pronunciation of the name of the Scottish buccaneer Peter Wallace, who established a settlement at the mouth of the Belize River in 1638. There is no proof that Wallace settled in this area and some scholars have characterized this claim as a myth. Writers and historians have suggested several other possible etymologies, including postulated French and African origins; the Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in the area of present-day southeastern Mexico, Belize and western Honduras.
Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 BC, some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture. Between about 2500 BC and 250 AD, the basic institutions of Maya civilization emerged; the peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began about 250 AD. The Maya civilization spread across what is now Belize around 1500 BC, flourished there until about AD 900; the recorded history of the middle and southern regions is dominated by Caracol, an urban political centre that may have supported over 140,000 people. North of the Maya Mountains, the most important political centre was Lamanai. In the late Classic Era of Maya civilisation, as many as one million people may have lived in the area, now Belize; when Spanish explorers arrived in the 16th century, the area, now Belize included three distinct Maya territories: Chetumal province, which encompassed the area around Corozal Bay.
Spanish conquistadors explored the land and declared it a Spanish colony but chose not to settle and develop because of its lack of resources and the hostile Indian tribes of the Yucatán. English and Scottish settlers and pirates known as the Baymen entered the area from the 17th century, with Baymen first settling on the coast of what is now Belize in 1638, seeking a sheltered region from which they could attack Spanish ships; the settlers established a trade colony and port in what became the Belize District, during the 18th century, established a system using black slaves to cut logwood trees. This yielded a valuable fixing agent for clothing dyes, was one of the first ways to achieve a fast black before the advent of artificial dyes; the Spanish granted the British settlers the right to occupy the area and cut logwood in exchange for their help suppressing piracy. The British first appointed a superintendent over the Belize area in 1786. Before the British government had not recognized the settlement as a colony for fear of provoking a Spanish attack.
The delay in governm