Eerie was an American magazine of horror comics introduced in 1966 by Warren Publishing. Like Mad, it was a black-and-white magazine intended for newsstand distribution and thus intentionally outside the control of the Comics Code Authority; each issue's stories were introduced by Cousin Eerie. Its sister publications were Vampirella; the first issue cost 35¢, was published in September 1966 and only had a 200-issue run of an "ashcan" edition. With a logo by Ben Oda, it was created overnight by editor Archie Goodwin and letterer Gaspar Saladino to establish publisher Jim Warren's ownership of the title when it was discovered that a rival publisher would be using the name. Warren explained, "We launched Eerie; the Laurel and Hardy syndrome always appealed to me. Creepy and Eerie are like Boris Karloff and Peter Lorre."Official distribution began with the second issue, still priced at 35c. Behind the Frank Frazetta cover were graphic horror tales edited by Goodwin and hosted by the lumpish Cousin Eerie, a curious character created by Jack Davis.
With scripts by Goodwin, E. Nelson Bridwell and Larry Ivie, the second issue featured art by Gene Colan, Johnny Craig, Reed Crandall, Jerry Grandenetti, Gray Morrow, Joe Orlando, John Severin, Angelo Torres and Alex Toth. Other artists during this era included Wally Wood, Al Williamson, Neal Adams, Dan Adkins, Steve Ditko. Eerie was published on a bi-monthly basis. Goodwin would resign as the editor of Eerie after issue 11 in September 1967. Due to a lack of funds, the majority of the magazine's well known artists departed, Warren was forced to rely on reprints, which would be prevalent in the magazine until issue 26 in March 1970. Editors during this period included publisher Jim Warren himself. Things would pick up starting in 1969 with the premiere of Vampirella magazine; some of Eerie's original artists including Frazetta and Wood would return, as would Goodwin, as Associate Editor for issues 29 through 33. A variety of editors would continue to manage Eerie after Goodwin's second departure including Billy Graham and J.
R. Cochran. William Dubay, who first joined Warren as an artist in 1970, would become editor of the magazine for issues 43 through 72. During this period the frequency of Eerie and Warren's other magazines was upped to nine issues per year. Color stories would begin appearing in Eerie starting with issue 54 in February 1974. In late 1971, artists from the Barcelona Studio of Spanish agency Selecciones Illustrada started appearing in Eerie and other Warren magazine; these artists included Esteban Maroto, Jaime Brocal, Rafael Aura Leon, Martin Salvador, Luis Garcia, Jose Gonzalez, Jose Bea, Isidro Mones, Sanjulián and Enrich Torres. Additional artists from S. I.'s Valencia Studio joined Warren in 1974 including José Ortiz, Luis Bermejo, Leopold Sanchez. Towards the end of Dubay's time as editor, artists from Eerie's first golden era including Alex Toth and John Severin returned. Notable writers during Dubay's era as editor included Gerry Boudreau, Budd Lewis, Jim Stenstrum, Steve Skeates and Doug Moench.
Dubay was replaced by Louise Jones, his former assistant. Jones would edit the magazine until #110. Former DC Comics publisher Carmine Infantino would join Warren shortly after she became editor. Much like the wave of Spanish artists that dominated the magazine throughout the mid-1970s, a number of artists from the Philippines would join Warren during Jones's period as editor including Alex Niño, Alfredo Alcala and Rudy Nebres and would remain at Eerie until its end in 1983; the Rook, an adventurer who first appeared in #82, would appear in nearly every issue of the magazine over the next two years and would be given his own magazine. While he had resigned as editor, Dubay remained with Warren and became their dominant writer during this period. Other dominant writers during this period included Bob Toomey and Roger McKenzie. After Louise Jones resigned as editor following issue #110, Dubay returned to edit the magazine using the alias "Will Richardson" until issue 120. After Dubay's departure various editors including Chris Adames, Timothy Moriarty held the position.
Reprints would once again start predominantly appearing in the magazine, with many reprint issues being dedicated to a single artist. Eerie's last issue published would be issue # 139 in February 1983. In 1983, Harris Publications acquired Warren's assets, including Eerie and Vampirella. Harris published a single issue of Creepy, but legal murkiness prevented him from publishing further issues or any issues of Eerie. In 2000, after a protracted legal dispute with Harris, Jim Warren and Warren Publishing regained sole ownership of all rights to his two iconic and flagship comic book franchises Creepy and Eerie. In February 2007, New Comic Company, LLC, after seven years of effort, completed a total rights acquisition from Warren and his entity for all rights in perpetuity to Creepy and Eerie. Terms of the deal were never disclosed, although it has been rumored it was a complete buyout and all copyright renewals and trademarks have been re-established in the name of New Comic Company LLC. Shortly after that rights acquisition deal, in June 2007, New Comic Company LLC principals Dan Braun, Craig Haffner, Josh Braun, Rick Brookwell completed a partnership agreement with Dark Horse Comics and its CEO Mike Richardson to republish in archival hardcover form all 285 total issues of the original Creepy and Eerie.
The first archival volume Creepy release date was August 2008, the second December 2008, with additional releases planned e
Alan Davis is an English writer and artist of comic books, known for his work on titles such as Captain Britain, The Uncanny X-Men, ClanDestine, Excalibur, JLA: The Nail and JLA: Another Nail. Alan Davis was born on 18 June 1956. Davis began his career in comics on an English fanzine, his first professional work was a strip called The Crusader in Frantic Magazine for Dez Skinn's revamped Marvel UK line. Davis's big break was drawing the revamped Captain Britain story in The Mighty World of Marvel. At the time, he was working full-time in a warehouse in Corby doing work that included loading trucks, he had no interest in pursuing a career in comics, as he considered drawing to be a hobby. Due to his inexperience, Davis did not leave enough room for word balloons in the five-page first installment, so it had to be recut to six pages. Afterwards, Alan Moore took over writing duties on Captain Britain, he drew 14 issues of the monthly Captain Britain title, reprinted in trade paperback. Davis and Moore formed a close working partnership as creators.
R. and Quinch for 2000AD. Davis replaced Garry Leach on Marvelman in Warrior and yet again worked with Moore, he drew the story "Harry Twenty on the High Rock" in 2000AD. In 1985 Davis received his big break in the United States when he was hired by DC Comics to draw Batman and the Outsiders, written by Mike W. Barr. Davis took over from Jim Aparo, his work proved popular enough for him to be assigned artistic duties on DC's flagship title Detective Comics in 1986, again with Barr writing. During the "Batman: Year Two" storyline, Davis encountered difficulties with his editor and left after the first issue of the four-issue storyline; the remaining three issues were illustrated by Todd McFarlane. In the story, which featured Joe Chill, the murderer of Batman's parents, Barr wanted Chill to have a large gun, he asked Davis to draw him with a Mauser with an extended barrel, similar to the one used by the Paul Kirk version of Manhunter. However, after Davis rendered Chill with this firearm throughout Detective Comics #575 and on its cover, he obtained copies of the pages for Batman #404 by Frank Miller and David Mazzucchelli, scheduled to be released months before the "Year Two" storyline, saw that Chill was depicted using a smaller handgun without the extended barrel.
When asked by editorial to redraw the gun in his artwork, Davis refused. Dick Giordano redrew the gun in the artwork. Davis accepted an offer by Uncanny X-Men writer Chris Claremont to work on Marvel Comics' X-Men books. With Claremont, Davis drew two New Mutants Annuals and three issues for Uncanny X-Men. In 1987 the duo launched the monthly series Excalibur, which featured a team consisting of Captain Britain and Meggan together with former X-Men members Kitty Pryde and Rachel Summers; the stories, set in England, saw appearances by many characters from Moore's and Davis' Captain Britain stories of the early 1980s, including the Crazy Gang and the Technet. Davis' pencils were inked by Paul Neary and Mark Farmer. Davis left with issue 24 due to deadline pressures, but returned with issue 42, this time as writer. During this second run, according to Davis, " Terry Kavanagh spoiled me, gave me near total freedom, encouraged me to experiment." Among the new characters he created for his second run on the title were Feron, Cerise and Kylun.
In 1994 Davis created a new series of original characters called the ClanDestine, which featured the Destines, a family of long-lived, magically-powered British superhumans. Davis penciled the title for the first eight issues, he departed after issue 8, the series was canceled with issue 12. In 1996 Davis drew the two issue crossover miniseries X-Men and The ClanDestine. In 1991, Davis reunited with writer Barr to draw the sequel to "Year Two", the one-shot Batman: Full Circle. During much of the 1990s Davis drew many of Marvel and DC Comics major characters and titles, including JLA: The Nail and The Avengers, he was commissioned to write both main X-Men series in 1999, but he left the following year. Starting in October 2002 he wrote and drew for Marvel Killraven, a six-issues miniseries revamping the title character of the 1970s. After a return to Uncanny X-Men, working again with Claremont, Davis wrote and drew in 2006–2007 a six-issue Fantastic Four: The End limited series for Marvel. In February 2008, Davis wrote and pencilled a five-part ClanDestine miniseries and the one-shot Thor: Truth of History for Marvel.
Davis and his wife Heather have a son, a daughter, Pauline. Thomas had been born when Davis began his work on the Captain Britain stories in 1981, Pauline was born a few years later. Batman and the Outsiders #22–36 Detective Comics #569–575 Batman: Full Circle, graphic novel Legion of Superheroes, vol. 4, No. 100, Annual No. 6 JLA: The Nail, miniseries, #1–3 Superboy's Legion, miniseries, #1–2 Batman: Gotham Knights No. 25 JLA: Another Nail, miniseries, #1–3 Captain Britain, vol. 2, #1–14 The Daredevils #1–11 Marvel Superheroes #377–388 Mighty World of Marvel, vol. 2, #7–16 2000 AD #287–307. 317, 350–351, 352–359, 363–367, 509.
Hulk Comic was a black-and-white Marvel UK comics anthology published under the editorship of Dez Skinn starting in 1979. After starring for many years in the Marvel UK flagship title, The Mighty World of Marvel, the Hulk was given his own weekly book. Explaining the thinking behind the comic Dez Skinn said: "I was wanting an adventure anthology title more than a super-hero one. Super-heroes had never been big sellers in the UK, we had plenty of legends of the past to spin fantasies about. So I went that route, picking existing Marvel characters who weren't cut from the super-hero cloth."Like many titles published by the company under Dez Skinn, Hulk Comic featured new material produced by British creators such as Steve Dillon, David Lloyd and Steve Parkhouse—along with a smattering of American reprints drawn from the Lee/Kirby Marvel back-catalogue. Once Skinn was replaced by Paul Neary, the title's original output dwindled, being supplanted by an increasing number of reprints; the title included new Hulk material drawn by Steve Dillon.
This material portrayed the inarticulate. Once the title began featuring American reprints, it featured the Marvel Universe Hulk as depicted by Sal Buscema. Other original work included Nick Fury drawn by Steve Dillon and a new Black Knight strip which featured Captain Britain; these original stories were restricted to the first 20 issues of the title, after which they were replaced by U. S. reprints due to low sales, with only the popular Black Knight strip running through most further issues until the title's cancellation. Hulk Comic launched the character Night Raven by David Lloyd. Night Raven is one of several Marvel UK characters who made the jump to American comics; the title lasted 63 issues before merging with Marvel UK's Spider-Man weekly title. The following is a list of all the UK-originated strips in the title together with their respective issue numbers; the Incredible Hulk, #1-6, 9-20, 26-28 The Black Knight, #1, 3-30, 42-55, 57-63 Nick Fury, Agent of S. H. I. E. L. D. #1-19 Night-Raven, #1-20 Ant-Man, #48-49 Some of the original material has been collected into trade paperbacks: Night Raven: The Collected Stories Captain Britain: Volume 3: The Lion and the Spider Volume 4: The Siege of Camelot Night Raven at the International Catalogue of Superheroes
A comic book or comicbook called comic magazine or comic, is a publication that consists of comic art in the form of sequential juxtaposed panels that represent individual scenes. Panels are accompanied by brief descriptive prose and written narrative dialog contained in word balloons emblematic of the comics art form. Although comics has some origins in 18th century Japan, comic books were first popularized in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 1930s; the first modern comic book, Famous Funnies, was released in the U. S. in 1933 and was a reprinting of earlier newspaper humor comic strips, which had established many of the story-telling devices used in comics. The term comic book derives from American comic books once being a compilation of comic strips of a humorous tone; the largest comic book market is Japan. By 1995, the manga market in Japan was valued at ¥586.4 billion, with annual sales of 1.9 billion manga books/magazines in Japan. The comic book market in the United States and Canada was valued at $1.09 billion in 2016.
As of 2017, the largest comic book publisher in the United States is manga distributor Viz Media, followed by DC Comics and Marvel Comics. Another major comic book market is France, where Franco-Belgian comics and Japanese manga each represent 40% of the market, followed by American comics at 10% market share. Comic books are reliant on their appearance. Authors focus on the frame of the page, size and panel positions; these characteristic aspects of comic books are necessary in conveying the content and messages of the author. The key elements of comic books include panels, balloons and characters. Balloons are convex spatial containers of information that are related to a character using a tail element; the tail has an origin, path and pointed direction. Key tasks in the creation of comic books are writing and coloring. Comics as a print medium have existed in America since the printing of The Adventures of Mr. Obadiah Oldbuck in 1842 in hardcover, making it the first known American prototype comic book.
Proto-comics periodicals began appearing early in the 20th century, with historians citing Dell Publishing's 36-page Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics as the first true American comic book. The introduction of Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster's Superman in 1938 turned comic books into a major industry and ushered the Golden Age of Comics; the Golden Age originated the archetype of the superhero. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power. Historians divide the timeline of the American comic book into eras; the Golden Age of Comic Books began in the 1930s. The Silver Age of comic books is considered to date from the first successful revival of the then-dormant superhero form, with the debut of the Flash in Showcase #4; the Silver Age lasted through the late 1960s or early 1970s, during which time Marvel Comics revolutionized the medium with such naturalistic superheroes as Stan Lee and Jack Kirby's Fantastic Four and Lee and Steve Ditko's Spider-Man.
The demarcation between the Silver Age and the following era, the Bronze Age of Comic Books, is less well-defined, with the Bronze Age running from the early 1970s through the mid-1980s. The Modern Age of Comic Books runs from the mid-1980s to the present day. A notable event in the history of the American comic book came with psychiatrist Fredric Wertham's criticisms of the medium in his book Seduction of the Innocent, which prompted the American Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency to investigate comic books. In response to attention from the government and from the media, the U. S. comic book industry set up the Comics Magazine Association of America. The CMAA instilled the Comics Code Authority in 1954 and drafted the self-censorship Comics Code that year, which required all comic books to go through a process of approval, it was not until the 1970s that comic books could be published without passing through the inspection of the CMAA. The Code was made formally defunct in November 2011.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, a surge of creativity emerged in what became known as underground comix. Published and distributed independently of the established comics industry, most of such comics reflected the youth counterculture and drug culture of the time. Many had an uninhibited irreverent style. Underground comics were never sold at newsstands, but rather in such youth-oriented outlets as head shops and record stores, as well as by mail order. Frank Stack's The Adventures of Jesus, published under the name Foolbert Sturgeon, has been credited as the first underground comic; the rise of comic book specialty stores in the late 1970s created/paralleled a dedicated market for "independent" or "alternative comics" in the U. S; the first such comics included the anthology series Star Reach, published by comic book writer Mike Friedrich from 1974 to 1979, Harvey Pekar's American Splendor, which continued sporadic publication into the 21st century and which Shari Springer Berman an
The Hulk is a fictional superhero appearing in publications by the American publisher Marvel Comics. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in the debut issue of The Incredible Hulk. In his comic book appearances, the character is both the Hulk, a green-skinned and muscular humanoid possessing a vast degree of physical strength, his alter ego Dr. Robert Bruce Banner, a physically weak withdrawn, reserved physicist, the two existing as independent personalities and resenting of the other. Following his accidental exposure to gamma rays during the detonation of an experimental bomb, Banner is physically transformed into the Hulk when subjected to emotional stress, at or against his will leading to destructive rampages and conflicts that complicate Banner's civilian life; the Hulk's level of strength is conveyed as proportionate to his level of anger. Portrayed as a raging savage, the Hulk has been represented with other personalities based on Banner's fractured psyche, from a mindless, destructive force, to a brilliant warrior, or genius scientist in his own right.
Despite both Hulk and Banner's desire for solitude, the character has a large supporting cast, including Banner's lover Betty Ross, his friend Rick Jones, his cousin She-Hulk, sons Hiro-Kala and Skaar, his co-founders of the superhero team the Avengers. However, his uncontrollable power has brought him into conflict with his fellow others. Lee stated that the Hulk's creation was inspired by a combination of Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Although the Hulk's coloration has varied throughout the character's publication history, the most usual color is green, he has two main catchphrases: "Hulk is strongest one there is!" and the better-known "Hulk smash!", which has founded the basis for numerous pop culture memes. One of the most iconic characters in popular culture, the character has appeared on a variety of merchandise, such as clothing and collectable items, inspired real-world structures, been referenced in a number of media. Banner and the Hulk have been adapted in live-action and video game incarnations.
The most notable of these were the 1970s The Incredible Hulk television series, in which the character was portrayed by Bill Bixby and Lou Ferrigno. The character was first played in a live-action feature film by Eric Bana, with Edward Norton and Mark Ruffalo portraying the character in the films The Incredible Hulk, The Avengers, Iron Man 3, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Thor: Ragnarok, Avengers: Infinity War, Avengers: Endgame of the Marvel Cinematic Universe; the Hulk first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #1, written by writer-editor Stan Lee, penciled and co-plotted by Jack Kirby, inked by Paul Reinman. Lee cites influence from Frankenstein and Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the Hulk's creation: It was patently apparent that Thing was the most popular character in Fantastic Four.... For a long time I'd been aware of the fact that people were more to favor someone, less than perfect.... It's a safe bet that you remember Quasimodo, but how can you name any of the heroic, more glamorous characters in The Hunchback of Notre Dame?
And there's Frankenstein... I've always had a soft spot in my heart for the Frankenstein monster. No one could convince me that he was the bad guy.... He never wanted to hurt anyone. I decided I might as well borrow from Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde as well—our protagonist would change from his normal identity to his superhuman alter ego and back again. Kirby, commenting upon his influences in drawing the character, recalled as inspiration the tale of a mother who rescues her child, trapped beneath a car. Lee has compared Hulk to the Golem of Jewish mythology. In The Science of Superheroes and Weinberg see the Hulk as a reaction to the Cold War and the threat of nuclear attack, an interpretation shared by Weinstein in Up, Up and Oy Vey; this interpretation corresponds with other popularized fictional media created during this time period, which took advantage of the prevailing sense among Americans that nuclear power could produce monsters and mutants. In the debut, Lee chose grey for the Hulk because he wanted a color that did not suggest any particular ethnic group.
Colorist Stan Goldberg, had problems with the grey coloring, resulting in different shades of grey, green, in the issue. After seeing the first published issue, Lee chose to change the skin color to green. Green was used in retellings of the origin, with reprints of the original story being recolored for the next two decades, until The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #302 reintroduced the grey Hulk in flashbacks set close to the origin story. An exception is the early trade paperback, Origins of Marvel Comics, from 1974, which explains the difficulties in keeping the grey color consistent in a Stan Lee written prologue, reprints the origin story keeping the grey coloration. Since December 1984, reprints of the first issue have displayed the original grey coloring, with the fictional canon specifying that the Hulk's skin had been grey. Lee gave the Hulk's alter ego the alliterative name "Bruce Banner" because he found he had less difficulty remembering alliterative names. Despite this, in stories he misremembered the character's name and referred to him as "Bob Banner", an error which readers picked up on.
The discrepancy was resolved by giving the character the official full name
Batman is a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character was created by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in 1939. Named the "Bat-Man," the character is referred to by such epithets as the Caped Crusader, the Dark Knight, the World's Greatest Detective. Batman's secret identity is Bruce Wayne, a wealthy American playboy and owner of Wayne Enterprises. After witnessing the murder of his parents Dr. Thomas Wayne and Martha Wayne as a child, he swore vengeance against criminals, an oath tempered by a sense of justice. Bruce Wayne trains himself physically and intellectually and crafts a bat-inspired persona to fight crime. Batman operates in the fictional Gotham City with assistance from various supporting characters, including his butler Alfred, police commissioner Jim Gordon, vigilante allies such as Robin. Unlike most superheroes, Batman does not possess any inhuman superpowers, he does, possess a genius-level intellect, is a peerless martial artist, his vast wealth affords him an extraordinary arsenal of weaponry and equipment.
A large assortment of villains make up Batman's rogues gallery, including the Joker. The character became popular soon after his introduction in 1939 and gained his own comic book title, the following year; as the decades went on, differing interpretations of the character emerged. The late 1960s Batman television series used a camp aesthetic, which continued to be associated with the character for years after the show ended. Various creators worked to return the character to his dark roots, culminating in 1986 with The Dark Knight Returns by Frank Miller; the success of Warner Bros. Pictures' live-action Batman feature films have helped maintain the character's prominence in mainstream culture. Batman has been licensed and featured in various adaptations, from radio to television and film, appears in merchandise sold around the world, such as apparel and video games. Kevin Conroy, Rino Romano, Anthony Ruivivar, Peter Weller, Bruce Greenwood, Jason O'Mara, Will Arnett, among others, have provided the character's voice for animated adaptations.
Batman has been depicted in both film and television by Lewis Wilson, Robert Lowery, Adam West, Michael Keaton, Val Kilmer, George Clooney, Christian Bale, Ben Affleck. In early 1939, the success of Superman in Action Comics prompted editors at National Comics Publications to request more superheroes for its titles. In response, Bob Kane created "the Bat-Man". Collaborator Bill Finger recalled that "Kane had an idea for a character called'Batman,' and he'd like me to see the drawings. I went over to Kane's, he had drawn a character who looked much like Superman with kind of... reddish tights, I believe, with boots... no gloves, no gauntlets... with a small domino mask, swinging on a rope. He had two stiff wings, and under it was a big sign... BATMAN"; the bat-wing-like cape was suggested by Bob Kane, inspired as a child by Leonardo Da Vinci's sketch of an ornithopter flying device. Finger suggested giving the character a cowl instead of a simple domino mask, a cape instead of wings, gloves. Finger said he devised the name Bruce Wayne for the character's secret identity: "Bruce Wayne's first name came from Robert Bruce, the Scottish patriot.
Wayne, being a playboy, was a man of gentry. I searched for a name. I tried Adams, Hancock... I thought of Mad Anthony Wayne." He said his suggestions were influenced by Lee Falk's popular The Phantom, a syndicated newspaper comic-strip character with which Kane was familiar. Kane and Finger drew upon contemporary 1930s popular culture for inspiration regarding much of the Bat-Man's look, personality and weaponry. Details find predecessors in pulp fiction, comic strips, newspaper headlines, autobiographical details referring to Kane himself; as an aristocratic hero with a double identity, Batman had predecessors in the Scarlet Pimpernel and Zorro. Like them, Batman performed his heroic deeds in secret, averted suspicion by playing aloof in public, marked his work with a signature symbol. Kane noted the influence of the films The Mark of Zorro and The Bat Whispers in the creation of the character's iconography. Finger, drawing inspiration from pulp heroes like Doc Savage, The Shadow, Dick Tracy, Sherlock Holmes, made the character a master sleuth.
In his 1989 autobiography, Kane detailed Finger's contributions to Batman's creation: One day I called Bill and said,'I have a new character called the Bat-Man and I've made some crude, elementary sketches I'd like you to look at.' He came over and I showed him the drawings. At the time, I only had a small domino mask, like the one Robin wore, on Batman's face. Bill said,'Why not make him look more like a bat and put a hood on him, take the eyeballs out and just put slits for eyes to make him look more mysterious?' At this point, the Bat-Man wore a red union suit. I thought that black would be a good combination. Bill said that the costume was too bright:'Color it dark grey to make it look more ominous.' The cape looked like two stiff bat wings attached to his arms. As Bill and I talked, we realized that these wings would get cumbersome when Bat-Man was in action and changed them into a cape, scalloped to look like bat wings when he was fighting or swinging down on a rope, he didn't have any gloves on, we added them so that he wouldn't leave fingerprints.
Kane signed away ownership in
A penciller is a collaboration artist who works in creation of comic books, graphic novels, similar visual art forms, with focus on primary pencil illustrations, hence the term "penciller". In the American comic book industry, the penciller is the first step in rendering the story in visual form, may require several steps of feedback with the writer; these artists are concerned with layout to showcase steps in the plot. A penciller works in pencil. Beyond this basic description, different artists choose to use a wide variety of different tools. While many artists use traditional wood pencils, others prefer mechanical drafting leads. Pencillers may use any lead hardness they wish, although many artists use a harder lead to make light lines for initial sketches turn to a softer lead for finishing phases of the drawing. Still other artists do their initial layouts using a light-blue colored pencil because that color tends to disappear during photocopying. Most US comic book pages are drawn oversized on large sheets of paper Bristol board.
The customary size of comic book pages in the mainstream American comics industry is 11 by 17 inches. The inker works directly over the penciller's pencil marks, though pages are inked on translucent paper, such as drafting vellum, preserving the original pencils; the artwork is photographically reduced in size during the printing process. With the advent of digital illustration programs such as Photoshop and more artwork is produced digitally, either in part or entirely. Jack KirbyFrom 1949 until his retirement, Jack Kirby worked out of a ten-foot-wide basement studio dubbed "The Dungeon" by his family; when starting with clean piece of Bristol board, he would first draw his panel lines with a T-square. Arthur AdamsArthur Adams begins drawing thumbnail layouts from the script he's given, either at home or in a public place; the thumbnails range in size from 2 inches x 3 inches to half the size of the printed comic book. He or an assistant will enlarge the thumbnails and trace them onto illustration board with a non-photo blue pencil, sometimes using a Prismacolor light-blue pencil, because it is not too waxy, erases easily.
When working on the final illustration board, he does so on a large drawing board when in his basement studio, a lapboard when sitting on his living room couch. After tracing the thumbnails, he will clarify details with another light-blue pencil, finalize the details with a Number 2 pencil, he drew the first three chapters of "Jonni Future" at twice the printed comic size, drew the fifth chapter, "The Garden of the Sklin", at a size larger than standard, in order to render more detail than usual in those stories. For a large poster image with a multitude of characters, he will go over the figure outlines with a marker in order to emphasize them, he will use photographic reference when appropriate, as when he draws things that he is not accustomed to. Because a significant portion of his income is derived from selling his original artwork, he is reluctant to learn how to produce his work digitally. Jim LeeArtist Jim Lee is known to use F lead for his pencil work. J. Scott CampbellArtist J. Scott Campbell does his pencil with a lead holder, Sanford Turquoise H lead, which he uses for its softness and darkness, for its ability to provide a "sketchy" feel, with a minimal amount of powdery lead smearing.
He uses this lead because it strikes a balance between too hard, therefore not dark enough on the page, too soft, therefore prone to smearing and crumbling. Campbell avoids its closest competitor. Campbell has used HB lead and F lead, he maintains sharpness of the lead with a Berol Turquoise sharpener, changing them every four to six months, which he finds is the duration of their grinding ability. Campbell uses a combination of Magic Rub erasers, eraser sticks, since he began to ink his work digitally, a Sakura electric eraser, he sharpens the eraser to a cornered edge in order to render fine detailed work. Travis CharestArtist Travis Charest uses 2H lead to avoid smearing, sometimes HB lead, he illustrated on regular illustration board provided by publishers, though he disliked the non-photo blue lines printed on them. By 2000, he switched to Crescent board for all his work, because it does not warp when wet, produces sharper illustrations, are more suitable for framing because they lack the non-photo blue lines.
Charest prefers not to employ preliminary sketching practices, such as layouts, thumbnails or lightboxing, in part due to impatience, in part because he enjoys the serendipitous nature in which artwork develops when produced with greater spontaneity. He prefers to use reference only when rendering objects that require a degree of real-life accuracy, such as guns, vehicles or characters of licensed properties that must resemble actors with whom they are identified, as when he illustrated the cover to Star Trek: The Next Generation: Embrace the Wolf in 2000. Adam HughesThe penciling process that artist Adam Hughes employs for his cover work is the same he uses when doing sketches for fans at conventions, with the main difference being that he does cover work in his sketchbook, before transferring the drawing to virgin art board with a lightbox, whereas he does convention drawings on 11 x 14 Strathmore bristol, as he prefers penciling on the rougher, vellum surface rather than smooth paper, preferring smoother paper only for brush inking.
He does preliminary undersketches with a lead holder, because he feels regular pencils get worn down to the nub too quickly. As he explained during a sketch demonstration at a comic book