Emma Frith Bridgwater, known as Emmy Bridgwater, was an English artist and poet associated with the Surrealist movement. Based at times in both Birmingham and London, she was a significant member of the Birmingham Surrealists and of the London-based British Surrealist Group, was an important link between the surrealists of the two cities. Michel Remy, professor of art history at the University of Nice and author of Surrealism in Britain, describes her influence as "of the same importance to British surrealism as the arrival of Dalí in the ranks of the French surrealists". Emmy Bridgwater was born in the upmarket Edgbaston district of Birmingham, the third daughter of a chartered accountant and Methodist. Showing an early interest in painting and drawing, she studied under Bernard Fleetwood-Walker at the Birmingham School of Art for three years from 1922 before further study at a local art school in Oxford paid for by work as a secretary. Bridgwater's aesthetic direction was transformed by attending the London International Surrealist Exhibition in 1936, where she met Conroy Maddox, John Melville and Robert Melville - the key figures of the Birmingham Surrealists.
From this point on her work began to explore the more fearful sides of the subconscious using automatist techniques. Studying for periods at the Grosvenor School of Modern Art in London during 1936 and 1937 she retained a base in Birmingham and exhibited as a member of the Birmingham Group throughout the late 1930s exhibiting at the London Gallery after being introduced to owner E. L. T. Mesens by Robert Melville. In early 1940, she joined the British Surrealist Group when Conroy Maddox and Robert Melville introduced her to them, she was to attend their meetings for much of the following decade. Forming a close friendship with Edith Rimmington and having a brief but intense affair with Toni del Renzio, she contributed to numerous international surrealist publications and held her first solo exhibition at Jack Bilbo's Modern Gallery in 1942. In 1947, Bridgwater was one of six English artists chosen by André Breton to exhibit at the Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme at the Galerie Maeght in Paris - the last major international surrealist group exhibition.
By the late 1940s, Bridgwater was having to spend increasing amounts of time caring for her ageing mother and disabled sister. In 1953, she moved to Stratford-upon-Avon to take on this responsibility full-time and suspended her artistic career. During the 1970s Bridgwater resumed work in collage, her earlier work featured in numerous surrealist retrospective exhibitions over the following decades. Ceasing work in the mid-1980s, she died in Solihull in 1999. Emmy Bridgwater's work in the 1930s and 1940s consisted of paintings and pen and ink drawings, her personal iconography featured organic imagery such as birds, leaves and tendril-like automatist lines depicted with a sense of "surrealist black humour and violence" within a dreamlike landscape. From the 1970s onwards she worked in collage. In Arson: an ardent review Toni del Renzio wrote of Bridgwater's paintings: "We do not see these pictures. We are moved by them. Our own entrails are drawn painfully from us and twisted into the pictures whose significance we did not want to realise."Robert Melville described Bridgwater's paintings as depicting "the saddening, half-seen'presences' encountered by the artist on her journey through the labyrinths of good and evil... although they are dreamlike in their ambiguity they are realistic documents from a region of phantasmal hopes and murky desires where few stay to observe and fewer still remain clear-sighted."Her obituary in The Independent said "Her paintings show an ability to enter a personal dream world and transform the visions she experienced there into bold, unselfconscious charged landscapes which more than not strike into the depths of one's mind.
Using a limited palette and painting thickly, she was able to bring together unrelated objects which she used to fill desolate landscapes, giving the paintings a narrative quality of her own making." 1937 - The Birmingham Group, Lucy Wertheim Gallery, London 1938 - The Birmingham Group, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham 193? - London Gallery, London 1939 - As We See Ourselves, Chapman Galleries, Birmingham 1942 - Emmy Bridgwater, Modern Gallery, London 1947 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1947 - Exposition Internationale du Surrealisme, Galerie Maeght, Paris 1948 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1949 - Birmingham Artists Committee Invitation Exhibition, Royal Birmingham Society of Artists, Birmingham 1951 - Coventry Art Circle Exhibition, Coventry 1971 - Britain's Contribution to Surrealism of the 30s and 40s, Hamet Gallery, London 1982 - Peinture Surrealiste en Angleterre 1930-1960: Les Enfants d'Alice, Galerie 1900-2000, Paris 1985 - A Salute to British Surrealism 1930-1950, The Minories, Colchester.
Luis Buñuel Portolés was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain and France. When Buñuel died at age 83, his obituary in The New York Times called him "an iconoclast and revolutionary, a leader of avant-garde surrealism in his youth and a dominant international movie director half a century later", his first picture, Un Chien Andalou—made in the silent era—was called "the most famous short film made" by critic Roger Ebert, his last film, That Obscure Object of Desire—made 48 years later—won him Best Director awards from the National Board of Review and the National Society of Film Critics. Writer Octavio Paz called Buñuel's work "the marriage of the film image to the poetic image, creating a new reality...scandalous and subversive". Associated with the surrealist movement of the 1920s, Buñuel created films from the 1920s through the 1970s, his work spans two continents, three languages, an array of genres, including experimental film, melodrama, musical, comedy, costume dramas, crime film and western.
Despite this variety, filmmaker John Huston believed that, regardless of genre, a Buñuel film is so distinctive as to be recognizable, or, as Ingmar Bergman put it, "Buñuel nearly always made Buñuel films". Six of Buñuel's films are included in Sight & Sound's 2012 critics' poll of the top 250 films of all time. Fifteen of his films are included in the They Shoot Pictures, Don't They? List of the 1,000 greatest films of all time, for which he ranks second only to Jean-Luc Godard, with sixteen, he ranks number 13 on their list of the top 250 directors. Buñuel was born in Calanda, a small town in the province of Teruel, in the Aragon region of Spain, to Leonardo Buñuel, the cultivated scion of an established Aragonese family, María Portolés, many years younger than her husband, with wealth and family connections of her own, he would describe his birthplace by saying that in Calanda, "the Middle Ages lasted until World War I". The oldest of seven children, Luis had two brothers and Leonardo, four sisters: Alicia, Concepción, Margarita and María.
When Buñuel was four and a half months old, the family moved to Zaragoza, where they were one of the wealthiest families in town. In Zaragoza, Buñuel received a strict Jesuit education at the private Colegio del Salvador. After being kicked and insulted by the study hall proctor before a final exam, Buñuel refused to return to the school, he told his mother he had been expelled, not true. Buñuel finished the last two years of his high school education at the local public school; as a child, Buñuel was something of a cinematic showman. He excelled at boxing and playing the violin. In his youth, Buñuel was religious, serving at Mass and taking Communion every day, until, at the age of 16, he grew disgusted with what he perceived as the illogicality of the Church, along with its power and wealth. In 1917, he attended the University of Madrid, first studying agronomy industrial engineering and switching to philosophy, he developed a close relationship with painter Salvador Dalí and poet Federico García Lorca, among other important Spanish creative artists living in the Residencia de Estudiantes, with the three friends forming the nucleus of the Spanish Surrealist avant-garde, becoming known as members of "La Generación del 27".
Buñuel was taken with Lorca writing in his autobiography: "We liked each other instantly. Although we seemed to have little in common—I was a redneck from Aragon, he an elegant Andalusian—we spent most of our time together... We used to sit on the grass in the evenings behind the Residencia, he would read me his poems, he read and beautifully, through him I began to discover a wholly new world." Buñuel's relationship with Dalí was somewhat more troubled, being tinged with jealousy over the growing intimacy between Dalí and Lorca and resentment over Dalí's early success as an artist. Since he was 17, he dated the future poet and dramatist Concha Méndez, with whom he vacationed every summer at San Sebastián, he introduced her to his friends at the Residencia as his fiancée. After five years, she broke off the relationship, citing Buñuel's "insufferable character". During his student years, Buñuel became an accomplished hypnotist, he claimed that once, while calming a hysterical prostitute through hypnotic suggestion, he inadvertently put one of the several bystanders into a trance as well.
He was to insist that watching movies was a form of hypnosis: "This kind of cinematographic hypnosis is no doubt due to the darkness of the theatre and to the changing scenes and camera movements, which weaken the spectator's critical intelligence and exercise over him a kind of fascination."Buñuel's interest in films was intensified by a viewing of Fritz Lang's Der müde Tod: "I came out of the Vieux Colombier transformed. Images did become for me the true means of expression. I decided to devote myself to the cinema". At age 72, Buñuel had not lost his enthusiasm for this film, asking the octogenarian Lang for his autograph. In 1925 Buñuel moved to Paris, where he began work as a secretary in an organization called the International Society of Intellectual Cooperation, he became involved in cinema and theater, going to the movies as as three times a day. Through these interests, he met a
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, is best known for its visual artworks and writings. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects, developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself, its aim was to "resolve the contradictory conditions of dream and reality into an absolute reality, a super-reality". Works of surrealism feature the element of unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe affecting the visual arts, literature and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice and social theory; the word'surrealism' was coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire three years before Surrealism emerged as an art movement in Paris.
He wrote in a letter to Paul Dermée: "All things considered, I think in fact it is better to adopt surrealism than supernaturalism, which I first used". Apollinaire used the term in his program notes for Serge Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which premiered 18 May 1917. Parade was performed with music by Erik Satie. Cocteau described the ballet as "realistic". Apollinaire went further, describing Parade as "surrealistic": This new alliance—I say new, because until now scenery and costumes were linked only by factitious bonds—has given rise, in Parade, to a kind of surrealism, which I consider to be the point of departure for a whole series of manifestations of the New Spirit, making itself felt today and that will appeal to our best minds. We may expect it to bring about profound changes in our arts and manners through universal joyfulness, for it is only natural, after all, that they keep pace with scientific and industrial progress; the term was taken up again by Apollinaire, in the preface to his play Les Mamelles de Tirésias, written in 1903 and first performed in 1917.
World War I scattered the writers and artists, based in Paris, in the interim many became involved with Dada, believing that excessive rational thought and bourgeois values had brought the conflict of the war upon the world. The Dadaists protested with anti-art gatherings, performances and art works. After the war, when they returned to Paris, the Dada activities continued. During the war, André Breton, who had trained in medicine and psychiatry, served in a neurological hospital where he used Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic methods with soldiers suffering from shell-shock. Meeting the young writer Jacques Vaché, Breton felt that Vaché was the spiritual son of writer and pataphysics founder Alfred Jarry, he admired the young writer's anti-social disdain for established artistic tradition. Breton wrote, "In literature, I was successively taken with Rimbaud, with Jarry, with Apollinaire, with Nouveau, with Lautréamont, but it is Jacques Vaché to whom I owe the most."Back in Paris, Breton joined in Dada activities and started the literary journal Littérature along with Louis Aragon and Philippe Soupault.
They began experimenting with automatic writing—spontaneously writing without censoring their thoughts—and published the writings, as well as accounts of dreams, in the magazine. Breton and Soupault wrote The Magnetic Fields. Continuing to write, they came to believe that automatism was a better tactic for societal change than the Dada form of attack on prevailing values; the group attracted additional members and grew to include writers and artists from various media such as Paul Éluard, Benjamin Péret, René Crevel, Robert Desnos, Jacques Baron, Max Morise, Pierre Naville, Roger Vitrac, Gala Éluard, Max Ernst, Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Man Ray, Hans Arp, Georges Malkine, Michel Leiris, Georges Limbour, Antonin Artaud, Raymond Queneau, André Masson, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Jacques Prévert, Yves Tanguy. As they developed their philosophy, they believed that Surrealism would advocate the idea that ordinary and depictive expressions are vital and important, but that the sense of their arrangement must be open to the full range of imagination according to the Hegelian Dialectic.
They looked to the Marxist dialectic and the work of such theorists as Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse. Freud's work with free association, dream analysis, the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination, they embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Salvador Dalí proclaimed, "There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad."Beside the use of dream analysis, they emphasized that "one could combine inside the same frame, elements not found together to produce illogical and startling effects." Breton included the idea of the startling juxtapositions in his 1924 manifesto, taking it in turn from a 1918 essay by poet Pierre Reverdy, which said: "a juxtaposition of two more or less distant realities. The more the relationship between the two juxtaposed realities is distant and true, the stronger the image will be−the greater its emotional power and poetic reality."The group aimed to revolutionize human experience, in its
A poet is a person who creates poetry. Poets may be described as such by others. A poet may be a writer of poetry, or may perform their art to an audience; the work of a poet is one of communication, either expressing ideas in a literal sense, such as writing about a specific event or place, or metaphorically. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, have produced works that vary in different cultures and periods. Throughout each civilization and language, poets have used various styles that have changed through the course of literary history, resulting in a history of poets as diverse as the literature they have produced. In Ancient Rome, professional poets were sponsored by patrons, wealthy supporters including nobility and military officials. For instance, Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, friend to Caesar Augustus, was an important patron for the Augustan poets, including both Horace and Virgil. Poets held an important position in pre-Islamic Arabic society with the poet or sha'ir filling the role of historian and propagandist.
Words in praise of the tribe and lampoons denigrating other tribes seem to have been some of the most popular forms of early poetry. The sha'ir represented an individual tribe's prestige and importance in the Arabian peninsula, mock battles in poetry or zajal would stand in lieu of real wars.'Ukaz, a market town not far from Mecca, would play host to a regular poetry festival where the craft of the sha'irs would be exhibited. In the High Middle Ages, troubadors were an important class of poets and came from a variety of backgrounds, they lived and travelled in many different places and were looked upon as actors or musicians as much as poets. They were under patronage, but many travelled extensively; the Renaissance period saw a continuation of patronage of poets by royalty. Many poets, had other sources of income, including Italians like Dante Aligheri, Giovanni Boccaccio and Petrarch's works in a pharmacist's guild and William Shakespeare's work in the theater. In the Romantic period and onwards, many poets were independent writers who made their living through their work supplemented by income from other occupations or from family.
This included poets such as Robert Burns. Poets such as Virgil in the Aeneid and John Milton in Paradise Lost invoked the aid of a Muse. Poets of earlier times were well read and educated people while others were to a large extent self-educated. A few poets such as John Gower and John Milton were able to write poetry in more than one language; some Portuguese poets, as Francisco de Sá de Miranda, wrote not only in Portuguese but in Spanish. Jan Kochanowski wrote in Polish and in Latin, France Prešeren and Karel Hynek Mácha wrote some poems in German, although they were poets of Slovenian and Czech respectively. Adam Mickiewicz, the greatest poet of Polish language, wrote a Latin ode for emperor Napoleon III. Another example is a Polish poet; when he moved to Great Britain, he ceased to write poetry in Polish, but started writing novel in English. He translated poetry from English and into English. Many universities offer degrees in creative writing though these only came into existence in the 20th century.
While these courses are not necessary for a career as a poet, they can be helpful as training, for giving the student several years of time focused on their writing. List of poets Bard Lyricist Reginald Gibbons, The Poet's Work: 29 poets on the origins and practice of their art. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226290546 at Google Books Poets' Graves
Ithell Colquhoun was a British painter and author. Stylistically her artwork was surrealist in content and for a brief time she was part of the organised British surrealist movement, she was born in British India. From the 1930s to her death, her work was exhibited in Britain and Germany. Margaret Ithell Colquhoun was born in British India, her parents were Henry Colquhoun, an assistant to the ambassador in Manipur, his wife Georgia. Colquhoun was educated in Rodwell, near Weymouth, Dorset before attending Cheltenham Ladies' College. There she studied topics such as the occult. Colquhoun did take some art courses, but she was self-taught. Colquhoun studied for a period at the Slade School of Art in London, under Henry Tonks and Randolph Schwabe, before travelling to France in 1931, it was in Paris that she discovered surrealism and was influenced by the works of Salvador Dalí. Another influence on Colquhoun was the psychomorphological works of Onslow Ford, her first one-woman exhibition of works was at Cheltenham Art Gallery in 1936.
Soon after, she joined Artists' International Association. She took part in the 1939 exhibition Living Art in England on an independent basis, but that same year she met Breton in Paris and joined the English surrealist group. By 1939, Colquhoun had joined the English Surrealist Group and in June she and Roland Penrose showed their works in a joint exhibition at Mayor Gallery. There they created a scandal by asking a vagrant to sit in the window. In 1940, E. L. T. Mesens, head of the English Surrealist Group, expelled her from the group for carrying on with occult research, she became the Order of the Stella Matutina, both occult groups. After the 1950s, she was regarded as a'fantamagiste', an unorthodox surrealist who focused on the occult. Colquhoun lived with Antonio Romanov del Renzio in London during World War II, marrying him in July 1943 and divorcing him a few years later. From 1946, Colquhoun kept a studio near Penzance, while living in London, she moved to Cornwall in 1957, where she lived until her death on 11 April 1988.
Colquhoun's early works included a series of enlarged images of flora, occupying the full canvas and painted photographically. By the late 1930s, she had painted two significant pieces. In the 1940s, Colquhoun's works were experiments to explore the subconscious, she did this by using recognised methods such as decalcomania, fumage and collage. Colquhoun went further, developing new techniques such as superautomatism, stillomanay and entoptic graphomania writing about them in her article The mantic stain. Three works which stand out during the 1940s are The Pine Family, which deals with dismemberment and castration, A Visitation which shows a flat heart shape with multicoloured beams of light and Dreaming Leaps, a homage to Sonia Araquistain. Colquhoun did not define herself as a Surrealist artist, as she only took part in a single Surrealist exhibit. Instead she considered herself "independent"She has published poetry and tales of her travels in Ireland and Cornwall. Colquhoun gained an early reputation within the British Surrealist movement yet became better known as an occultist.
In 2012, the scholar Amy Hale noted that Colquhoun "is becoming recognized as one of the most interesting and prolific esoteric thinkers and artists of the twentieth century". Hale noted that through Colquhoun's work "we can see an interplay of themes and movements which characterizes the trajectory of certain British subcultures ranging from Surrealism to the Earth Mysteries movement and gives us a rare insight into the thoughts and processes of a working magician." Salvo for Russia, 1942 The Fortune Anthology, 1942 The Crying of the Wind: Ireland, 1955 The Living Stones: Cornwall, 1957 Goose of Hermogenes, 1961 Grimoire Of The Entangled Thicket Sword Of Wisdom - MacGregor Mathers and the Golden Dawn, 1975 The Rosie Crucian Secrets: Their Excellent Method of Making Medicines of Metals Also Their Lawes and Mysteries, 1985 The Magical Writings of Ithell Colquhoun, 2007 Ithell Colquhoun: Magician Born of Nature, 2009/2011 Decad of Intelligence, 2016 Taro As Colour, 2018 Official site Entry on Ithell Colquhoun at the World Religions and Spirituality Project Ithell Colquhoun at the Tate Gallery Archive
A photographer is a person who makes photographs. As in other arts, the definitions of amateur and professional are not categorical. An amateur photographer takes snapshots for pleasure to remember events, places or friends with no intention of selling the images to others. A professional photographer is to take photographs for a session and image purchase fee, by salary or through the display, resale or use of those photographs. A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular planned event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, like fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making an image and licensing or making printed copies of it for sale or display; some workers, such as crime scene photographers, estate agents and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.
The term professional may imply preparation, for example, by academic study or apprenticeship by the photographer in pursuit of photographic skills. A hallmark of a professional is that they invest in continuing education through associations. Many associations offer the opportunity to test and exhibit acumen in order to attain credentials such as Certified Professional Photographer or Master Photographer. While there is no compulsory registration requirement for professional photographer status, operating a business requires having a business license in most cities and counties. Having commercial insurance is required by most venues if photographing a wedding or a public event. Photographers who operate a legitimate business can provide these items. Photographers can be categorized based on the subjects; some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, aviation photography and commercial photography.
It is worth noting that the type of work commissioned will have pricing associated with the image's usage. The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs on products; the photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the "license" or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used, for which products; this is referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees. An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph; the contract may be for other duration. The photographer charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract.
The contract may be for exclusive use of the photograph. The contract can stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is often based on the size at which the photo will be used in a magazine or book, cover photos command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine. Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment are work for hire belonging to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright of their photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.
There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online and but for little money, without a royalty, without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc. Commercial photographers may promote their work to advertising and editorial art buyers via printed and online marketing vehicles. Many people upload their photographs to social networking websites and other websites, in order to share them with a particular group or with the general public; those interested in legal precision may expl
Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquis of Dalí de Púbol, known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Spain. Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the bizarre images in his surrealist work, his painterly skills are attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic repertoire included film and photography, at times in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media. Dalí attributed his "love of everything, gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes" to an "Arab lineage", claiming that his ancestors were descendants of the Moors. Dalí was imaginative, enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. To the dismay of those who held his work in high regard, to the irritation of his critics, his eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork.
Salvador Dalí was born on 11 May 1904, at 8:45 am GMT, on the first floor of Carrer Monturiol, 20, in the town of Figueres, in the Empordà region, close to the French border in Catalonia, Spain. Dalí's older brother, named Salvador, had died of gastroenteritis nine months earlier, on 1 August 1903, his father, Salvador Rafael Aniceto Dalí Cusí was a middle-class lawyer and notary, an anti-clerical atheist and Catalan federalist, whose strict disciplinary approach was tempered by his wife, Felipa Domènech Ferrés, who encouraged her son's artistic endeavors. In the summer of 1912, the family moved to the top floor of Carrer Monturiol 24; as a child Dalí was taken to his brother's grave and told by his parents that he was his brother's reincarnation, a concept which he came to believe. Of his brother, Dalí said, " resembled each other like two drops of water, but we had different reflections." He "was a first version of myself but conceived too much in the absolute." Images of his long-dead brother would reappear embedded in his works, including Portrait of My Dead Brother.
Dalí had a sister, Anna Maria, three years younger. In 1949, she published a book about her brother, his childhood friends included Josep Samitier. During holidays at the Catalan resort of Cadaqués, the trio played football together. Dalí attended drawing school. In 1916, he discovered modern painting on a summer vacation trip to Cadaqués with the family of Ramon Pichot, a local artist who made regular trips to Paris; the next year, Dalí's father organized an exhibition of his charcoal drawings in their family home. He had his first public exhibition at the Municipal Theatre in Figueres in 1918, a site he would return to decades later. On 6 February 1921, Dalí's mother died of uterus cancer. Dalí was 16 years old. I worshipped her... I could not resign myself to the loss of a being on whom I counted to make invisible the unavoidable blemishes of my soul." After her death, Dalí's father married his deceased wife's sister. Dalí did not resent this marriage, because he had great respect for his aunt. In 1922, Dalí moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes in Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.
A lean 1.72 metres tall, Dalí drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He had long hair and sideburns, coat and knee-breeches in the style of English aesthetes of the late 19th century. At the Residencia, he became close friends with Pepín Bello, Luis Buñuel, Federico García Lorca; the friendship with Lorca had a strong element of mutual passion, but Dalí rejected the poet's sexual advances. It was his paintings in which he experimented with Cubism, that earned him the most attention from his fellow students. Since there were no Cubist artists in Madrid at the time, his knowledge of Cubist art had come from magazine articles and a catalog given to him by Pichot. Dalí, still unknown to the public, illustrated a book for the first time in 1924, it was a publication of the Catalan poem Les bruixes de Llers by his friend and schoolmate, poet Carles Fages de Climent. Dalí experimented with Dada, which influenced his work throughout his life. Dalí held his first solo exhibition at Galeries Dalmau in Barcelona, from 14 to 27 November 1925.
At the time Dalí was not yet immersed in the Surrealist style for which he would become famous. The exhibition was well received by critics; the following year he exhibited again at Galeries Dalmau, from 31 December 1926 to 14 January 1927, with the support of the art critic Sebastià Gasch. Dalí left the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams, his mastery of painting skills at that time was evidenced by his realistic The Basket of Bread, painted in 1926. That same year, he made his first visit to Paris, where he met Pablo Picasso, whom the young Dalí revered. Picasso had heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends; as he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works influenced by Picasso and Miró. Some trends in Dalí's work that would continue throughout his life were evident in the 1920s. Dalí was influenced by many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant-garde.
His classical influences i