Holden Commodore (VX)
The Holden Commodore is an executive car, produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 2000 to 2002. It was the second iteration of the third generation of this Australian made model, its range included the luxury variants, Holden Berlina and Holden Calais, it formed the basis for a new generation Holden Ute coupé utility and Holden Monaro coupé. The VX series was produced between October 2000 and September 2002, as a minor restyling update to the VT series from 1997, it introduced greater model differentiation along with gains in crash safety. An intermediate Series II was launched in August 2001, featuring a revised suspension system among other changes. Visually, the exterior features a revised headlamp design over the preceding VT among other changes; these include the tail lamp panel now replaced by two separate individual light assemblies. The Berlina and Calais sedans however retain the full-width boot-lid panel incorporating the tail lamps and the registration plate. Safety played a substantial role in the development of the VX model.
Bosch version 5.3 anti-lock brakes were made standard on all variants, a first for an Australian manufactured car. Extensive research was undertaken to reduce the effects from a side-impact collision through modification of the B-pillars; the risk presented by a side-impact collision in a VX fitted without side airbags is reduced by 50 percent when compared to a specified VT model. The VX series introduced further mechanical upgrades to the 3.8-litre Ecotec V6 engine, which received changes to the engine management computer to bring power up to 152 kilowatts. Fuel economy was improved over the previous model by three to four percent; the optional Supercharged Ecotec V6 extended its service to the Executive and Acclaim variants, with the 171-kilowatt output figure remaining unchanged from the VT. As well as the supercharged six-cylinder, an more powerful 5.7-litre Chevrolet-sourced Gen III V8 engine was offered. The powerplant received power increases from 220 to 225 kilowatts. A modified front suspension setup received lower control arm pivot points.
The Series II update featured the addition of a new rear cross member, revised rear control arm assemblies with new style bushing and toe-control links to the semi-trailing arm rear suspension to better maintain the toe settings during suspension movements, resulting in more predictable car handling, noticeably over uneven surfaces, improved tyre wear. The entry-level Executive was a popular choice amongst fleet buyers, offered standard features such as anti-lock brakes, a driver's air bag, trip computer, central locking. Along with all other variants, steering wheel audio controls, a CD player, an electrically retracting power antenna were now standard; the aspirated 3.8-litre Ecotec V6 came standard on the Executive, with the option of the Supercharged Ecotec V6 or Gen III V8 engine. V6 engines were coupled to a five-speed manual transmission, V8s came with a six-speed manual. A four-speed automatic transmission was available as an optional extra, regardless of the engine choice; the second tier Acclaim was marketed as a family-oriented variation of the VX range, with a strong emphasis on safety.
Building on the equipment levels of the Executive, the Acclaim featured four airbags, cruise control, traction control, air conditioning and power windows. A four-speed automatic transmission was the only transmission available, although buyers did have the opportunity to opt for the Supercharged Ecotec V6 engine. Offered as a sporty alternative to the Acclaim was the Commodore S. Based on the entry-level Executive, features came in the form of a sports body kit, electric windows, 16-inch alloy wheels, sports suspension, air conditioning, cruise control, a leather steering wheel. However, leather upholstery, traction control, four airbags, 17-inch alloy wheels and the Supercharged Ecotec V6 were offered as options; the SS continued on with the sporting trend of the Commodore S, but incorporated bumper-integrated foglamps, more aggressively styled alloy wheels. Instead of the six-cylinder engine standard on the "S pack", a Gen III V8 engine and six-speed manual transmission came as standard. A more advanced suspension setup, traction control and a passenger's airbag were standard, but side impact airbags and leather upholstery remained optional.
This model and the top-of-the-range Calais attributed a notably re-styled exterior, when compared to other trim levels. Both featured a full-width rectangular grille, which merged off together with the angled-off headlamps; the rear-end of the sedan is characterised by a boot panel housing the transparent taillights. Nine-spoke, 15-inch machine finished. Building on the features the Acclaim featured the Berlina added climate control air conditioning, adjustable seatbelt anchors. 17-inch alloy wheels, sports suspension, limited slip differential and an eight-cylinder engine were all made available as optional extras. The flagship Calais shares the prestige style exterior with the Berlina, but is distinguishable by its 16-inch alloy wheels and chrome outlined foglamps. An eight-speaker audio system, with a ten stack CD player and supercharged V6 engine were standard; the Calais presented the same optional features as the Berlina, but allowed for the inclusion of leather upholstery. With the Berlina, the centre console was finished with either the black or beige plastic panel depending on the interior colour scheme, however the Calais upped the ante with a wood grain-faced console, or a satin-finished façade for Series II variants.
Before the VU, Holden had mar
2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series
The 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series was a motor racing championship for V8 Supercars. The series, the seventh V8 Supercar Championship Series, began on 18 March 2005 in Adelaide and ended on 27 November at Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit after 13 rounds; the 46th Australian Touring Car Championship title was awarded to the series winner, Russell Ingall by the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport. The following drivers and teams competed in the 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series. * = Drove in Sandown 500 only ** = Drove in Bathurst 1000 only The 2005 V8 Supercar Championship Series was contested over 13 rounds which included 11 single-driver sprint rounds and two two-driver endurance rounds. Points were awarded on the results of each race; each round carried a maximum of 192, 186, 180 points etc. with each race at two-race rounds carrying half points and each race at three-race rounds carrying one third points. Each driver was required to drop his/her worst score from the first ten rounds.
Gross total points are shown within brackets. Denotes a single car team. Ford was awarded the Champion Manufacturer title, having achieved the most round wins during the series. Official V8 Supercar site 2005 Racing Results Archive
Holden Commodore (VY)
The Holden Commodore is an executive car, produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 2002 to 2004. It was the third iteration of the third generation of this Australian made model, its range included Holden Berlina and Holden Calais. In 2003, the range saw the introduction of the first Commodore-based all-wheel drive variants, including the Holden Adventra wagon. Released in September 2002 and produced until August 2004, the VY series was the first major design departure of the third generation Commodore range released in August 1997, it launched at the same time as the Ford Falcon. The range included the following models: Commodore Executive Commodore Acclaim Commodore S Commodore SV8 Commodore SS Berlina CalaisThese models were all offered as sedans, wagons only with the Executive and Berlina. Unusually, the VY introduced a limited edition SS wagon featuring the same 235 kW V8, bodykit and sports suspension as the SS sedan. However, it was equipped with 17-inch alloy wheels as opposed to the 18-inch wheels on the sedan.
500 such wagons were produced for Series I, 350 for Series II. The VY was the last Commodore to use the 3.8-litre Ecotec V6 engines. The front and rear of the body had minor restyling, with new front grille and taillights; the interior has been upgraded. Interior upgrade includes a new instrument panel, centre console and steering wheel and new design transmission lever and handbrake. There is a new mobile phone power outlet under the centre console; the new instrument cluster features a large multi-function digital display, which displays information such as radio station display, PRND321 gear selected indicator, trip computer with stopwatch function, service reminders and a help facility. Standard features now include "twilight sentinel" - automatic headlamp control, programmable headlamps off time delay, high feature Blaupunkt audio systems, road-speed sensitive intermittent wipers and passenger airbags; the VY Series II update added cruise control, front power windows variable front seat lumbar support, revised interior trims.
A 245 kW V8 was introduced to a sportier repositioning of the Calais model. This repositioning included a subtle body kit, the option of a 235 kW V8 in place of the previous 225 kW and a firmer suspension tune, not as stiff as the FE2 suspension on sports variants; the Executive is the baseline model of the VY Commodore range. Pricing for the Executive started from A$31,650; the Executive features included: 3.8 L 152 kW ECOTEC V6 5-speed manual transmission Anti-lock braking system Brake assist CD player Driver's and passenger's airbags Independent rear suspension Power antenna Security system Trip computer 15 inch steel wheels Cruise Control Air conditioning The Acclaim is one model up from the base model of the VY Commodore range. Pricing for the Acclaim started from A$37,510; the Acclaim features included: 3.8 L 152 kW ECOTEC V6 4-speed automatic transmission Air conditioning Anti-lock braking system Brake assist CD player Cruise control Driver's and passenger's airbags Front and rear power windows Independent rear suspension Power antenna Security system Side impact airbags Traction control system Trip computer 15 inch alloy wheels The S is the cheapest sports variant.
Pricing for the S started from A$37,820. The S features included: 3.8 L 152 kW ECOTEC V6 5-speed manual transmission Air conditioning Anti-lock braking system Brake assist CD player Cruise control Driver's and passenger's airbags FE2 sports suspension Front and rear power windows Independent rear suspension Power antenna Security system Traction control system Trip computer 16 inch alloy wheels The VY Commodore was the first to not offer a V8 option on the Executive model. Buyers now had to choose the new SV8 as the cheapest V8 variant; the SV8 was an Executive with a V8 engine, rear spoiler and unique 17 inch alloy wheels. Pricing for the SV8 started from A$40,490; the SV8 features included: 5.7 L 235 kW V8 6-speed manual transmission Air conditioning Anti-lock braking system Brake assist CD player Driver's and passenger's airbags FE2 sports suspension Limited slip differential Independent rear suspension Power antenna Security system Traction control system Trip computer 17 inch alloy wheels The SS was the flagship sports model of the VY range.
Pricing for the SS started from A$49,490. The SS features included: 5.7 L 235 kW V8 6-speed manual transmission Single in-dash CD player Air conditioning Anti-lock braking system Brake assist Cruise control Driver's and passenger's airbags FE2 sports suspension Front and rear power windows Independent rear suspension Limited slip differential Power antenna Security system Side impact airbags Traction control system Trip computer 18 inch alloy wheels The Berlina is the semi-luxury version of the VY range. Pricing for the Berlina starts from A$40,850; the Ber
2008 V8 Supercar Championship Series
The 2008 V8 Supercar Championship Series was the tenth V8 Supercar Championship Series and the twelfth series in which V8 Supercars contested the premier Australian touring car title. The championship began on 21 February at the Clipsal 500 on the streets of Adelaide and finished on 7 December at Oran Park Raceway, it consisted of 14 rounds covering all states and the Northern Territory of Australia as well as rounds in New Zealand and Bahrain. Jamie Whincup secured the championship with two races in hand with victory in race 1 of the 2008 NRMA Motoring & Services Grand Finale. Whincup was awarded the 2008 Australian Touring Car Championship title by CAMS; the following teams and drivers contested the 2008 V8 Supercar Championship Series. * Phillip Island 500 only ** Bathurst 1000 only The points system was changed for 2008. Points were awarded to the top 30 drivers, with 300 points being the most available to a driver in each roundIn Friday practice sessions, drivers who had finished in the top 15 in the 2007 Championship were not permitted to participate for the first 30 minutes
The Supercars Championship is a touring car racing category based in Australia and run as an International Series under Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile regulations. Supercars events take place in all Australian states and the Northern Territory, with the Australian Capital Territory holding the Canberra 400. An international round is held in New Zealand, while events have been held in China, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. A Melbourne 400 championship event is held in support of the Australian Grand Prix. Race formats vary between each event with sprint races between 100 and 200 kilometres in length, street races between 125 and 250 kilometres in length, two-driver endurance races held at Sandown and the Gold Coast; the series is broadcast in 137 countries and has an average event attendance of over 100,000, with over 250,000 people attending major events such as the Adelaide 500. The vehicles used in the series are loosely based on four-door saloon cars. Cars are custom made using a control chassis, with only certain body panels being common between the road cars and race cars.
To ensure parity between each make of car, many control components are utilised. All cars must use a 5.0-litre aspirated V8 engine. Only for Ford Falcons and Holden Commodores, the New Generation V8 Supercar regulations, introduced in 2013, opened up the series to more manufacturers. Nissan were the first new manufacturer to commit to the series with four Nissan Altima L33s followed by Erebus Motorsport with Mercedes-Benz E63 AMGs and Garry Rogers Motorsport with Volvo S60s; the concept of a formula centred around V8-engined Fords and Holdens for the Australian Touring Car Championship had been established as early as mid-1991. With the new regulations set to come into effect in 1993, Ford and Holden were both keen to know the details of the new formula by the end of 1991, putting pressure on the Confederation of Australian Motor Sport to provide clarity on the matter. However, CAMS was waiting to see what the FIA did with its proposed international formula for 2.5 and 2.0-litre touring cars.
The new rules for the ATCC were announced in November 1991 and indicated that the V8 cars would be faster than the smaller engined cars. During 1992, CAMS looked at closing the performance gap between the classes, only to have protests from Ford and Holden, who did not want to see their cars beaten by the smaller cars. In June 1992, the class structure was confirmed: Class A: Australian-produced 5.0-litre V8-engined Fords and Holdens. Class B: 2.0-litre cars complying with FIA Class II Touring Car regulations. Class C: aspirated two-wheel drive cars complying with 1992 CAMS Group 3A Touring Car regulations; this class would only be eligible in 1993. Both the Ford EB Falcon and Holden VP Commodore ran American-based engines which were restricted to 7,500 rpm and a compression ratio of 10:1; the Holden teams had the option of using the Group A-developed 5.0-litre Holden V8 engine, although this was restricted to the second tier'privateer' teams from 1994 onwards, forcing the major Holden runners to use the more expensive Chevrolet engine.
The V8s were first eligible to compete in the endurance races of 1992. The distinctive aerodynamics package, consisting of large front and rear spoilers, was designed with this in mind, to give the new cars a better chance of beating the Nissan Skyline GT-Rs in those races; the new rules meant that cars such as the turbocharged Nissan Skyline GT-R and Ford Sierra RS500 Cosworth were not eligible to compete in 1993, while cars such as the BMW M3 were. However, the M3 received few of the liberal concessions given to the new V8s and had an extra 100 kilograms added to its minimum weight so, with the Class C cars eligible for 1993 only, the German manufacturer's attention switched to the 2.0-litre class for 1994. Cars from all three classes would contest the 1993 Australian Touring Car Championship as well as non-championship Australian touring car events such as the Bathurst 1000. However, for the purposes of race classification and points allocation, cars competed in two classes: Over 2,000cc.
Under 2,000cc. The 2.0-litre class cars competed in a separate race to the V8s. This was changed for the second round of 1993 after there were only nine entrants in the 2.0-litre class for the first round at Amaroo Park. With the new regulations intended to be a parity formula, there were protests by the Holden teams that the Fords had an aerodynamic advantage after they won the opening three rounds, beating the Commodore comprehensively. After round five at Winton, Holden was granted a new front and rear wing package; the BMWs were allowed a new splitter and a full DTM-specification rear wing. Disparity between the Fords and Holdens continued to be a talking point during the next few years, with various concessions given to each manufacturer to try and equalise the two cars. From 1995, the 2.0-litre cars, now contesting their own series as Super Touring cars, became ineligible for the Australian Touring Car Championship. They did not contest the endurance races at Sandown and Bathurst, leaving these open to the 5.0-litre Ford and Holden models.
The Australian Vee Eight Super Car Company – a joint venture between the Touring Car Entrants Group of Australia, sports promoters IMG and the Australian Motor Sports Commission – was formed in November 1996 to run the series. This set the foundation for the large expansion of the series during the following years; the category adopted the name'V8 Supercars' at this time, though the cars themselves were much unchanged. A new television deal with Network Ten and Fox Sports was organised, although this had follow-on effects for the Bathurst 1000 in the
Marcos Ambrose is an Australian former racing driver. He won the Australian V8 Supercar series' championship in 2003 and 2004. In 2006, Ambrose relocated to the United States to pursue racing in NASCAR, starting with the Camping World Truck Series, he moved up to the Nationwide Series in 2007, the Sprint Cup Series in 2008. In 2011, he earned his first Cup Series win at Watkins Glen International, becoming the first Australian driver to win in the highest level of NASCAR, repeated that win in the following year, he is known in NASCAR for having won a total of 6 races at Watkins Glen. In the Sprint Cup Series he won at the Glen in 2011 and 2012. In the Nationwide Series he won 3 races at the Glen in 3 years 2008, 2009 and 2010, he won his last race During 2014 NASCAR Nationwide series at the Glen. It was the only race. Ambrose grew up in Launceston, Australia, the son of another racing driver, Ross Ambrose and was educated at Scotch Oakburn College, he began racing karts at the age of ten. He won four Tasmanian state junior karting titles and was the Australian karting champion in 1995 in the Clubman Heavy class at the Dubbo circuit in New South Wales.
He moved into Formula Ford in 1996. Ambrose finished second in the Australian Formula Ford championship in 1997. In 1998 Ambrose moved to Europe in a bid to reach Formula One, competing in British Formula Ford in 1998 and 1999. In 1999 he won the European Formula Ford Championship. In 2000 he began the season racing in the French Formula Three Championship, before switching mid-season to the British Formula Three Championship. At the end of 2000 Ambrose did not have the budget to continue in racing in Europe, returned to Australia. In October 2000 he was invited to compete in a Young Guns invitational race held at the Gold Coast Indy 300. Ambrose won against a host of young drivers in Honda road cars, he represented Australia in the 1996 EFDA Nations Cup at Donington Park in England. For 2001, Ambrose was signed by Stone Brothers Racing to drive a Ford Falcon AU. Ambrose stunned the V8 Supercar world when he qualified on pole on debut, at the Australian Grand Prix support race, he qualified on pole again for round three at Eastern Creek, round nine at Queensland Raceway and round 11, the Bathurst 1000, where he became the first rookie to take pole position since 1987.
Ambrose went on winning the Rookie of the Year award. He won the fourth round of the season, at Hidden Valley Raceway, although he did not win any of the three races in the round. In 2002, Ambrose started the season winning pole position at Phillip Island before recording his debut race win in the first race, he finished third in the championship, including winning the final round at Sandown. With a new Falcon BA, Ambrose gave the Ford team a great start to the 2003 season with victory in the first race of the Clipsal 500, he followed this up with a third career win at Eastern Creek After 13 rounds in the 2003 V8 Supercar Series, Ambrose was presented with the driver’s series trophy, 102 points clear of second place. In 2004, Ambrose claimed three pole positions and five round wins and went into the final round at Eastern Creek with a unbeatable lead. In the end he collected his second championship in the opening Saturday night race and went on to clean-sweep the round in record-breaking style in his Pirtek Falcon.
Teammate Russell Ingall finished second in the championship, giving Stone Brothers Racing a 1–2 Quinella finish. The late part of the season was highlighted by an altercation between Ambrose and Rick Kelly when Ambrose appeared to have brake-checked Kelly on purpose after a race at the Gold Coast. Ambrose won the coveted Barry Sheene Medal in 2003 and 2004. Ambrose started 2005 with a clean sweep of the opening round in Adelaide, he remained in the championship lead and was near to winning the championship until Round 10 at the Bathurst 1000 when he was involved in a controversial crash with Greg Murphy approaching The Cutting late in the race. The two drivers argued to applause from the fans. Both of them were infuriated with one another, shared some heated words after the crash. Murphy said "He's got an ego problem that we all know about and it reared its ugly head again, I'm just not going to put up with it". Ambrose was quoted, he thereafter supported teammate Russell Ingall's title bid and the two helped Ford and Stone Brothers Racing take the Drivers and Manufacturer's championships.
Ambrose finished third in the championship behind fellow Ford driver Craig Lowndes. In September 2014, it was announced that Ambrose would return to V8 Supercars to race a Ford Falcon FG X for DJR Team Penske, formed by NASCAR owner Roger Penske, interested in expanding his Team Penske organization to start a team in Australia and as a result merged with Dick Johnson Racing, becoming DJR Team Penske Ambrose started in 2015, he debuted at the final round of the 2014 season. He began the 2015 season on a low note, starting near the back of the field in every one of the race, his best finish was 12th in the 3rd race at the Clipsal 500 in Adelaide. In March 2015, Ambrose took a temporary leave from DJR Team Penske in order to improve his practice with V8 Supercar racing, being replaced with Scott Pye, he returned for the three-round Pirtek Endurance Cup as Pye's second driver, claiming an eighth finish at Surfers Paradise race 1. Ambrose did not return as a full-season driver in 2016. At the first V8 Supercar race of 2005, Amb
Holden Commodore (VE)
The Holden Commodore is an executive car, produced by the Australian manufacturer Holden from 2006 to 2013. It was the first iteration of the fourth generation of this Australian-made model, its range included Holden Berlina and Holden Calais. As opposed to the VZ and all models previous which used Opel-sourced platforms adapted both mechanically and in size for the local market, the whole-new VE programme is the first Commodore to be developed by Holden in Australia. Despite its status as an all-new model, engines—comprising the 3.6-litre V6 and more powerful 6.0-litre V8—have been carried over from the VZ series. Innovative features to help minimise export redevelopment costs, such as a symmetrical centre console housing a flush-fitting hand brake lever, facilitate the conversion to left-hand drive. Internationally, the VE was badge engineered as the Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Omega and Pontiac G8. Holden implemented a staged roll-out of the VE variants, releasing the sedan first in July 2006.
Prior to this, Holden stated they would manufacture two parallel generations of Commodores until the new station wagon and utility body styles were launched. Variants by Holden's performance vehicle partner, Holden Special Vehicles, were released soon after the sedan's debut alongside the long-wheelbase WM Statesman/Caprice models; the VE Ute did not enter production until 2007 when it was accompanied by the previewing of a Sportwagon concept. The Sportwagon itself was subsequently introduced in July 2008 with the standard Commodore wheelbase instead of the extended wheelbase of previous Commodore wagons. Updates to the VE have come in the form of model year changes from early 2007 onwards. Subtle in nature, these recurring changes have involved alterations to colours and trim, increased standard equipment, a reduction in fuel consumption. More noteworthy adjustments have come in the form of a smaller 3.0-litre V6 engine for entry-level versions and "Series II" styling revisions in late 2010.
Official manufacture of the sedan began at Holden's Elizabeth, South Australia production facility on 13 July 2006. Three days Holden publicly revealed the car at the Melbourne Convention Centre, broadcast via the Internet; the launch occurred alongside that of the flagship WM Statesman/Caprice. Previous to this, Holden announced that VE station wagon and utility variants would be postponed and the VZ equivalents would remain in production. Sales of the VE Ute commenced on 22 August 2007; this was shortly followed by the unveiling of a Sportwagon concept, the production version of, released in July 2008. Holden's designers and engineers began laying down the basics of a clean-sheet Commodore sedan in 1999. In the seven years of development, the car came to be Holden's largest and most expensive project, representing an expenditure exceeding A$1 billion and 3.4 million kilometres of testing. In 1999 Peter Hughes, Holden's manager of exterior design, produced a two-dimensional image of a sketch drawn earlier by Michael Simcoe, Holden's design director at the time.
Known in house as the "Bill of Design", the sketch formed the design basis for the production-ready car. Various elements of the sketch were changed, including the rear tail lamps, the low-profile side window cluster and the drawn out wheelbase, but the aggressive stance remained. In 2004, just two years before the release of the VE Commodore, Holden unveiled the Torana TT36 concept car at the Australian International Motor Show in Sydney; the TT36 allowed Holden to gauge public reaction to its styling. Much of the Torana's styling drew on the essence of the VE's design; some production-ready components carried over from the TT36 including the steering wheel, the window and rear-view mirror switch cluster and the handbrake lever. Shortly after stylists penned the first design sketches, Holden engineers began work on developing the chassis. Opel, which had provided the basis for all previous Commodore generations, ceased production of their rear-wheel drive Omega in 2003; this meant that Holden had two options: to use another GM platform, or to develop an all-new vehicle.
GM's new premium rear-wheel drive Sigma platform was to see production in the 2002 Cadillac CTS. Holden's engineers decided it was not appropriate; the Sigma platform's double A-arm front suspension and extensive use of aluminium were too costly for the VE's market segment. The luggage compartment was deemed too small and the Sigma interior package could not be stretched sufficiently to become a family-sized car. In particular, the rear-seat shoulder width was too tight; these major drawbacks made Holden decide to develop an all-new platform, known as the GM Zeta platform, on which a number of forthcoming GM vehicles will be based. The Zeta suspension system comprises new double-pivot MacPherson strut for the front and a four-link independent rear setup; these replace the previous simple MacPherson strut design front and much criticised semi-trailing arm rear suspension, for improved ride and handling. Denny Mooney was appointed chairman of Holden on 1 January 2004, by which time development of the VE Commodore was well underway.
Key design and engineering work was being finalised, investment was being made in making the tooling with which to manufacture the car. One of Mooney's priorities was to improve the perceived quality issues that surrounded the previous generations of Commodores; the interior quality benefited from this additional emphasis. Smaller panel gaps are just one of the ways