Wickenburg is a town located in Maricopa County, United States, with a portion in neighboring Yavapai County. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 6,363; the Wickenburg area with much of the Southwest became part of the United States by the 1848 treaty that ended the Mexican–American War. The first extensive survey was conducted by Gila Rangers who were pursuing hostile Indians who had raided the Butterfield Overland Mail route and attacked miners at Gila City. In 1862, a gold strike on the Colorado River near present-day Yuma brought American prospectors, who searched for minerals throughout central Arizona. Many of the geographic landmarks now bear the names of these pioneers, including the Weaver Mountains, named after mountain man Pauline Weaver, Peeples Valley, named after a settler. A German named, his efforts were rewarded with the discovery of the Vulture Mine, from which more than $30 million worth of gold has been dug. Ranchers and farmers soon built homes along the fertile plain of the Hassayampa River.
Together with the miners, they founded the town of Wickenburg in 1863. Wickenburg was the home of Jack Swilling, who prospected in the Salt River Valley in 1867. Swilling helped ground the city of Phoenix, Arizona. Wickenburg was supplied from the Colorado River, by steamboat over the La Paz - Wikenburg Road by wagons and pack mules. Wickenburg in turn became a supply point for the mines and army posts in the interior of Arizona Territory; as the town grew, conflicts developed with the Yavapai Native American tribe, who rejected a treaty signed by their chiefs breaking the treaty. When the American Civil War began in 1861, the Federal troops were all withdrawn and the settlements were left unprotected; the Yavapai promptly began a series of attacks on the white intruders. A company of Confederate cavalry brought temporary relief, but it fell back before the advance of Union troops from California. By 1869, an estimated 1000 Yavapai and 400 settlers had been killed, with many on both sides fleeing to safer areas.
With the end of the war, the Union troops and local volunteers forced the Yavapai onto a reservation, where they remain to this day. However, Yavapai recalcitrants remained for years, raids on stage-coaches, isolated farm houses, periodic raids on villages kept the area in a constant state of tension. Following several murders of Yavapai chiefs allied with America by insurgent Yavapai warriors, hostile warrior tribal leaders mobilized the entire Yavapai warrior band into a massive assault on the primary American settlement of Wickenburg and massacred or drove out much of the American populace. In 1872, in response to the assassination of friendly Yavapai chiefs, the take-over of the entire Yavapai nation and its reservation by hostile elements, with most of the American area under continual penetrating raids by Yavapai warrior bands, General George Crook began an all-out campaign against the Yavapai, with the aim of forcing the insurgent Yavapai warrior bands into a decisive battle and the removal of Yavapai settlers from American territory.
After several months of forced marches and pitched skirmishes by combined Arizona territorial militia and US Army Cavalry, Crook forced the Yavapai bands into a single decisive battle. In December 1872, the Battle of Salt River Canyon in the Superstition Mountains decisively routed the Yavapai, within a year most Yavapai resistance was crushed. Having broken their treaty with America several times, with most of the friendly and allied chiefs killed by insurgent Yavapais, who killed Americans, Crook was authorized to enter into new negotiations with the aim of reducing the size of the Yavapai reservation and removing it to an area more cordoned off from American communities and their communication lines; the surviving Yavapai warrior leaders grudgingly accepted the treaty which left the nation in far worse conditions than previously. They were compelled to surrender their firearms, move to the Fort Verde Reservation, accept a permanent Army garrison on their territory, accept direct administration by American Bureau of Indian Affairs agents and commissioners, have trade emplaced in the hands of American government agents, be regulated by an Indian Police force picked and trained by the US Army and Arizona Territorial officers.
After only two years on the Rio Verde Reservation, local officials grew concerned about the Yavapais' continued hostility and self-sufficiency, so they persuaded the federal government to close their reservation and move all the Yavapai to the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation. The infant town of Wickenburg went through many trials and tribulations in its first decades, surviving the Indian Wars including repeating Indian raids, mine closures, a disastrous flood in 1890 when the Walnut Creek Dam burst, killing nearly 70 residents. In spite of such challenging circumstances, the town continued to grow, its prosperity was ensured with the coming of the railroad in 1895. In those years, the town had once been viewed as a possible candidate for territorial capital; the historic train depot today houses the Visitor's Center. As of 2007, only freight trains pass through Wickenburg. Along the town's main historic district, early businesses built many structures that still form Wickenburg's downtown area.
Tourism led to the development of guest ranches, with as many as 14 operating in the 1950s and 60s, when Wickenburg billed itself as the "Dude Ranch Capital of the World", with development spurred by the construction of. As of 2007, some
Yavapai County, Arizona
Yavapai County is near the center of the U. S. state of Arizona. As of the 2010 census, its population was 211,073; the county seat is Prescott. Yavapai County comprises AZ Metropolitan Statistical Area. Yavapai County was one of the four original Arizona counties created by the 1st Arizona Territorial Legislature; the county territory was defined as being east of longitude 113° 20' and north of the Gila River. Soon thereafter, the counties of Apache, Coconino and Navajo were carved from the original Yavapai County. Yavapai County's present boundaries were established in 1891; the county is named after the Yavapai people, who were the principal inhabitants at the time the United States annexed the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 8,128 square miles, of which 8,123 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. It has about 93% of the area of the U. S. state of New Jersey. It is larger than three U. S. states and the District of Columbia combined. The county's topography makes a dramatic transition from the lower Sonoran Desert to the south to the heights of the Coconino Plateau to the north, the Mogollon Rim to the east.
The highest point above sea level in Yavapai County is Mount Union at an elevation of 7,979 ft and the lowest is Agua Fria River drainage, now under Lake Pleasant. Mohave County—west La Paz County—southwest Maricopa County—south Gila County—east Coconino County—north/northeast Agua Fria National Monument Coconino National Forest Kaibab National Forest Montezuma Castle National Monument Prescott National Forest Tonto National Forest Tuzigoot National MonumentThere are nineteen official wilderness areas in Yavapai County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Fourteen of these are integral parts of National Forests listed above, whereas five are managed by the Bureau of Land Management; some of these extend into neighboring counties: Apache Creek Wilderness Arrastra Mountain Wilderness in Mohave County. Public land: about 75% of the county's area is publicly owned, includingFederal ownership: about 50% of the county's area is owned by the federal government of the United States, includingNational Forest lands, managed by the US Forest Service: 38% of the county's area Federal lands managed by the U.
S. Bureau of Land Management: 11.6% of the county's area Small areas of federal land are managed by the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs and the National Park Service: less than 0.5% of the county's area. Yavapai-Prescott Tribe 1,413 acres Yavapai-Apache Nation 685 acres About 25% of Yavapai County is owned by the State of Arizona as state trust lands, managed by the Arizona State Land Department. There are numerous fauna species within Yavapai County. For example, a number of plants within the genus Ephedra and Coreopsis are found in the county. Yavapai County is the location of several groves of the near-threatened California Fan Palm, Washingtonia filifera. Yavapai County is home to Arcosanti, a prototype arcology, developed by Paolo Soleri, under construction since 1970. Arcosanti is just north of Arizona. Out of Africa Wildlife Park is a private zoo; the park moved to the Camp Verde area from the East Valley in 2005. 10 miles northwest of the town of Bagdad lies the Upper Burro Creek Wilderness Area, a 27,440-acre protected area home to at least 150 species of birds and featuring one of the Arizona desert's few undammed perennial streams.
As of the 2000 census, there were 167,517 people, 70,171 households, 46,733 families residing in the county. The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 81,730 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.89% White, 0.39% Black or African American, 1.60% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 3.58% from other races, 1.95% from two or more races. 9.78% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 70,171 households out of which 23.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.00% were married couples living together, 8.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.79. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 22.40% from 25 to 44, 27.40% from 45 to 64, 22.00% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Camp Verde, Arizona
Camp Verde is a town in Yavapai County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of the town is 10,873; the town hosts an annual corn festival in July and organized by Hauser and Hauser Farms. Other annual festivals include Fort Verde Days; the 42.6 sq mi town is intersected by I-17, extending 8 miles to the West and 10 miles to the East of the interstate. Three freeway exits provide local access: Exits 285, 287, 289; the Town's Historic Downtown is 1-mile from I-17 and contains a grocery store, physician facilities, dining, historical museum, Fort Verde State Historic Park, chamber of commerce/visitor center and town offices. Camp Verde is located at 34°34′0″N 111°51′22″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.6 square miles, of which, 42.6 square miles of it is land and 0.02% is water. It is in the Verde River valley. To the southwest lie the Black Hills mountain range. Camp Verde is surrounded by Prescott National Forest; the Mogollon Rim is just north of the town and forms the southwestern edge of the large, geologically ancient Colorado Plateau.
As of the census of 2000, there were 9,451 people, 2,611 households, 2,538 families residing in the town. The population density was 222.0 people per square mile. There were 3,969 housing units at an average density of 93.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 85.05% White, 0.35% Black or African American, 7.31% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 4.70% from other races, 2.23% from two or more races. 10.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,611 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.7% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.97. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 20.5% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,868, the median income for a family was $37,049. Males had a median income of $30,104 versus $20,306 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,072. About 9.5% of families and 14.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.2% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Tourist attractions include the nearby Montezuma Castle National Monument located in Verde Valley. In the town is Fort Verde State Historic Park, Out of Africa Wildlife Park; the Cliff Castle Casino, operated by the Yavapai-Apache Nation Indian tribe, is an important gambling destination for north and central Arizona. Fort Verde State Historic Park is located in Camp Verde's Historic Downtown 1-mile from all three Camp Verde exits. Camp Verde Unified School District serves the community; the Marvel Comics superhero characters James and John Proudstar are from a reservation in Camp Verde.
The 1977 horror movie, Kingdom of the Spiders, was filmed in Camp Verde. In the 2011 film Paul, Simon Pegg and Nick Frost plan to visit Camp Verde as a UFO hot spot along with Rachel, Area 51, Apache Junction and Roswell, New Mexico. In Cable #7, Camp Verde is a bunker headquarters of the X-Force. Camp Verde Official website Historic American Buildings Survey No. AZ-26, "Camp Verde, Officer's House, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ", 1 photo The Camp Verde Bugle - Local newspaper The Camp Verde Journal - Local newspaper
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Gunsite is a run firearms training facility based in Yavapai County, just south-west of Paulden in the United States. It offers tuition-based instruction in handgun, carbine and shotgun shooting, as well as other specialty firearms. Located on a 3,000-acre facility, Gunsite has classrooms and outdoor firing simulators, various pistol and long-barrel ranges; the ranges go out to 2000 yards for precision rifle training. There is an on-site pro shop and gunsmith. Gunsite was founded by Jeff Cooper as the American Pistol Institute in 1976 in order to teach the modern technique of shooting; the modern technique is a method of use of the handgun for self-defense. The technique uses a two-handed grip of the pistol, which brings the pistol to eye-level, so that the sights may be used to aim the pistol at one's assailant. Prior to the founding of API, Cooper had traveled the world providing training in the modern technique to security teams such as those protecting heads of state, prominent politicians and wealthy individuals.
The facilities at Gunsite allowed Cooper to teach the technique to a much wider audience. At that time the firearms training school industry did not exist. Cooper developed similar doctrines in the use of the rifle and shotgun and these courses were taught at Gunsite; these included the basic rifle course as well as courses designed for those hunting dangerous game, Cooper being a keen hunter himself. After the introduction of the rifle and shotgun courses, the school's name was changed to Gunsite Training Center. From the beginning the objective of Gunsite was firearms education; the courses at Gunsite were numbered because they were assigned units by the University of Phoenix as part of their program. Over the years advanced and complex courses were offered for those taking study of the use of firearms to higher levels. Cooper named a number of individuals as "Shooting Masters."During this time Cooper and this staff trained many shooters. Notable among these: King Abdullah of Jordan, along with members of his staff.
Actor James Caan is sometimes included on the list, but when he told Cooper that he wanted to learn the modern technique for his role in the movie Thief, Cooper declined, saying that Caan's character, an ex-con and career criminal, would not have been exposed to such training and delegated the entire training program to Gunsite's Ops Manager at the time, Chuck Taylor. The result of Taylor's efforts was that Caan looked competent in his gun-handling and tactical movement during the movie. In 1992 Cooper sold the American Pistol Institute. Under the new owner the instruction shifted away from modern technique as taught by Cooper, both in content and quality and the school was not well regarded. Cooper dissociated himself from the school. During this time Cooper held classes at the National Rifle Association Whittington Center in New Mexico and other locations. To distinguish between the two schools, graduates of the American Pistol Institute as it was owned by Cooper pre-1992 refer to this institution as "Orange Gunsite" and to the subsequent operation post-1992 as "Grey Gunsite".
This is. On December 10, 1999, the school was sold to a new owner, Buz Mills, himself a graduate of Orange Gunsite, whereupon it was renamed "Gunsite Academy"; the instruction at the school returned to that of the modern technique. Cooper once more associated himself with the school and took part in the instruction of the classes until his retirement from instruction at the end of 2003. Furthermore, a number of instructors, instructors under Cooper at Orange Gunsite returned to instruct at the school. Working with Sturm, Ruger in the development of the Ruger Gunsite Scout Rifle, based on the company's Model 77 and meeting the criteria of the modern scout rifle set forth by Cooper; the rifle is chambered in.308 Winchester and weighs 7 lbs and sports a 16.5" barrel and black laminate stock. It features flash hider and a picatinny rail for optics mounting. Combat pistol shooting Gun politics National Rifle Association Shooting range Shooting ranges in the United States Shooting sports Gunsite Academy website