ACF River Basin
The ACF River Basin is the drainage basin, or watershed, of the Apalachicola River, Chattahoochee River, Flint River, in the Southeastern United States. This area is alternatively known as the Apalachicola Basin and is listed by the United States Geological Survey as basin HUC 031300, as well as sub-region HUC 0313, it is located in the South Atlantic-Gulf Water Resource Region, listed as HUC 03. The basin is further sub-divided into 14 sub-basins; the ACF River Basin begins in the mountains of northeast Georgia, drains much of metro Atlanta, most of west Georgia and southwest Georgia and adjoining counties of southeast Alabama, before it splits the central part of the Florida Panhandle and flows into the Gulf of Mexico at Apalachicola Bay, near Apalachicola, Florida. It drains an area of 20,355 square miles. Most of the northern half of the basin abuts the Eastern Continental Divide on the east, the ACT River Basin to the west; these states and Alabama have been involved in a water-use dispute for two decades, known as the Tri-state water dispute.
Georgia has lobbied the United States Congress to end navigation on the Appalachicola and lower Chattahoochee, to conserve more water during droughts. Keeping the two rivers at a navigable depth during these times requires large releases from dams upstream, sending potential drinking water downstream for shipping, dropping lakes to levels dangerous to boaters. Other ecological conservation and economic concerns include protecting harvests of oysters in Apalachicola Bay, which require a large enough flow of fresh water to prevent excessive saltwater intrusion from the Gulf. Numerous endangered and imperiled species occur in the basin, including many endemic mussels The cost of dredging silt, much of it from uncontrolled growth across metro Atlanta's fine red clay soil, has been called wasteful to float so little ship traffic. U. S. Army Corps of Engineers: ACF Basin website Florida DEP: Apalachicola River Watershed
Georgia State Route 113
State Route 113 is a state highway in western Georgia. It is a 69-mile-long route, connecting US Interstate 75 in Cartersville. SR 113 begins at an intersection with US 27/SR 1 in Carrollton; the highway travels north, intersects I-20 travels through the town of Temple. In extreme eastern Haralson County, the route begins a concurrency with SR 120 traveling east travels concurrent with SR 101 northward. North of Yorkville, SR 101/SR 113 travels concurrent with US 278/SR 6 to Rockmart; the highway departs Rockmart to the northeast. After crossing the Etowah River, the highway travels through downtown Cartersville as Main Street, before reaching its northern terminus at I-75 in the eastern part of Cartersville. SR 113 is marked as a north–south signed highway, but in areas like Taylorsville, the highway is signed as an east–west route, it is signed as an east–west highway at its northern terminus at I-75. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 113 at Wikimedia Commons
Benedict Arnold was an American military officer who served as a general during the American Revolutionary War, fighting for the American Continental Army before defecting to the British in 1780. George Washington had given him his fullest trust and placed him in command of the fortifications at West Point, New York. Arnold planned to surrender the fort to British forces, but the plot was discovered in September 1780 and he fled to the British, his name became a byword in the United States for treason and betrayal because he led the British army in battle against the men whom he had once commanded. Arnold was born in the Connecticut Colony and was a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war began in 1775, he joined the growing army outside Boston and distinguished himself through acts of intelligence and bravery. His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, defensive and delaying tactics at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776 which allowed American forces time to prepare New York's defenses, the Battle of Ridgefield, operations in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix, key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that halted his combat career for several years.
Arnold claimed that he was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress, while other officers obtained credit for some of his accomplishments. Others in his military and political circles brought charges against him of corruption or other malfeasance, but most he was acquitted in formal inquiries. Congress investigated his accounts and concluded that he was indebted to Congress, he borrowed to maintain a lavish lifestyle. Arnold mingled with Loyalist sympathizers in Philadelphia and married into one such family by marrying Peggy Shippen, she was a close friend of British Major John André and kept in contact with him when he became head of the British espionage system in New York. Many historians point to her as facilitating Arnold's plans to switch sides; the British promised £ 20,000 for the capture of a major American stronghold. His scheme was to surrender the fort to the British, but it was exposed in September 1780 when Patriot militia captured André carrying papers which revealed the plot.
Arnold escaped and André was hanged. Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army, an annual pension of £360, a lump sum of over £6,000, he led British forces on raids in Virginia, they burned much of New London, Connecticut to the ground and slaughtered surrendering forces after the Battle of Groton Heights—just a few miles downriver from the town where he had grown up. In the winter of 1782, he and Peggy moved to England, he was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs and most Army officers. In 1787, he moved to Canada to a merchant business with his sons Henry, he was unpopular there and returned to London permanently in 1791. Benedict Arnold was born a British subject, the second of six children of Benedict Arnold and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut Colony on January 14, 1741, he was named after his great-grandfather Benedict Arnold, an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island, as were his father and grandfather and an older brother who died in infancy.
Only he and his sister Hannah survived to adulthood. His siblings were, in order of birth: Benedict, Mary and Elizabeth. Arnold was a descendant of John Lothropp through his maternal grandmother, an ancestor of six presidents. Arnold's father was a successful businessman, the family moved in the upper levels of Norwich society, he was enrolled in a private school in nearby Canterbury, Connecticut when he was 10, with the expectation that he would attend Yale University. However, the deaths of his siblings two years may have contributed to a decline in the family fortunes, since his father took up drinking. By the time that he was 14, there was no money for private education, his father's alcoholism and ill health kept him from training Arnold in the family mercantile business, but his mother's family connections secured an apprenticeship for him with her cousins Daniel and Joshua Lathrop, who operated a successful apothecary and general merchandise trade in Norwich. His apprenticeship with the Lathrops lasted seven years.
Arnold was close to his mother, who died in 1759. His father's alcoholism worsened after her death, the youth took on the responsibility of supporting his father and younger sister, his father was arrested on several occasions for public drunkenness, was refused communion by his church, died in 1761. In 1755, Arnold was attracted by the sound of a drummer and attempted to enlist in the provincial militia for service in the French and Indian War, but his mother refused permission. In 1757 when he was 16, he did enlist in the Connecticut militia, which marched off toward Albany, New York and Lake George; the French had besieged Fort William Henry in northeastern New York, their Indian allies had committed atrocities after their victory. Word of the siege's disastrous outcome led the company to turn around, Arnold served for only 13 days. A accepted story that he deserted from militia service in
John André was a British Army officer hanged as a spy by the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War for assisting Benedict Arnold's attempted surrender of the fort at West Point, New York to the British. André was born on 2 May 1750 in London to wealthy Huguenot parents Antoine André, a merchant from Geneva and Marie Louise Girardot from Paris, France, he was educated at St Paul's School, Westminster School, in Geneva. He was engaged to Honora Sneyd. At age 20, he joined the 7th of Foot in Canada in 1774 as a lieutenant, he was captured at Fort Saint-Jean by Continental General Richard Montgomery in November 1775, held prisoner at Lancaster, Pennsylvania. He lived in the home of Caleb Cope, enjoying the freedom of the town, as he had given his word not to escape. In December 1776, he was freed in a prisoner exchange, he was promoted to captain in the 26th Foot on 18 January 1777, to major in 1778. He was a great favorite in colonial society, both in Philadelphia and New York, during their occupation by the British Army.
He had a lively and pleasant manner and could draw and cut silhouette pictures, as well as sing and write verse. He was a prolific writer, he was fluent in English, French and Italian. He wrote many comic verses, he planned the Mischianza when General Howe was about to return to England. During his nearly nine months in Philadelphia, André occupied Benjamin Franklin's house, from which it has been claimed that he removed several valuable items on the orders of Major-General Charles Grey when the British left Philadelphia, including an oil portrait of Franklin by Benjamin Wilson. Grey's descendants returned Franklin's portrait to the United States in 1906, the bicentennial of Franklin's birth; the painting now hangs in the White House. In 1779, André became Adjutant General of the British Army in America with the rank of Major. In April of that year, he took charge of British Secret Service. By the next year, he had taken part in Clinton's invasion of the South, starting with the siege of Charleston, South Carolina.
Around this time, André had been negotiating with disillusioned American General Benedict Arnold. Arnold's Loyalist wife Peggy Shippen was one of the go-betweens in the correspondence. Arnold commanded West Point and had agreed to surrender it to the British for £20,000 —a move that would have enabled the British to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. André went up the Hudson River on the British sloop-of-war Vulture on Wednesday, 20 September 1780 to visit Arnold. On the following night, a small boat furnished by Arnold was steered to the Vulture by Joshua Hett Smith. At the oars were two brothers, tenants of Smith's who reluctantly rowed the boat six miles on the river to the sloop. Despite Arnold's assurances, the two oarsmen sensed. None of these men suspected his treason. Only Smith was told anything specific, and, the lie that it was to secure vital intelligence for the American cause; the brothers agreed to row after threats by Arnold to arrest them. They placed him on shore.
The others left and Arnold came to André on horseback, leading an extra horse for André's use. The two men conferred in the woods below Stony Point until nearly dawn, after which André accompanied Arnold several miles to the Joshua Hett Smith House in West Haverstraw, New York, owned by Thomas Smith and occupied by his brother Joshua. Soon thereafter on the morning of 22 September, American troops commanded by Col. James Livingston guarding Verplanck's Point across the river began firing on the Vulture, which sustained many hits and was forced to retire down river without André. To aid André's escape through American lines, Arnold provided him with civilian clothes and a passport which allowed him to travel under the name John Anderson, he bore six papers hidden in his stocking, written in Arnold's hand, that showed the British how to take the fort. This was unnecessary, since Clinton knew the fort's layout. Joshua Hett Smith, accompanying him, left him just before he was captured. André rode on in safety until 9 a.m. on 23 September, when he came near Tarrytown, New York, where armed militiamen John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart, David Williams stopped him.
André thought. "Gentlemen," he said, "I hope you belong to our party." "What party?" asked one of the men. "The lower party," replied André. "We do," was the answer. André told them that he was a British officer who must not be detained, when, to his surprise, they said that they were Americans, that he was their prisoner, he told them that he was an American officer and showed them his passport, but the suspicions of his captors were now aroused. They found Arnold's papers in his stocking. Only Paulding could read and Arnold was not suspected. André offered them his horse and watch, if they would let him go. André testified at his trial. Paulding took him to Continental Army headquarters in Sands Hill; the prisoner was at first detained at Wright's Mill in North Castle, New York, before being taken to the headquarters of the American Army at Tappan, where he was held at the tavern The Old'76 House. There he admitted who he was. At first, all went well for André since post commandant Lieutenant Colo
Carroll County, Georgia
Carroll County is a county located in the northwestern part of the State of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, its population was 110,527, its county seat is the town of Carrollton. Carroll County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is located just east of the boundary with Alabama. The lands of Lee, Troup and Carroll counties were ceded by the Creek people in the Treaty of Indian Springs; this was a huge amount of land in Georgia and Alabama, the last remaining portion of the Creeks' territory, it was ceded by William McIntosh, the chief of the Lower Creek and a member of the National Council. This cession violated the Code of 1818 that protected communal tribal land; the Creek National Council ordered the execution of McIntosh and other signatories to the treaty for what it considered treason. He was killed at what has been preserved as the McIntosh Reserve. Menawa and a force of 100-150 Law Defenders from Upper Town lands ceded in this treaty carried out the executions of two other men, including Samuel Hawkins, one of McIntosh's sons-in-law.
Benjamin Hawkins, Jr. another son-in-law, was named for execution but he escaped, soon moved to East Texas with his wife and family. Both of the Hawkins brothers were sons of Benjamin Hawkins, the longstanding US Indian Supervisor of the Creek; the boundaries of Carroll County were created by the Georgia General Assembly on June 9, 1826, but the county was not named until December 14, 1826. It was named for Charles Carroll of Carrollton, at that time the last surviving signer of the U. S. Declaration of Independence, as was Carrollton, the county seat; when the county was first organized, the legislature designated the county seat as Old Carrollton, Georgia but in 1830 it was moved to Carrollton. This county extended from the Chattahoochee River to the Alabama state line on the east and on the west, with its northern boundary at the Cherokee Nation, just north of present-day Interstate 20; as population increased, this land was divided into Carroll and Heard counties, parts of Haralson and Troup counties.
The portion that became Douglas County was once Campbell County. Because the county had few slaves compared to counties developed for cotton plantations, it was called the Free State of Carroll during the 1850s. Before the cession of territory by the Cherokee in the late 1830s, some white settlers lived in the northern part of the county in the area of Villa Rica. Carroll County was the site of Georgia's first Gold Rush. For a time Carroll County was the home of Horace King. King helped build Moore's Bridge over the Chattahoochee River at Whitesburg. Moores Bridge was burned by Union soldiers during the Civil War. During the American Civil War, the county provided the Bowdon Volunteers and the Carroll Boys, which were a part of Cobb's Legion. On Aug. 21 1995, Atlantic Southeast Airlines Flight 529 crashed in a field near Georgia. Nine of the 29 passengers and crew were killed in the crash. In February 2008 several tornadoes hit Carroll County, destroying several homes and damaging many more. On May 11, 2008 some of the same areas were hit by more tornadoes.
The Mother's Day tornadoes damaged many homes and businesses. On September 21, 2009, portions of Carroll County were flooded after eight days of heavy rainfall, resulting in multiple death; the flooding closed more than 60 highways and roads, it destroyed a number of bridges. Early estimates of the damage totaled $22 million. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 504 square miles, of which 499 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The western two-thirds of Carroll County, in a line from Roopville northeast to Villa Rica, is located in the Upper Tallapoosa River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin, while the eastern third, east of that same line, is located in the Middle Chattahoochee River-Lake Harding sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; as of the census of 2000, there were 87,268 people, 31,568 households, 23,013 families residing in the county. The population density was 175 people per square mile. There were 34,067 housing units at an average density of 68 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 80.5% White, 16.3% Black Race, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.1% from other races, 1.1% from two or more races. 2.6% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 31,568 households out of which 35.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 21.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.09. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 12.9% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 10.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $38,799, the median income for a family was $44,642.
Males had a median income of $33,102 versus $22,538 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,656. About 10.0% of families and 13.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.4% of those under age 18 a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth