Salt Creek Oil Field
The Salt Creek Oil Field is located in Natrona County, Wyoming. By 1970, more oil had been produced by this field than any other in the Rocky Mountains region and accounted for 20 percent of the total production in Wyoming. Petroleum seeps in the area were known before 1880, but oil strikes near Lander led to claims by Schoonmaker and Iba. In 1889 the first well to strike oil was drilled in the Shannon pool by P. M. Shannon, president of the Pennsylvania Oil & Gas Company, who in 1895 built an oil refinery in Casper to process the oil. Dr. Porro, an Italian geologist working for the Dutch company Petroleum Maatschappij Salt Creek in 1906, located the Dutch No. 1 near a large oil seep south of the Shannon wells, drilled in 1908. The "gusher" well reached an oil sand after drilling through 1,000 feet of shale. In 1915, a portion of the Teapot Dome was made Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3; the field is on an anticline with 1,500 feet of closure, which formed in the Late Cretaceous or Early Tertiary.
The anticline has two distinct domes, the "Salt Creek Dome" to the north and the "Teapot Dome" to the south. Production is from stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Tensleep formations plus two Frontier Formations, an offshore bar sandstone, all of which are interbedded with marine shales; this second Frontier formation extends into the Teapot Dome to the south. The Frontier lies between the Mowry Niobrara Formation. Barlow, J. A. Jr. and Haun, J. D. 1970, Regional Stratigraphy of Frontier Formation and Relation to Salt Creek Field, Wyoming, in Geology of Giant Petroleum Fields, Halbouty, M. T. editor, AAPG Memoir 14, Tulsa: American Association of Petroleum Geologists. Wegemann, C. H. 1911, The Lander and Salt Creek Oil Fields, Wyoming, US Dept. of the Interior USGS Bulletin 452, Washington: Government Printing Office. Wegemann, C. H. 1918, The Salt Creek Oil Field, Wyoming, US Dept. of the Interior USGS Bulletin 670, Washington: Government Printing Office. CO2 Enhanced oil recovery CO2 Puts New Fizz in Old Field
National Humanities Medal
The National Humanities Medal is an American award that annually recognizes several individuals, groups, or institutions for work that has "deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened our citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities."The annual Charles Frankel Prize in the Humanities was established in 1988 and succeeded by the National Humanities Medal in 1997. The initial design for the National Humanities Medal was created by a 1995 Frankel Prize winner, David Macaulay, was used for all recipients through 2012. During 2013, The National Endowment for the Humanities ran a public competition for a new medal design, judged by metalsmith Chunghi Choo, coin engraver Don Everhart of the U. S. sculptor George Anthonisen. In June 2013, the agency announced that a design by Paul C. Balan of Illinois had been selected as the winner; the final medal will be unveiled in Washington D. C. in November 2013.
The new design was used for the first time for the 2013 National Humanities Medals, which were presented in mid-2014. Medals are conferred once annually by the U. S. President, to as many as twelve living candidates and existing organizations nominated early in the calendar year; the President selects the winners in consultation with the National Endowment for the Humanities. NEH asks that nominators consult the list of previous winners and consider the National Medal of Arts to recognize contributions in "the creative or performing arts". Medalists are listed by year alphabetically. 2015 Rudolfo Anaya, Author José Andrés, Chef & Entrepreneur Ron Chernow, Author Louise Glück, Poet Terry Gross, Radio Host & Producer Wynton Marsalis, Composer & Musician James McBride, Author Louis Menand, Author Elaine Pagels, Historian & Author Prison University Project, Higher Education Program Abraham Verghese, Professor, & Author Isabel Wilkerson, Journalist & Author2014 The Clemente Course in the Humanities Annie Dillard, author Everett L. Fly and preservationist Rebecca Goldstein and novelist Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham, historian Jhumpa Lahiri, short story writer and novelist Fedwa Malti-Douglas, scholar Larry McMurtry, novelist Vicki Lynn Ruiz, historian Alice Waters and food activist2013 M. H. Abrams, literary critic American Antiquarian Society, historical organization David Brion Davis, historian William Theodore de Bary, East Asian Studies scholar Darlene Clark Hine, historian Johnpaul Jones, architect Stanley Nelson Jr. producer and director Diane Rehm, radio host Anne Firor Scott, historian Krista Tippett, radio host and author2012 Edward L. Ayers, historian William G. Bowen, academic leader Jill Ker Conway and leader in higher education Natalie Zemon Davis, historian Frank Deford, sports writer Joan Didion and essayist Robert D. Putnam, political scientist Marilynne Robinson, novelist Kay Ryan, poet Robert B.
Silvers, editor Anna Deavere Smith and playwright Camilo José Vergara and documentarian2011 Kwame Anthony Appiah, philosopher John Ashbery, poet Robert Darnton and librarian National History Day, program Andrew Delbanco, literary scholar Charles Rosen and scholar Teofilo Ruiz, medieval historian Ramón Saldívar, literary scholar Amartya Sen and Nobel laureate2010 Daniel Aaron, literature professor and publisher Bernard Bailyn, historian Jacques Barzun, historian Wendell Berry and environmentalist Roberto González Echevarría, literature critic Stanley Nider Katz, historian Joyce Carol Oates, novelist Arnold Rampersad and biographer Philip Roth, novelist Gordon S. Wood, historian2009 Robert Caro Annette Gordon-Reed David Levering Lewis William H. McNeill Philippe de Montebello Albert H. Small Ted Sorensen Elie Wiesel2008 Gabor Boritt Richard Brookhiser Harold Holzer Myron Magnet Albert Marrin Milton J. Rosenberg Thomas A. Saunders III and Jordan Horner Saunders Robert H. Smith John Templeton Foundation Norman Rockwell Museum2007 Stephen Balch Russell Freedman Victor Davis Hanson Roger Hertog Cynthia Ozick Richard Pipes Pauline Schultz Henry Snyder Ruth Wisse Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art2006Fouad Ajami James M. Buchanan Nickolas Davatzes Robert Fagles Mary Lefkowitz Bernard Lewis Mark Noll Meryle Secrest Kevin Starr Hoover Institution on War and Peace, Stanford University2005Walter Berns Matthew Bogdanos Eva Brann John Lewis Gaddis Richard Gilder Mary Ann Glendon Leigh Keno Leslie Keno Alan Charles Kors Lewis Lehrman Judith Martin The Washington Papers, University of Virginia2004Marva Collins Gertrude Himmelfarb Hilton Kramer Madeleine L'Engle Harvey Mansfield John Searle Shelby Steele United States Capitol Historical Society2003Robert Ballard Joan Ganz Cooney Midge Decter Joseph Epstein Elizabeth Fox-Genovese Jean Fritz Hal Holbrook Edith Kurzweil Frank M. Snowden, Jr. John Updike2002Frankie Hewitt Iowa Writers' Workshop Donald Kagan Brian Lamb Art Linkletter Patricia MacLachlan Mount Vernon Ladies' Association Thomas Sowell2001José Cisneros Robert Coles Sharon Darling William Manchester Richard Peck Eileen Jackson Southern Tom Wolfe National Trust for Historic Preservation2000Robert N. Bellah Will D. Campbell Judy Crichton David C.
Driskell Ernest Gaines Herman T. Guerrero Quincy Jones Barbara Kingsolver Edmund S. Morgan Toni Morrison Earl Shorris Virginia Driving Hawk Sneve1999Patricia Battin Taylor Branch Jacquelyn Dowd Hall Garrison Keillor Jim Lehrer John Rawls Steven Spielberg August Wilson1998Stephen E. Ambrose E. L. Doctorow Diana L. Eck Nancye Brown Gaj Henry Louis
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States. The state is the 10th largest by area, the least populous, the second most sparsely populated state in the country. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho and Montana; the state population was estimated at 577,737 in 2018, less than 31 of the most populous U. S. cities including Denver in neighboring Colorado. Cheyenne is the state capital and the most populous city, with an estimated population of 63,624 in 2017; the western two-thirds of the state is covered by the mountain ranges and rangelands of the Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie called the High Plains. Half of the land in Wyoming is owned by the U. S. government, leading Wyoming to rank sixth by area and fifth by proportion of a state's land owned by the federal government. Federal lands include two national parks—Grand Teton and Yellowstone—two national recreation areas, two national monuments, several national forests, historic sites, fish hatcheries, wildlife refuges.
Original inhabitants of the region include the Crow, Arapaho and Shoshone. Southwestern Wyoming was in the Spanish Empire and Mexican territory until it was ceded to the United States in 1848 at the end of the Mexican–American War; the region acquired the name Wyoming when a bill was introduced to the U. S. Congress in 1865 to provide a "temporary government for the territory of Wyoming"; the name was used earlier for the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, is derived from the Munsee word xwé:wamənk, meaning "at the big river flat". The main drivers of Wyoming's economy are mineral extraction—mostly coal, natural gas, trona—and tourism. Agricultural commodities include livestock, sugar beets and wool; the climate is semi-arid and continental and windier than the rest of the U. S. with greater temperature extremes. Wyoming has been a politically conservative state since the 1950s, with the Republican Party candidate winning every presidential election except 1964. Wyoming's climate is semi-arid and continental, is drier and windier in comparison to most of the United States with greater temperature extremes.
Much of this is due to the topography of the state. Summers in Wyoming are warm with July high temperatures averaging between 85 and 95 °F in most of the state. With increasing elevation, this average drops with locations above 9,000 feet averaging around 70 °F. Summer nights throughout the state are characterized by a rapid cooldown with the hottest locations averaging in the 50–60 °F range at night. In most of the state, most of the precipitation tends to fall in early summer. Winters are cold, but are variable with periods of sometimes extreme cold interspersed between mild periods, with Chinook winds providing unusually warm temperatures in some locations. Wyoming is a dry state with much of the land receiving less than 10 inches of rainfall per year. Precipitation depends on elevation with lower areas in the Big Horn Basin averaging 5–8 inches; the lower areas in the North and on the eastern plains average around 10–12 inches, making the climate there semi-arid. Some mountain areas do receive a good amount of precipitation, 20 inches or more, much of it as snow, sometimes 200 inches or more annually.
The state's highest recorded temperature is 114 °F at Basin on July 12, 1900 and the lowest recorded temperature is −66 °F at Riverside on February 9, 1933. The number of thunderstorm days vary across the state with the southeastern plains of the state having the most days of thunderstorm activity. Thunderstorm activity in the state is highest during early summer; the southeastern corner of the state is the most vulnerable part of the state to tornado activity. Moving away from that point and westwards, the incidence of tornadoes drops with the west part of the state showing little vulnerability. Tornadoes, where they occur, tend to be small and brief, unlike some of those that occur farther east; as specified in the designating legislation for the Territory of Wyoming, Wyoming's borders are lines of latitude 41°N and 45°N, longitude 104°3'W and 111°3'W, making the shape of the state a latitude-longitude quadrangle. Wyoming is one of only three states to have borders along only straight latitudinal and longitudinal lines, rather than being defined by natural landmarks.
Due to surveying inaccuracies during the 19th century, Wyoming's legal border deviates from the true latitude and longitude lines by up to half of a mile in some spots in the mountainous region along the 45th parallel. Wyoming is bordered on the north by Montana, on the east by South Dakota and Nebraska, on the south by Colorado, on the southwest by Utah, on the west by Idaho, it is the tenth largest state in the United States in total area, containing 97,814 square miles and is made up of 23 counties. From the north border to the south border it is 276 miles; the Great Plains meet the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming. The state is a great plateau broken by many mountain ranges. Surface elevations range from the summit of Gannett Peak in the Wind River Mountain Range, at 13,804 feet, to the Belle Fourche River val
A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, plays and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well contribute to the cultural content of a society; the term "writer" is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone "writer" refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature.
Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words; as well as producing their own written works, writers write on how they write. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work; the term writer is used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be read or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a comic play, or a piece of journalism.
The writer of a letter may include elements of biography, or journalism. Many writers work across genres; the genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted: novel to film. Writers may change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature and writes as a journalist. Many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of historical romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters and stories set in historical periods. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of factual detail in the work both tend to be debated; some writers write both creative fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, essayist and critic. Poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one.
To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of other techniques such as alliteration and assonance. A common theme is its vicissitudes. Shakespeare's famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions. John Donne is another poet renowned for his love poetry. Novelists write novels -- stories, they situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner's technique is the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, Kafka's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable. Benjamin Constant, Eugène Fromentin, Jacques Rivière, all used different techniques, took different liberties, set themselves different tasks.
François Mauriac, novelist A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. The subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide, subsequently turned into an opera, many well known lyricists wrote for it. There are elements of Absurdism in Candide, just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries, who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres – the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example. One of the most famous satirists is Jonathan Swift who wrote the four-volume work Gulliver's Travels and many other satires, including A Modest Proposal and The Battle of the Books.
It is amazing to me that... our age is wholly illiterate and has hardly produced one writer upon any subject. Jonathan Swift, satirist A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti (the p
An archivist is an information professional who assesses, organizes, maintains control over, provides access to records and archives determined to have long-term value. The records maintained by an archivist can consist of a variety of forms, including letters, logs, other personal documents, government documents, sound and/or picture recordings, digital files, or other physical objects; as Richard Pearce-Moses wrote: "Archivists keep records that have enduring value as reliable memories of the past, they help people find and understand the information they need in those records."Determining what records have enduring value can be challenging. Archivists must select records valuable enough to justify the costs of storage and preservation, plus the labor-intensive expenses of arrangement and reference service; the theory and scholarly work underpinning archives practices is called archival science. The most common related occupations are librarians, museum curators, records managers; the archivist occupation is distinct from that of librarian.
The two occupations have separate courses of training, adhere to separate and distinct principles, are represented by separate professional organizations. In general, the librarian tends to deal with published media, whereas the archivist deals with unpublished media. In addition, because archival records are unique, some archivists may be as much concerned with the preservation and custody of the information carrier as with its informational content. In this regard, some would argue the archivist may have more in common with the museum curator than with the librarian; the occupation of archivist is frequently distinguished from that of records manager, although in this case the distinction is less absolute: the archivist is predominantly concerned with records deemed worthy of permanent preservation, whereas the records manager is more concerned with records of current administrative importance. Because of this, the position duties for each occupation can intertwine if both occupations are present at an institution.
Archivists' duties include acquiring and appraising new collections and describing records, providing reference service, preserving materials. In arranging records, archivists apply two important principles: original order. Provenance refers to the creation of records and keeping different records separate in order to maintain context. Many entities create records, including governments, businesses and individuals. Original order is applied by keeping records in their order as established and maintained by the creator. Both provenance and original order are related to the concept of respect des fonds, which states that records from one corporate body should not be mixed with records from another. There are two aspects to arrangement: physical. Both aspects follow the principle of original order. Archivists process the records physically by placing them in acid-free folders and boxes to ensure their long-term survival, they process the records intellectually, by determining what the records consist of, how they are organized, what, if any, finding aids need to be created.
Finding aids can be descriptive inventories, or indexes. If the original arrangement is unclear or unhelpful in terms of accessing the collection, it is rearranged to something that makes more sense; this is because preserving the original order shows how the creator of the records functioned, why the records were created, how they went about arranging them. Moreover, the provenance and authenticity of the records may be lost. However, original order is not always the best way to maintain some collections and archivists must use their own experience and current best practices to determine the correct way to preserve collections of mixed media or those lacking a clear original arrangement. Archivists' work encompasses a range of ethical decisions that may be thought of as falling into three broad and intertwined areas: legal requirements. In negotiating the ethical conflicts that arise in their work, archivists are guided by codes of ethics; the Society of American Archivists first adopted a code of ethics in 1980.
Alongside their work in arranging and caring for collections, archivists assist users in interpreting materials and answering inquiries. This reference work can be a small part of an archivist's job in a smaller organization, or consist of most of their occupation in a larger archive where specific roles may be delineated. Archivists work for a variety of organizations, including government agencies, local authorities, hospitals, historical societies, charities, corporations and universities, national parks and historic sites, any institution whose records may be valuable to researchers, genealogists, or others, they can work on the collections of a large family or of an individual. Archivists are educators as well. Archivi