Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and collectively, prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it; the term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. However, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress, it views humans as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. In modern times, humanist movements are non-religious movements aligned with secularism, today humanism refers to a nontheistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world; the word "humanism" is derived from the Latin concept humanitas.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning. In the second century AD, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius, complained: Those who have spoken Latin and have used the language do not give to the word humanitas the meaning which it is thought to have, what the Greeks call φιλανθρωπία, signifying a kind of friendly spirit and good-feeling towards all men without distinction; those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity". Gellius says that in his day humanitas is used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human beings.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us, he himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius. "By assigning pride of place to Paideia in his comment on the etymology of humanitas, Gellius implies that the trained mind is best equipped to handle the problems troubling society."Gellius's writings fell into obscurity during the Middle Ages, but during the Italian Renaissance, Gellius became a favorite author.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". Modern scholars, point out that Cicero, most responsible for defining and popularizing the term humanitas, in fact used the word in both senses, as did his near contemporaries. For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, allied to reason, could enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law, thus humanitas included two meanings from the outset and these continue in the modern derivative, which today can refer to both humanitarian benevolence and to a method of study and debate involving an accepted group of authors and a careful and accurate use of language. During the French Revolution, soon after, in Germany, humanism began to refer to an ethical philosophy centered on humankind, without attention to the transcendent or supernatural; the designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantism, although centered on human needs and abilities rather than the supernatural. In the Anglophone world, such modern, organized forms of humanism, which are rooted in the 18th-century Enlightenment, have to a considerable extent more or less detached themselves from the historic connection of humanism with classical learning and the liberal arts; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice, they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making. In 1808 Bavarian educational commissioner Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term Humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools, by 1836 the word "humanism" had been absorbed into the English language in this sense; the coinage gained universal acceptance in 1856, when
Indigenous peoples in Brazil
Indigenous peoples in Brazil or Indigenous Brazilians, comprise a large number of distinct ethnic groups who have inhabited what is now the country of Brazil since prior to the European contact around 1500. Unlike Christopher Columbus, who thought he had reached the East Indies, the Portuguese, most notably Vasco da Gama, had reached India via the Indian Ocean route when they reached Brazil; the word índios was by established to designate the people of the New World and continues to be used today in the Portuguese language to designate these people, while a person from India is called indiano in order to distinguish the two. At the time of European contact, some of the indigenous people were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. Many of the estimated 2,000 nations and tribes which existed in the 16th century suffered extinction as a consequence of the European settlement and many were assimilated into the Brazilian population; the indigenous population was killed by European diseases, declining from a pre-Columbian high of millions to some 300,000, grouped into 200 tribes.
However, the number could be much higher if the urban indigenous populations are counted in all the Brazilian cities today. A somewhat dated linguistic survey found 188 living indigenous languages with 155,000 total speakers. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition, Brazil has now surpassed New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world. Brazilian indigenous people have made substantial and pervasive contributions to the world's medicine with knowledge used today by pharmaceutical corporations and cultural development—such as the domestication of tobacco and cassava. In the last IBGE census, 817,000 Brazilians classified themselves as indigenous. Questions about the original settlement of the Americas has produced a number of hypothetical models; the origins of these indigenous people are still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. Anthropological and genetic evidence indicates that most Amerindian people descended from migrant people from North Asia who entered the Americas across the Bering Strait or along the western coast of North America in at least three separate waves.
In Brazil most native tribes who were living in the land by 1500 are thought to be descended from the first Siberian wave of migrants, who are believed to have crossed the Bering Land Bridge at the end of the last Ice Age, between 13,000 and 17,000 years before the present. A migrant wave would have taken some time after initial entry to reach present-day Brazil entering the Amazon River basin from the Northwest.. An analysis of Amerindian Y-chromosome DNA indicates specific clustering of much of the South American population; the micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain Amerindian populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region. According to an autosomal genetic study from 2012, Native Americans descend from at least three main migrant waves from East Asia. Most of it is traced back to a single ancestral population, called'First Americans'. However, those who speak Inuit languages from the Arctic inherited half of their ancestry from a second East Asian migrant wave.
And those who speak Na-dene, on the other hand, inherited a tenth of their ancestry from a third migrant wave. The initial settling of the Americas was followed by a rapid expansion southwards, by the coast, with little gene flow especially in South America. One exception to this are the Chibcha speakers, whose ancestry comes from both North and South America. Another study, focused on the mtDNA, revealed that the indigenous people of the Americas have their maternal ancestry traced back to a few founding lineages from East Asia, which would have arrived via the Bering strait. According to this study, it is probable that the ancestors of the Native Americans would have remained for a time in the region of the Bering Strait, after which there would have been a rapid movement of settling of the Americas, taking the founding lineages to South America. Linguistic studies have backed up genetic studies, with ancient patterns having been found between the languages spoken in Siberia and those spoken in the Americas.
Two 2015 autosomal DNA genetic studies confirmed the Siberian origins of the Natives of the Americas. However an ancient signal of shared ancestry with the Natives of Australia and Melanesia was detected among the Natives of the Amazon region; the migration coming out of Siberia would have happened 23,000 years ago. According to a 2016 study, focused on mtDNA lineages, "a small population entered the Americas via a coastal route around 16.0 ka, following previous isolation in eastern Beringia for ~2.4 to 9 thousand years after separation from eastern Siberian populations. Following a rapid movement throughout the Americas, limited gene flow in South America resulted in a marked phylogeographic structure of populations, which persisted through time. All of the ancient mitochondrial lineages detected in this study were absent from modern data sets, suggesting a high extinction rate. To investigate this further, we applied a novel principal components multiple logistic regression test to
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, known by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. His term was marked by economic prosperity and political stability, being most known for the construction of a new capital, Brasília. Kubitschek was born into a poor family in Minas Gerais, his father, João César de Oliveira, who died when Juscelino was two years old, was a traveling salesman. He was raised by his mother, a schoolteacher named Júlia Kubitschek, of Roma descent, he was educated at a seminary school in Diamantina. Kubitschek attended the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, he became a licensed medical doctor after seven years of schooling. He went to live in Europe for a few years after graduating returning to Brazil after the revolution of 1930 that marked the ascension of President Getúlio Vargas. Kubischek served as a doctor in the military police and saw patients at a military hospital in Minas Gerais.
Kubischek befriended the Governor of Minas Gerais, Benedito Valadares who named Kubischek his Chief of Staff in 1932. Two years in 1934 Kubischek ran for office for the first time, becoming a member of the Federal Chamber of Deputies of Brazil with the support of Partido Progressivo. In 1940, he was appointed Mayor of Belo Horizonte, it was his term as Mayor of Belo Horizonte that he would establish a strong, professional relationship with the renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer, who would become instrumental in designing Brasilia. Kubitschek at this time commissioned Oscar Niemeyer to design several municipal buildings in Belo Horizonte, he would run again for the Federal Chamber of Deputies in 1945, in 1950 run for Governor of the state of Minas Gerais. As Governor he was noted with focusing on addressing transportation and energy establishing a government energy corporation that built five new power plants, he promoted improving roads, bridges and hospitals. After President Getúlio Vargas committed suicide in 1954, his Vice President João Café Filho fulfilled the rest of his term until the elections of 1955 which were held in October.
Juscelino Kubitschek decided to run for President in a race with two other candidates. He ran with the slogan of “fifty years progress in five” and developed a platform that highlighted energy, industry and transportation, he stressed a wish to diversify Brazil’s economy and open it up to foreign investment. He was a vocal supporter of moving the government capital out of Rio De Janeiro and to a more central location in the country to promote regional development. Before Kubitschek was inaugurated however, rumors of a military coup brewing were and the opposition party União Democrática Nacional became vocal over his close ties to Vargas and his alleged sympathy towards communists. Minister of War Henrique Lott and a coalition of high ranking military officers staged a countercoup to insure that Juscelino Kubitschek was inaugurated... Juscelino Kubitschek would be inaugurated as the 21st President of Brazil on January 31, 1956; the plan had 31 goals distributed in six large groups: energy, food, base industries and the main goal, the construction of Brasilia.
This plan sought to diversify and expand of the Brazilian economy, based on industrial expansion and integration of the national territory. His government was marked by a time of political maintenance of the democratic regime. Kubitschek used his outstanding political ability to reconcile Brazilian society, he managed to rebuild the government structure, as he transferred the capital from Rio de Janeiro to its new location in Brasilia. He avoided any direct clash with his political adversaries, like the UDN, the main opposition party of the Kubitschek administration, he gave political amnesty to the men who took part in the "revolta de Jacareacanga". As a practicing Doctor, Juscelino was passionate about reforming healthcare. Kubitschek campaigned on establishing a central health bureaucracy that did not exist to address rural health issues more adequately; the most notable is DNERU, an agency created to address tuberculosis and issue vaccines in areas of the Brazilian backcountry where access to healthcare was scarce.
He oversaw the reorganization of SUS. Although his main project was to develop the national industry, it was with the "Goals plan", launched in 1956, that there was a greater opening of the national economy for foreign capital, he exempted from taxes all the machines and industrial equipments imports, as well as to the foreign capital. However, the exemption was made only if the foreign capital was associated with the national capital. To amplify the internal market, he developed a generous credit policy, he promoted the development of the automobile industry, naval industry, heavy industry, the construction of hydro-electric power stations. With the exception of the hydro-electric industry, Juscelino created an economy without state-owned companies, he had a progressive agenda on the Education front, however, never carried out. Kubitschek cared a lot for the construction of the great transregional roads, he was criticized for putting aside the rail transportation. Today, this
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
University of São Paulo
The University of São Paulo is a public university in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. It is the largest Brazilian public university and the country's most prestigious educational institution, the best university in Ibero-America, holds a high reputation among world universities, being ranked 100 worldwide in reputation by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings. USP is involved in teaching and university extension in all areas of knowledge, offering a broad range of courses; the university was founded in 1934, regrouping existing schools in the state of São Paulo, such as the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, the Escola Politécnica and the Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. The university's foundation is marked by the creation in 1934 of the Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras, has subsequently created new departments, becoming one of the largest institutions of higher education in Latin America, with 90,000 enrolled students, it has eleven campuses, four of them in the city of São Paulo.
The remaining campuses are in the cities of Bauru, Piracicaba, Ribeirão Preto and two in São Carlos. Several students from the University of São Paulo achieved important positions in the Brazilian society, it was the alma mater of twelve Brazilian presidents. USP was ranked 19th worldwide in a rank based on the number of alumni who became CEOs in the world's 500 largest companies, and classed in the top 100 worldwide in the Global Employability University Ranking. In terms of research, USP is Brazil's largest research institution, producing more than 25% of the scientific papers published by Brazilian researchers in high quality conferences and journals. In 2015, out of 36 subjects, the QS World University Rankings ranked USP in the top 50 in eight subjects and in the top 51-100th position in 21 more subjects. Over the years, QS consistently ranked USP among the top 5 universities in the Latin world. After its defeat in the Constitutionalist Revolution, São Paulo needed institutional improvements.
Therefore, in 1933 a group of businessmen founded the Free School of Politics. In 1934, the intervenor of São Paulo, Armando de Sales Oliveira founded the University of São Paulo; that was one of the efforts carried out to provide Brazil with modern administrative and military institutions in a period known as "search for alternatives". One of the main initiatives included that same year, of the University of São Paulo, its nucleus was the School of Philosophy and Languages, with professors coming from France, Spain and other European countries. The ELSP assumed the goal of administrative elites to form a new model in which they noted an increasing role of the state, while USP focused on training teachers for secondary schools, experts in sciences, lawyers and professors. ELSP followed a sociological American model, while USP used the French academic world as its main source of inspiration. Foreign professors such as Claude Lévi-Strauss, Fernand Braudel, Roger Bastide, Robert H. Aubreton, Heinrich Rheinboldt, Paul Arbousse Bastide, Jean Magüé, Martial Gueroult, Emilio Willems, Donald Pierson, Gleb Vassielievich Wataghin, Pierre Monbeig, Giacomo Albanese, Luigi Fantappiè, Vilém Flusser, Giuseppe Ungaretti and Herbert Baldus, broadcast in various institutions new standards for teaching and research, creating new generations of scientists in Brazil.
Since its foundation USP received professors and researchers from all over the world, such as David Bohm, Giuseppe Occhialini, François Châtelet, Anatol Rosenfeld, Helmi Nasr, Gérard Lebrun, Fritz Köberle, Alexander Grothendieck, Heinz Dieter Heidemann. University of São Paulo is the result of a combination of the newly created School of Philosophy and Letters with the existing Polytechnic School of Engineering, the "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture, the Medical School, the traditional Law School, the old School of Pharmacy and Dentistry, the Institute of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences and the School of Veterinary Medicine; the FFCL emerged as the integrating element of the university, bringing together courses in various areas of knowledge. In 1934 the School of Physical Education of the State of São Paulo was created, the first civil school of physical education in Brazil, which would be part of the university. In 1944 the Medical School opened its public hospital. In the same year, the School of Engineering of Sao Carlos emerged.
In subsequent years several other research units were created, such as a second Medical School, located in the city of Ribeirão Preto (