In England and Wales a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. The earliest known use of the dates from 1631, in an account by the mayor of Abingdon reporting that wee haue erected wthn our borough a workehouse to sett poore people to worke. The New Poor Law of 1834 attempted to reverse the trend by discouraging the provision of relief to anyone who refused to enter a workhouse. Some Poor Law authorities hoped to run workhouses at a profit by utilising the free labour of their inmates, who generally lacked the skills or motivation to compete in the open market. Most were employed on such as breaking stones, crushing bones to produce fertiliser, or picking oakum using a large metal nail known as a spike. Life in a workhouse was intended to be harsh, to deter the able-bodied poor, although workhouses were formally abolished by the same legislation in 1930, many continued under their new appellation of Public Assistance Institutions under the control of local authorities.
It was not until the National Assistance Act of 1948 that the last vestiges of the Poor Law disappeared, the Poor Law Act of 1388 was an attempt to address the labour shortage caused by the Black Death, a devastating pandemic that killed about one-third of Englands population. The resulting laws against vagrancy were the origins of state-funded relief for the poor, supporting the destitute was a problem exacerbated by King Henry VIIIs Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536. They had been a significant source of relief, and provided a good deal of direct and indirect employment. The Poor Relief Act of 1576 went on to establish the principle that if the poor needed support. The Act for the Relief of the Poor of 1601 made parishes responsible for the care of those within their boundaries who. The Act essentially classified the poor into one of three groups and it proposed that the able-bodied be offered work in a house of correction, where the persistent idler was to be punished. The workhouse system evolved in the 17th century, allowing parishes to reduce the cost to ratepayers of providing poor relief and it put the number of parish workhouses in England and Wales at more than 1800, with a total capacity of more than 90,000 places.
The growth in the number of workhouses was bolstered by the Relief of the Poor Act 1782, the able-bodied poor were instead either given outdoor relief or found employment locally. Relatively few Gilbert Unions were set up, but supplementing inadequate wages under the Speenhamland system did become established towards the end of the 18th century. So keen were some Poor Law authorities to cut costs wherever possible that cases were reported of husbands being forced to sell their wives, by the 1830s most parishes had at least one workhouse, but many were badly managed. In his 1797 work, The State of the Poor, Sir Frederick Eden, The workhouse is an inconvenient building, with windows, low rooms. It is surrounded by a wall, that gives it the appearance of a prison
The Prince and the Pauper
The Prince and the Pauper is a novel by American author Mark Twain. It was first published in 1881 in Canada, before its 1882 publication in the United States, the novel represents Twains first attempt at historical fiction. Tom Canty, youngest son of a family living in Offal Court, has always aspired to a better life. Loitering around the gates one day, he sees a prince. Coming too close in his excitement, Tom is nearly caught and beaten by the Royal Guards, Edward stops them. There the two boys get to one another, fascinated by each others life and their uncanny resemblance. They decide to switch clothes temporarily, there he is subjected to the brutality of Toms abusive father, from whom he manages to escape, and meets one Miles Hendon, a soldier and nobleman returning from war. Although Miles does not believe Edwards claims to royalty, he humors him, news reaches them that King Henry VIII has died and Edward is now the king. Tom, posing as the prince, tries to cope with court customs and his fellow nobles and palace staff think the prince has an illness which has caused memory loss and fear he will go mad.
They repeatedly ask him about the missing Great Seal, but he knows nothing about it, however, as Edward experiences the brutish life of a pauper firsthand, he becomes aware of the stark class inequality in England. In particular, he sees the harsh, punitive nature of the English judicial system where people are burned at the stake, pilloried and he realizes that the accused are convicted on flimsy evidence, and vows to reign with mercy when he regains his rightful place. When Edward unwisely declares to a gang of thieves that he is the king and will put an end to unjust laws, they assume he is insane, after a series of adventures, Edward interrupts the coronation as Tom is about to celebrate it as King Edward VI. Tom declares that if anyone had bothered to describe the seal he could have produced it at once since he had found it inside a suit of armor and had been using it to crack nuts. Edward and Tom switch back to their places and Miles is rewarded with the rank of earl. In gratitude for supporting the new claim to the throne.
The introductory quote is part of the quality of speech from Shakespeares The Merchant of Venice. While written for children, The Prince and the Pauper is a criticism of judging others by appearances, Twain wrote The Prince and the Pauper having already started The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Having returned from a second European tour which formed the basis of A Tramp Abroad, Twain read extensively English, initially intended as a play, it was originally set in Victorian England before he decided to set it further back in time
Board of guardians
Boards of Guardians were ad hoc authorities that administered Poor Law in the United Kingdom from 1835 to 1930. Boards administered workhouses within a defined poor law union consisting of a group of parishes, either by order of the Poor Law Commission, once a union was established it could not be dissolved or merged with a neighbouring union without the consent of its board. Each board was composed of guardians elected by the owners and bona fide occupiers of land liable to pay the poor rate, depending on the value of the property held, an elector could cast from one to three votes. Electors could nominate proxies to cast their vote in their absence, where property was held by a corporation or company, its governing body could nominate an officer to cast its vote or votes. Each civil parish in the union was represented by at least one guardian, the exact constitution of each board was determined by the Commissioners. Guardians were subject to annual elections, in addition to the elected guardians, any justice of the peace residing in a parish of the union was entitled to be an ex officio guardian.
By the Public Health Act 1875, boards of guardians became Rural Sanitary Authorities for all areas outside a municipal borough or town with a local board. The Local Government Act 1894 altered the system, members of newly established district councils became guardians for their areas. At the same time, property qualifications were abolished, plural voting was ended, the term of office of a guardian was increased to three years, with all guardians elected, and no ex officio or nominated board members. Boards of guardians were abolished in 1930 by the Local Government Act 1929, a similar system of poor Law to that in England and Wales was introduced to Ireland in 1838, with boards of guardians elected by rate-payers. The Irish system differed from that in England and Wales, as the parish was not used as the basis for the election of guardians. In their place electoral divisions were formed by the agglomeration of townlands, the ratio of elected to ex officio guardians was to be at least three to one, with an election to be held among the qualified magistrates for ex officio positions if their number exceeded the limit.
Following the partition of the island in 1922 the guardians were abolished in the Irish Free State in 1925, Guardians continued to exist until 1948 in Northern Ireland. Under the reformed system introduced in Scotland in 1845, relief of the poor was the responsibility of parochial boards appointed in each civil parish, adjacent parishes could form combinations, however, to administer workhouses
Law of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has three legal systems, each of which applies to a particular geographical area. First, English law, applies in England and Wales, Northern Ireland law, which applies in Northern Ireland, is based on common-law principles. Third, Scots law, which applies in Scotland, is a system based on civil-law principles. The United Kingdom does not have a legal system because it was created by the political union of previously independent countries. Article 19 of the Treaty of Union, put into effect by the Acts of Union in 1707, created the Kingdom of Great Britain, but guaranteed the continued existence of Scotlands separate legal system. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the highest court in the land for all criminal and civil cases in England and Wales and Northern Ireland, the Supreme Court came into being in October 2009, replacing the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords. In England and Wales, the system is headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice.
The Courts of Northern Ireland follow the same pattern, in Scotland the chief courts are the Court of Session, for civil cases, and the High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases. Sheriff courts have no equivalent outside Scotland, as they deal with criminal and civil caseloads. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the British overseas territories, there are immigration courts with UK-wide jurisdiction — the Asylum and Immigration Tribunal and Special Immigration Appeals Commission. The Employment tribunals and the Employment Appeal Tribunal have jurisdiction throughout Great Britain, there are three distinct legal jurisdictions in the United Kingdom and Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland. Each has its own system, distinct history and origins. English law is a term of art and it refers to the legal system administered by the courts in England and Wales, which rule on both civil and criminal matters. English law is renowned as being the mother of the law and is based on those principles.
English law can be described as having its own legal doctrine and these judgements are binding in future similar cases, and for this reason are often reported. g. The Law Merchant began in the Pie-Powder Courts, see Court of Piepowder, the year 1189 was defined in 1276 as being the boundary of time immemorial. The courts of England and Wales are headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice, on appeal, a court may overrule the decisions of its inferior courts, such as county courts and magistrates courts. The High Court may quash on judicial review both administrative decisions of the Government and delegated legislation, Scottish influence may have influenced the abolition of the forms of action in the nineteenth century and extensive procedural reforms in the twentieth
Homelessness is the condition of people without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment. People who are homeless are most often unable to acquire and maintain regular, secure, the legal definition of homeless varies from country to country, or among different jurisdictions in the same country or region. According to the UK homelessness charity Crisis, a home is not just a space, it provides roots, security, a sense of belonging. American government homeless enumeration studies include people who sleep in a public or private place not designed for use as a sleeping accommodation for human beings. There are a number of organizations who provide help for the homeless, in 2005, an estimated 100 million people worldwide were homeless, and as many as 1 billion people live as squatters, refugees or in temporary shelter, all lacking adequate housing. In Western countries, the majority of homeless are men. Most countries provide a variety of services to assist homeless people and these services often provide food and clothing and may be organized and run by community organizations or by government departments or agencies.
These programs may be supported by the government, churches, many cities have street newspapers, which are publications designed to provide employment opportunity to homeless people. While some homeless have jobs, some must seek other methods to make a living, begging or panhandling is one option, but is becoming increasingly illegal in many cities. People who are homeless may have conditions, such as physical or mental health issues or substance addiction. In 2004, the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs defined a homeless household as those households without a shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters. They carry their few possessions with them, sleeping in the streets, in doorways or on piers, or in another space and this category includes persons living in the streets without a shelter that would fall within the scope of living quarters, Secondary homelessness. This category may include persons with no place of usual residence who move frequently between various types of accommodations and this category includes persons living in private dwellings but reporting no usual address on their census form.
The CES acknowledges that the approach does not provide a full definition of the homeless. Homelessness is perceived and addressed according to country. The ETHOS approach confirms that homelessness is a process that affects many vulnerable households at different points in their lives. The typology was launched in 2005 and is used for different purposes, as a framework for debate, for collection purposes, for policy purposes, monitoring purposes. This typology is an exercise which makes abstraction of existing legal definitions in the EU member states
Poverty is general scarcity or the state of one who lacks a certain amount of material possessions or money. It is a concept, which includes social, economic. Absolute poverty or destitution refers to the lack of necessary to meet basic needs such as food, clothing. Absolute poverty is meant to be about the independent of location. After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made producing goods increasingly less expensive, of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, to provide enough yield to feed the population. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable typically include welfare, economic freedoms, Poverty reduction is a major goal and issue for many international organizations such as the United Nations and the World Bank. The World Bank forecasts that 702.1 million people, down from 1.75 billion in 1990, of these, about 347.1 million people lived in Sub-Saharan Africa and 231.3 million lived in South Asia. According to the World Bank, between 1990 and 2015, the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty fell from 37. 1% to 9. 6%.
Nevertheless, given the current economic model, built on GDP, extreme poverty is a global challenge, it is observed in all parts of the world, including developed economies. UNICEF estimates half the children live in poverty. It has been argued by some academics that the policies promoted by global financial institutions such as the IMF. Another estimate places the true scale of poverty much higher than the World Bank, with an estimated 4.3 billion people living with less than $5 a day and unable to meet basic needs adequately. In 2012 it is estimated that, given a poverty line of $1.25 a day 1.2 billion people lived in poverty, the word poverty comes from old French poverté, from Latin paupertās from pauper. The English word poverty via Anglo-Norman povert, there are several definitions of poverty depending on the context of the situation it is placed in, and the views of the person giving the definition. Income Poverty, a familys income fails to meet a federally established threshold that differs across countries, United Nations, poverty is the inability of having choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity.
It means lack of capacity to participate effectively in society. It means insecurity and exclusion of individuals, households and it means susceptibility to violence, and it often implies living in marginal or fragile environments, without access to clean water or sanitation. World Bank, Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being, and comprises many dimensions and it includes low incomes and the inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity
Sir Baldwyn Leighton, 8th Baronet
Sir Baldwyn Leighton, 8th Baronet was an English Conservative Party politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1877 to 1885. Leighton was the son of Sir Baldwin Leighton, 7th Baronet and his wife Mary Parker, daughter of Thomas Netherton Parker of Sweeney Hall and he was educated at Eton College and Christ Church, graduating in 1859. He served in the rank of cornet in the South Salopian Yeomanry Cavalry and was a J. P. in 1871, he inherited the baronetcy on the death of his father. Leighton classed himself as a liberal Conservative and published pamphlets on Poor Law. He published Letters of the late Edward Denison MP, in August 1877, Leighton was elected at a by-election as a Member of Parliament for South Shropshire. He held the seat until the constituency was abolished in 1885, Leighton died at the age of 60 and was buried in the parish churchyard of his family seat, Loton Park, at Alberbury, Shropshire. Leighton married Hon. Eleanor Leicester Warren, daughter of George Warren and their son Bryan Leighton succeeded to the baronetcy.
Leightons brother Stanley Leighton was a Shropshire MP
Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, interpretation and organization of data. In applying statistics to, e. g. a scientific, industrial, or social problem, populations can be diverse topics such as all people living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Statistics deals with all aspects of data including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys, statistician Sir Arthur Lyon Bowley defines statistics as Numerical statements of facts in any department of inquiry placed in relation to each other. When census data cannot be collected, statisticians collect data by developing specific experiment designs, representative sampling assures that inferences and conclusions can safely extend from the sample to the population as a whole. In contrast, an observational study does not involve experimental manipulation, inferences on mathematical statistics are made under the framework of probability theory, which deals with the analysis of random phenomena. A standard statistical procedure involves the test of the relationship between two data sets, or a data set and a synthetic data drawn from idealized model. A hypothesis is proposed for the relationship between the two data sets, and this is compared as an alternative to an idealized null hypothesis of no relationship between two data sets.
Rejecting or disproving the hypothesis is done using statistical tests that quantify the sense in which the null can be proven false. Working from a hypothesis, two basic forms of error are recognized, Type I errors and Type II errors. Multiple problems have come to be associated with this framework, ranging from obtaining a sufficient sample size to specifying an adequate null hypothesis, measurement processes that generate statistical data are subject to error. Many of these errors are classified as random or systematic, the presence of missing data or censoring may result in biased estimates and specific techniques have been developed to address these problems. Statistics continues to be an area of research, for example on the problem of how to analyze Big data. Statistics is a body of science that pertains to the collection, interpretation or explanation. Some consider statistics to be a mathematical science rather than a branch of mathematics. While many scientific investigations make use of data, statistics is concerned with the use of data in the context of uncertainty, mathematical techniques used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure-theoretic probability theory.
In applying statistics to a problem, it is practice to start with a population or process to be studied. Populations can be diverse topics such as all living in a country or every atom composing a crystal. Ideally, statisticians compile data about the entire population and this may be organized by governmental statistical institutes
English Poor Laws
The English Poor Laws were a system of poor relief which existed in England and Wales that developed out of late-medieval and Tudor-era laws being codified in 1587–98. The Poor Law system was in existence until the emergence of the welfare state after the Second World War. The Poor Law system was not formally abolished until the National Assistance Act 1948, the earliest medieval Poor Law was the Ordinance of Labourers which was issued by King Edward III of England on 18 June 1349, and revised in 1350. The ordinance was issued in response to the 1348–1350 outbreak of the Black Death in England, the decline in population left surviving workers in great demand in the agricultural economy of Britain. Landowners had to face the choice of raising wages to compete for workers or letting their lands go unused, wages for labourers rose, and this forced up prices across the economy as goods became more expensive to produce. An attempt to rein in prices, the ordinance required that everyone who could work did, that wages were kept at pre-plague levels, workers saw these shortage conditions as an opportunity to flee employers and become freemen, so Edward III passed additional laws to punish escaped workers.
In addition, the Statute of Cambridge was passed in 1388, early legislation was concerned with vagrants and making the able-bodied work, especially while labour was in short supply following the Black Death. Tudor attempts to tackle the problem originate during the reign of Henry VII, every beggar suitable to work shall resort to the Hundred where he last dwelled, is best known, or was born and there remain upon the pain aforesaid. Moreover, no distinction was made between vagrants and the jobless, both were simply categorised as sturdy beggars, to be punished and moved on, the licences to beg for the impotent poor were limited to the disabled and elderly. An impotent person begging out of his area was to be imprisoned for two days and nights in the stocks, on bread and water, and sworn to return to the place in which he was authorized to beg. An able-bodied beggar was to be whipped, and sworn to return to the place where he was born, still no provision was made, for the healthy man simply unable to find work.
All able-bodied unemployed were put into the same category and those unable to find work had a stark choice, starve or break the law. In 1535, a bill was drawn up calling for the creation of a system of works to deal with the problem of unemployment, to be funded by a tax on income. A law passed a year allowed vagabonds to be whipped, in London, there was a great massing of the poor, and the Reformation threatened to eliminate some of the infrastructure used to provide for the poor. As a result, King Henry VIII consented to re-endow St. Bartholomews Hospital in 1544, for the able-bodied poor, life became even tougher during the reign of Edward VI. Justices of the Peace were reluctant to apply the full penalty, in 1552, Edward VI passed a poor act which designated a position of Collector of Alms in each parish and created a register of licensed poor. Under the assumption that parish collections would now relieve all poor, the government of Elizabeth I, Edward VIs successor after Mary I, was inclined to severity.
An Act passed in 1572 called for offenders to be burned through the ear for a first offence, the Act made the first clear distinction between the professional beggar and those unemployed through no fault of their own
An almshouse is charitable housing provided to enable people to live in a particular community. They are often targeted at the poor of a locality, at those from certain forms of employment, or their widows. Many almshouses are European Christian institutions though some are secular, alms are, in the Christian tradition, money or services donated to support the poor and indigent. Almshouses were established from the 10th century in Britain, to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. The first recorded almshouse was founded in York by King Athelstan, in the Middle Ages, the majority of European hospitals functioned as almshouses. In 1269 or 1270 an almshouse was established in Stavanger as the first known in Norway, the English tradition of almshouses was introduced to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania by its founder, William Penn. The Maryland legislature created almshouses in Anne Arundel County, financed by property taxes on landowners throughout the state, massachusetts had a long tradition of almshouses.
In the United States, aid tended to be limited to the elderly and disabled, Almshouses have been created throughout the period since the 10th century, up to the present day. Many of the almshouses in England were established with the aim of benefiting the soul of the founder or their family. As a result, most were regarded as chantries and were dissolved during the Reformation, Almshouses tend to be characterised by their charitable status and by the aim of supporting the continued independence of their residents. In the Netherlands, a number of hofjes are still functioning as accommodation for elderly people, the economics of almshouses takes the form of the provision of subsidised accommodation, often integrated with social care resources such as wardens. The basis for modern civil almshouses and workhouses came into being in 1597 when the Act for the Relief of the Poor was enacted. These institutions underwent various population and name changes, blockley Almshouse Carroll County Almshouse and Farm, Maryland Halfway house Hostel List of British almshouses Poorhouse Heath, Sidney.
Old English houses of alms, a record with architectural and historical notes. Almshouses in the West Riding of Yorkshire 1600-1900, Nigel, Helen, Anne, eds. The British Almshouse, new perspectives on philanthropy ca 1400-1914, the Almshouse Association The Almshouse Residents Action Group List of English Almshouses associated with monastic institutions. Medieval Hospitals of England, by Rotha Mary Clay