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Pausanias (geographer)

Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations; this work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as: A careful, pedestrian writer... interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is careless or makes unwarranted inferences, his guides or his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, his value without par. Pausanias was born c. 110 AD into a Greek family and was a native of Lydia. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids. While at the temple of Ammon, he had been shown the hymn once sent to that shrine by Pindar. In Macedonia, he appears to have seen.

Crossing over to Italy, he had seen something of the wonders of Rome. He was one of the first known to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Mycenae. Pausanias' Description of Greece is in each dedicated to some portion of Greece, he begins his tour in Attica, where the city of its demes dominate the discussion. Subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris; the project is more than topographical. Pausanias digresses from the description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them; as a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he was in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece, he is not a naturalist, although from time to time, he does comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape.

He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the wild boars in the oak woods of Phelloe, the crows amid the giant oak trees of Alalcomenae. It is in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most of Delphi, yet in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, the statues of Hesiod, Arion and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia. Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary; as his modern editor, Christian Habicht, has said, In general, he prefers the old to the new, the sacred to the profane.

Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not mentioned. Unlike a Baedeker guide, in Periegesis Pausanias stops for a brief excursus on a point of ancient ritual or to tell an apposite myth, in a genre that would not become popular again until the early nineteenth century. In the topographical part of his work, Pausanias is fond of digressions on the wonders of nature, the signs that herald the approach of an earthquake, the phenomena of the tides, the ice-bound seas of the north, the noonday sun that at the summer solstice, casts no shadow at Syene. While he never doubts the existence of the deities and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them, his descriptions of monuments of art are unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains, he is frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.

The work left faint traces in the known Greek corpus. "It was not read", Habicht relates. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three fifteenth-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418. At his death in 1437, it went to the library of San Marco, Florence it disappeared after 1500; until twentieth-century archaeologists concluded that Pausanias was a reliable guide to the sites they were excavating, Pausanias was dismisse

List of Farm to Market Roads in Texas (2600–2699)

Farm to Market Roads in Texas are owned and maintained by the Texas Department of Transportation. The original FM 2600 was designated on November 24, 1959, from FM 608 at Maryneal southward at a distance of 4.0 miles. The highway was cancelled on July 25, 1963, with the mileage being transferred to FM 1170. Farm to Market Road 2601 is located in Bell County. FM 2601 begins at an intersection with Moody-Leon Road / Buckhorn Lane in Meador Grove; the highway travels in a eastern direction, turning south at Munz Road, before turning back east at FM 2409. FM 2601 continues to run in an eastern direction, ending at an intersection with SH 317; the highway's route is rural, running through farming areas. FM 2601 was designated on November 1959 along the current route. Junction listThe entire route is in Bell County. Farm to Market Road 2605, FM 2605, or Tenneryville Road is a Farm to Market Road in Texas, running from FM 1845 in Longview west to Whatley Road in White Oak. FM 2605 was designated on November 1959 along its current route.

On June 27, 1995, FM 2605 became an urban road. Junction listThe entire route is in Gregg County. Farm to Market Road 2606 is a farm to market road in Texas. FM 2606 is a two-lane route for its entire length, its western terminus is at FM 1954 near the entrance to Lake Arrowhead State Park. The route travels to the east, past the north edge of Lake Arrowhead and across the Wichita Falls Dam on a load-zoned bridge, it winds around the northeastern edge of the lake before veering to the northeast at an intersection with Bunny Run Road. The route turns to the east near its eastern terminus at FM 2847, which provides access to Henrietta; the current FM 2606 was designated on November 16, 1968. The original route was the section from FM 2847 to the east edge of the bridge across the Wichita Falls Dam; the designation was extended across the dam and to FM 1954 on September 26, 1979, bringing the route to its current length. Junction listThe entire route is in Clay County; the first FM 2606 was designated in Rusk County on November 24, 1959 from SH 322 in Elderville to FM 1716.

The second FM 2606 was designated in Williamson County from US 81 northeast 5.6 miles. On July 24, 1961, the east end was relocated. Farm to Market Road 2609 is located in Nacogdoches County. FM 2609 begins at an intersection with US 59 / Loop 224 in Nacogdoches; the highway travels in an eastern direction along Austin Street, running through more rural areas of the city's northwest side. Between Bus. I-69/Bus. US 59 and FM 1275, FM 2609 travels near the northern end of Stephen F. Austin State University. Northeast of the university, the highway travels through areas that are more residential and suburban on the city's northeast side. FM 2609 intersects Loop 224 a second time leaves the city, with the route becoming more rural; the highway enters the town of Appleby and has a brief overlap with FM 941. After leaving Appleby, FM 2609 travels in a more eastern direction through rural farming areas, with state maintenance ending just west of County Road 266 / County Road 273. FM 2609 was designated on November 24, 1959, from FM 1878 northeast to FM 941.

On February 29, 1960, the southern terminus of FM 2609 was moved to US 59, increasing the distance by 0.4 miles. The old route south to FM 1878 was requested by the Nacogdoches County to be renumbered on March 7, 1960, when the county accepted the relocation of FM 2609, on March 21, 1960, the old route was designated as FM 1411. On May 7, 1970, the highway was extended northeast 2.6 miles from FM 941 creating a concurrency with FM 941. On September 26, 1979, FM 2609 extended northeast 2.5 miles to its current end. On July 29, 1987, FM 2609 extended west to US 59. Junction listThe entire route is in Nacogdoches County. Farm to Market Road 2611 is a state highway the U. S. state of Texas. Farm to Market Road 2611 begins; the road follows a western path, crossing the San Bernard River and passing the Churchill Bridge Community. The highway intersects FM 2918, an access highway to the River's End Community and the San Bernard Wildlife Refuge. Making a sharp north west curve, FM 2611 continues its western path 10 miles south of Sweeny, entering Matagorda County and the Cedar Lake Community.

The road comes to its end at the intersection of FM 457. FM 2611 was designated on November 24, 1959 from SH 36 southwest to what is now FM 2918. On May 2, 1962, FM 2611 extended southwest to FM 457, replacing FM 2541. Junction list Farm to Market Road 2612 is located in Cass County in the town of Hughes Springs. FM 2612 begins at an intersection with FM 250; the highway travels in an eastern direction, intersects FM 161 turns northeast at County Road 2986 / 2990, before ending at an intersection with SH 11 / SH 49. FM 2612 acts as a bypass through the southern part of the town; the current FM 2612 was designated on August 31, 1981, running from FM 250 eastward to the intersection of SH 11 / SH 49. Junction listThe entire route is in Cass County. FM 2612 was designated on November 24, 1959, running from SH 87 near the Bolivar Ferry, northwestward to Quarles Avenue in Port Bolivar at a distance of 1.1 miles. The highway was extended 3.4 miles northeastward and south

Kaspar K. Kubli

Kaspar K. "Kap" Kubli, Jr. was an American politician in the state of Oregon. Associated with the Ku Klux Klan, Kubli was elected Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives in 1923. Among Kubli's legislative achievements during five terms of office was authorship and passage of the Oregon Criminal Syndicalism Act in 1919. Kaspar K. Kubli, Jr. known to his friends as "Kap," was born April 1869 in Jacksonville, Oregon. His father, Kaspar Kubli, Sr. was an emigrant from Switzerland who arrived in the Oregon Territory in 1853, where he first tried his hand at gold mining before becoming an overland freight hauler, moving goods in a pack train from the port city of Crescent City, California to Jacksonville in Southern Oregon. In 1872 his father would open a general store, he dabbled in local politics, being twice elected as treasurer of Jackson County, Oregon. The younger Kubli attended public schools in Jacksonville before enrolling at the University of Oregon, from which he graduated with a Bachelor's degree in 1893.

Following graduation, he attended Harvard Law School, obtaining a law degree from that institution in 1896. Despite his academic achievement, Kubli would never practice law. Instead, Kubli returned to Jacksonville and went into the mining business as president of the Golden Standard Mining Company. A career change followed in 1901 when he moved upstate to the growing urban center of Portland to join the Kilham Stationery Co. In 1906, he went into the stationery business himself, Kubli-Howell Company, a Portland firm which did contract printing and sold office supplies. In Portland, Kubli became active in Republican Party politics, he was first elected to the Portland City Council in November, 1904 and sat as a member of that body from 1905 to 1909. He sat on the city's executive board from 1911 to 1913. In November 1916 Kubli set his sights on higher office running for a seat in the Oregon House of Representatives, he would serve four consecutive terms in that body. Kubli was effective in gaining passage of the legislation he authored.

After his first three sessions as a legislator in Salem, he had introduced a total of 28 measures, including a landmark criminal syndicalism bill, winning passage of 20 of these and seeing substitutes passed for 4 others. Among Kubli's bills passed were appropriations for road construction, the support of the Oregon National Guard, increased pensions for war widows. A 1917 measure which would have restricted picketing narrowly passed the House but was defeated by the Oregon State Senate; the 1917 legislature, of which Kubli was a part, is remembered for its passage of legislation allowing the state to force sterilization of "feeble minded, epileptic, habitual criminals, moral degenerates and sexual perverts." In all 127 forced sterilizations would be conducted before the law was ruled to be unconstitutional in 1921, including some 66 castrations, many of gay men — 92% of the total nationwide between the years 1907 and 1921. A staunch nativist, Kubli was a supporter in the legislature of bills prohibiting non-citizens from owning land or teaching in Oregon schools.

He supported exclusion of women from juries and efforts to restore the full power of the judicial injunction against strikes. He was hailed in 1922 by the conservative magazine Oregon Voter as an "exceptionally vigorous debater and floor leader", "fearless and uncompromising" in his voting behavior, he was considered a "red blooded protagonist" of conservative Republican politics. Kubli was the author of Oregon's criminal syndicalism statute, introducing the bill House Bill 1 on January 14 at the opening of the 1919 session of the legislature; the bill was intended as a legal weapon to be used against the syndicalist Industrial Workers of the World and made it a felony for anyone to advocate in word or writing any doctrine involving "crime, violence or any other unlawful methods of terrorism as a means of accomplishing industrial or political reform." Anyone editing, printing, or circulating a newspaper or pamphlet advocating such doctrines or assisting in formation of an organization or society in support of such activities was to be subject to the law, which called for penalties of up to 10 years in prison and potential fines of up to $5,000.

In addition, Kubli's bill called for any building owner or manager found renting a facility to such a group was to be deemed guilty of having committed a misdemeanor punishable by up to 1 year in the county jail. Kubli's bill moved speedily through the legislative process and was signed into law on February 3, 1919, with an emergency provision attached putting the law into immediate effect. Authorities made immediate use of the new law, arresting the State Secretary of the Socialist Party of Oregon and five others for selling copies of The Western Socialist on the streets of Portland and for "distributing handbills without a license" less than one week after the criminal syndicalism law took effect. During the early 1920s, Kubli joined the resurgent Ku Klux Klan, an organization which achieved a mass presence in the United States; the Klan expanded in Oregon in 1921, marching in white-hooded uniforms at the state fairgrounds in Salem on November 11 for Armistice Day. Klan members were elected to city office in Astoria and Eugene and staunchly backed State Senator Charles Hill in an insurgent campaign to defeat incumbent Governor Ben Olcott in his bid for re-election in 1922.

Although Olcott emerged victorious in the primary election, the Klan threw its organizational support behind Democrat Walter M. Pierce in the November general election, managed to defeat Olcott in the November 1922 general election des