Lake Manasarovar (Tibetan: མ་ཕམ་གཡུ་མཚོ།, Wylie: ma pham g.yu mtsho. The lake is revered a sacred place in four religions: Bön, Buddhism and Jainism; the Sanskrit word "Manasarovar" is a combination of two Sanskrit words. Lake Manasarovar lies at 4,590 m above mean sea level, a high elevation for a large freshwater lake on the saline lake-studded Tibetan Plateau. Lake Manasa sarovar is round in shape with the circumference of 88 km, its depth reaches a maximum depth of 90 m and its surface area is 320 km2. It is connected to nearby Lake Rakshastal by the natural Ganga Chhu channel. Lake Manasarovar is near the source of the Sutlej, the easternmost large tributary of the Indus. Nearby are the sources of the Brahmaputra River, the Indus River, the Ghaghara, an important tributary of the Ganges. Lake Manasarovar overflows into Lake Rakshastal, a salt-water endorheic lake; these lakes were separated due to tectonic activity. According to Hinduism, the lake was first created in the mind of the Lord Brahma after which it manifested on Earth.
In Hinduism, Lake Manasarovar is a personification of purity, one who drinks water from the lake will go to the abode of Shiva after death. He or she is believed to be cleansed of all their sins committed over a hundred lifetimes. Like Mount Kailash, Lake Manasarovar is a place of pilgrimage, attracting religious people from India, Nepal and neighboring countries. Bathing in Manasarovar and drinking its water is believed by Hindus to cleanse all sins. Pilgrimage tours are organized especially from India, the most famous of, the yearly "Kailash Manas Sarovar Yatra". Pilgrims come to take ceremonial baths in the waters of the lake. Lake Manasarovar has long been viewed by the pilgrims as being nearby to the sources of four great rivers of Asia, namely the Brahmaputra, Ghaghara and Sutlej, thus it is an axial point, thronged to by pilgrims for thousands of years; the region was closed to pilgrims from the outside following the Battle of Chamdo. After the 1980s it has again become a part of the Indian pilgrim trail.
According to the Hinduism, the lake was first created in the mind of Brahma after which it manifested on Earth. Hence it is called "Manasa sarovaram", a combination of the Sanskrit words for "mind" and "lake"; the lake is supposed to be the summer abode of the hamsa. Considered to be sacred, the hamsa is an important element in the symbology of the subcontinent, representing wisdom and beauty. According to Hindu theology, there are five sacred lakes, they are mentioned in Shrimad Bhagavata Purana. The People who belong to this region are called Manasarovariya. Most of those who follow the Hindu Religion belong to Koli tribe called Manasarovariya Patel or Mandhata Patel claimed that their tribe belong to ancient King Mandhata of suryavansha of Ikshvaku dynasty and There is mountain named after his name called Gurla Mandhata is the highest peak of the Nalakankar Himal for glorify his achievement; the Bon religion is associated with the holy place of Zhang Zhung Meri sacred deity. When Tonpa Shenrab, the founder of the Bon religion, visited Tibet for the first time – from Tagzig Wolmo Lungring – he bathed in the lake.
Buddhists associate the lake with the legendary lake Anavatapta where Maya is believed to have conceived Buddha. The lake has a few monasteries on its shores, the most notable of, the ancient Chiu Monastery built on a steep hill, looking as if it has been carved right out of the rock; the lake is popular in Buddhist literature and associated with many teachings and stories. Buddha, it is reported and meditated near this lake on several occasions. Lake Manasarovar is the subject of the meditative Tibetan tradition, "The Jewel of Tibet". A modern narration and description of the meditation was made popular by Robert Thurman. In Jainism, Lake Manasarovar is associated with Rishabha; as per Jain scriptures, the first Tirthankar, Bhagwan Rushabhdev, had attained nirvana on the Ashtapad Mountain. The son of Bhagwan Rishabhdev, Chakravati Bharat, had built a palace adorned with gems on the Ashtapad Mountain located in the serene Himalayas. There are many stories related to Ashtapad Maha Tirth like Kumar and Sagar's sons, Tapas Kher Parna and Mandodri Bhakti, among many others.
Rakshas Tal Lakes of India
Traditionally, an ashram-Hindi is a spiritual hermitage or a monastery in Indian religions. The term ashram comes from the Sanskrit root śram-. According to S. S. Chandra, the term means "a step in the journey of life". In contrast, according to George Weckman, the term ashram connotes a place where one strives towards a goal in a disciplined manner; such a goal could be ascetic, yogic or any other. An ashram would traditionally, but not in contemporary times, be located far from human habitation, in forests or mountainous regions, amidst refreshing natural surroundings conducive to spiritual instruction and meditation; the residents of an ashram performed spiritual and physical exercises, such as the various forms of yoga. Other sacrifices and penances, such as yajnas were performed. Many ashrams served as gurukulas, residential schools for children under the guru-shishya tradition. Sometimes, the goal of a pilgrimage to the ashram was not tranquility, but instruction in some art warfare. In the Ramayana, the princes of ancient Ayodhya and Lakshmana, go to Vishvamitra's ashram to protect his yajnas from being defiled by emissary-demons of Ravana.
After they prove their mettle, the princes receive martial instruction from the sage in the use of divine weapons. In the Mahabharata, Krishna, in his youth, goes to the ashram of Sandipani to gain knowledge of both intellectual and spiritual matters. Boarding schools in the tribal areas of Maharashtra and elsewhere in India, are called ashram shala or ashram schools. One such school is the Lok Biradari Prakalp Ashram Shala. A number of ashrams have been established outside India; these ashrams are connected to Indian lineages, focus on imparting Yoga-related teachings, are headed by spiritual teachers
Vishnu is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, the Supreme Being or absolute truth in its Vaishnavism tradition. Vishnu is the "preserver" in the Hindu triad that includes Shiva. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman, the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan, who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil and destructive forces, his avatars most notably include Rama in the Krishna in the Mahabharata. He is known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Hari, he is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism. In Hindu iconography, Vishnu is depicted as having a pale or dark blue complexion and having four arms, he holds a padma in his lower left hand, Kaumodaki gada in his lower right hand, Panchajanya shankha in his upper left hand and the Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand. A traditional depiction is Vishnu reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he "dreams the universe into reality".
Yaska, the mid 1st-millennium BCE Vedanga scholar, in his Nirukta, defines Vishnu as viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā, "one who enters everywhere". He writes, atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati, "that, free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu"; the medieval Indian scholar Medhātithi suggested that the word Vishnu has etymological roots in viś, meaning to pervade, thereby connoting that Vishnu is "one, everything and inside everything". Vishnu means "all pervasive". Vishnu is a Vedic deity, but not a prominent one when compared to Indra and others. Just 5 out of 1028 hymns of the Rigveda, a 2nd millennium BCE Hindu text, are dedicated to Vishnu, he finds minor mention in the other hymns. Vishnu is mentioned in the Brahmana layer of text in the Vedas, thereafter his profile rises and over the history of Indian mythology, states Jan Gonda, Vishnu becomes a divinity of the highest rank, one equivalent to the Supreme Being. Though a minor mention and with overlapping attributes in the Vedas, he has important characteristics in various hymns of Rig Veda, such as 1.154.5, 1.56.3 and 10.15.3.
In these hymns, the Vedic mythology asserts that Vishnu resides in that highest home where departed Atman reside, an assertion that may have been the reason for his increasing emphasis and popularity in Hindu soteriology. He is described in the Vedic literature as the one who supports heaven and earth. In the Vedic hymns, Vishnu is invoked alongside other deities Indra, whom he helps in killing the symbol of evil named Vritra, his distinguishing characteristic in Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 refer to Vishnu. In section 7.99 of the Rgveda, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra. In the Vedic texts, the deity or god referred to as Vishnu is Surya or Savitr, who bears the name Suryanarayana. Again, this link to Surya is a characteristic Vishnu shares with fellow Vedic deities named Mitra and Agni, where in different hymns, they too "bring men together" and cause all living beings to rise up and impel them to go about their daily activities.
In hymn 7.99 of Rigveda, Indra-Vishnu are equivalent and produce the sun, with the verses asserting that this sun is the source of all energy and light for all. In other hymns of the Rigveda, Vishnu is a close friend of Indra. Elsewhere in Rigveda and Upanishadic texts, Vishnu is equivalent to Prajapati, both are described as the protector and preparer of the womb, according to Klaus Klostermaier, this may be the root behind post-Vedic fusion of all the attributes of the Vedic Prajapati unto the avatars of Vishnu. In the Yajurveda, Taittiriya Aranyaka, Narayana sukta, Narayana is mentioned as the supreme being; the first verse of Narayana Suktam mentions the words paramam padam, which mean highest post and may be understood as the supreme abode for all souls. This is known as Param Dhama, Paramapadam or Vaikuntha. Rig Veda 1.22.20 mentions the same paramam padam. In the Atharvaveda, the mythology of a boar who raises goddess earth from the depths of cosmic ocean appears, but without the word Vishnu or his alternate avatar names.
In post-Vedic mythology, this legend becomes one of the basis of many cosmogonic myth called the Varaha legend, with Varaha as an avatar of Vishnu. Several hymns of the Rigveda repeat the mighty deed of Vishnu called the Trivikrama, one of the lasting mythologies in Hinduism since the Vedic times, it is an inspiration for ancient artwork in numerous Hindu temples such as at the Ellora Caves, which depict the Trivikrama legend through the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. Trivikrama refers to "three strides" of Vishnu. Starting as a small insignificant looking being, Vishnu undertakes a herculean task of establishing his reach and form with his first step covers the earth, with second the ether, the third entire heaven; the Vishnu Sukta 1.154 of Rigveda says that the first and second of Vishnu's strides are visible to the mortals and the third is the realm of the immortals. The Trivikrama describing hymns integrate salvific themes, stating Vishnu to symbolize that, freedom and life; the Shatapatha Brahmana elaborates this theme of Vishnu, as his herculean effort and sacrifice to create and gain powers that help others, one who realizes and defeats the evil symbolized by the Asuras after they had usurped the three worlds, thus Vishnu is the savior of the mortals and
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhishthira was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti and the king of Indraprastha and of Hastinapura. He was the leader of the successful Pandava side in the Kurukshetra War. At the end of the epic, he ascended to heaven, he was blessed with the spiritual vision of second sight by a celestial Rishi as a boon. The word Yudhishthira means "the one, steady in the war", from the words, yuddha meaning'war', sthira meaning'steady', his other names are- Bharata Vanshi – descendant of Bharata Ajatashatru – one without enemies Dharmanandan - The son of Dharma Dharmaraj - Lord of Dharma Once a Brahmin rishi and his wife were making love in the forest when Yudhishthira's father Pandu accidentally shot at them, mistaking them for deer. Before dying, Kindama cursed the king to die. Due to this curse, Pandu was unable to father children; as an additional penance for the murder, Pandu abdicated the throne of Hastinapura, his blind brother Dhritarashtra took over the reins of the kingdom.
After knowing the curse of Pandu, Kunti told him that he could be the father of child and told her boon of sage Durvasa. Pandu requested Kunti to apply her boon and suggested to call Dharma to get a truthful and justice knowing son who can rule Hastinapur. On the full moon of May first and eldest Pandavas Yudhishthira born. Yudhishthira's four younger brothers were Bhima,. If Karna, the son of Kunti born before her marriage by invoking Surya is counted, Yudhishthira would be the second-eldest of Kunti's children. Yudhishthira was trained in religion, science and military arts by the Kuru preceptors and Drona, he became a master in using the spear and war chariot. It is said that his spear was so strong that it could penetrate a stone wall as though it were a piece of paper, his chariot always flew at a 4 finger distance above the ground due to his piety. Yudhishthira had two wives and Draupadi. Devika was his first wife. Devika married Yudhishthira in her swayamwara; when Yudhishthira was the crown prince of Hastinapur Yudhishthira attained Devika's Swayamvara and Devika chose him.
Devika was the daughter of King Shivi. It said in some tales that Devika used to love Yudhishthira and Devika was his first love. After the Lakshyagriha episode, the Pandavas disguised. Here, they attended the Swayamwara of Draupadi, the princess of Panchala and the daughter of King Drupada. Arjuna, the younger brother of Yudhishthira, participated in her swayamwara and succeeded in winning her hand in marriage. After the swayamvara, Arjuna along with his brothers, treaded towards the hut where their mother Kunti was waiting for them; as soon as they reached the hut, Arjuna called his mother in delight and said, "Look what we have got as alms". Kunti, praying at that moment, without looking what it was, commanded "Whatever Arjuna has received as alms should be distributed amongst the five brothers." Hence Draupadi was married off to all the five brothers. But, Mahabharata indirectly shows the attraction between five Pandavas and Draupadi. Yudhishthira's first love and wife, his empress was Draupadi.
After the coronation at Indraprastha, Yudhishthira set out to perform the Rajasuya yagna. Arjuna, Bhima and Sahadeva led armies across the four corners of the world to obtain tributes from all kingdoms for Yudhishthira's sacrifice; the non-compliant Magadha king, Jarasandha was defeated by Krishna. At his sacrifice, Yudhishthira chose Krishna as his honoured guest. Yudhishthira succumbed to Shakuni's challenge in the Pachisi, he lost his brothers and Draupadi. While playing for second time, he lost all his kingdom in the game and was forced into exile for 13 years, which included one year in anonymity. During their exile, the four other Pandavas happened upon a lake, haunted by a Yaksha; the Yaksha challenged the brothers to answer his moral questions before drinking the water. As a result, they died. Yudhishthira went in last, answered many questions put forth to him by the Yaksha and revived his brothers; this story is cited as an example of Yudhishthira's upright principles. The Yaksha identified himself as Yudhishthira's father and pointed them to the kingdom of Matsya to spend their last year in exile anonymously.
Along with his brothers, Yudhishthira spent his last year of exile in the kingdom of Matsya. He disguised himself as a Brahmin taught the game of dice to the king; when the period of exile was completed, Duryodhana refused to return Yudhishthira's kingdom. Yudhishthira made numerous diplomatic efforts to retrieve his kingdom peacefully but in vain, he was convinced by Krishna to wage war. The flag of Yudhishthira's chariot bore the image of a golden moon with planets around it. Two large and beautiful kettle-drums, called Nanda and Upananda, were tied to it. Before the war started, Yudhisthitra sep down of his chariot to take blessings firm his grand sire Bhishma, teachers Drona and Kripa and uncle Shalya, who all were in his opposite side in the war showing his respect towards his elders. Yudhishthira had to bend numerous rules of Dharma during the course of the war. Krishna made him trick Drona
The Bhavishya Purana is one of the eighteen major works in the Purana genre of Hinduism, written in Sanskrit. The title Bhavishya means "future" and implies it is a work that contains prophecies regarding the future, the "prophecy" parts of the extant manuscripts are a modern era addition and hence not an integral part of the Bhavishya Purana; those sections of the surviving manuscripts that are dated to be older, are borrowed from other Indian texts such as Brihat Samhita and Shamba Purana. The veracity and authenticity of much of the Bhavishya Purana has been questioned by modern scholars and historians, the text is considered an example of "constant revisions and living nature" of Puranic genre of Hindu literature; the text exists in many inconsistent versions, wherein the content as well as their subdivisions vary, five major versions are known. Some manuscripts have four some two, others don't have any parts; the text as it exists today is a composite of material ranging from medieval era to recent.
The available versions of Bhavishya Purana are based on a printed text published during the British colonial era. The first 16 chapters of the first part of the Bhavisya Purana is called Brahmaparvan, it shows similarities to, borrowed verses from some version of the Manusmriti. However, some of the caste-related and women's rights related discussion in the Bhavishya Purana is egalitarian and challenge those found in the 19th-century published manuscripts of the Manusmriti; the Brahmaparvan part of the Bhavishya Purana includes a 169 chapters compendium of Surya related literature, that overlaps with Zoroastrianism-related views. These Sun-related sections are a notable and important part of the Bhavishya Purana, it may be related to the migration or interaction between people of Persia and central Asia with those in Indian subcontinent; the second part of the text, called Madhyamaparvan, is a Tantra-related work. The "prophecy"-related third part Pratisargaparvan includes sections on Christianity, Bhakti movement, British rule, considered by scholars as a 19th-century creation.
The fourth part of the text called Uttaraparvan, is known as Bhavishyottara Purana. This last part describes festivals related to various Hindu gods and goddesses and their Tithis, as well as mythology and a discussion of Dharma vrata and dana; the text has many Mahatmya chapters on geography, travel guide and pilgrimage to holy sites such as Uthiramerur, is one of the Tirtha-focussed Puranas. In records of land grants of the fifth century CE verses are quoted which occur only in the Padma and Brahma Puranas, on this basis Pargiter in 1912 assigned these particular Puranas to the early centuries CE. Maurice Winternitz considers it more probable that these verses, both in the inscriptions and in the puranas, were taken as quotations from earlier dharmaśāstras, thus argues that chronological deductions cannot be made on that basis. According to Maurice Winternitz, the text which has come down to us in manuscript form under this title is not the ancient work, quoted in the Āpastambīya Dharmasūtra.
A quotation appearing in the Āpastambīya Dharmasūtra attributed to the Bhaviṣyat Purāṇa cannot be found in the extant text of the Purana. Some manuscripts of the Bhavishya Purana assert that it has five parts, but the extant printed editions contain four parts; these four parts have distinctive dating. The Brahmaparvan contains 215 chapters, the Madhyamaparvan has three sections with a cumulative total of 62 chapters, the Pratisargaparvan has four sections with 7, 35, 32 and 26 chapters sequentially, the Uttaraparvan has 208 chapters; some manuscripts of the text do not have different number of chapters. The Madhyamaparvan part is a Tantra-related work, while the "prophecy"-related third part Pratisargaparvan is a 19th-century creation; the text is sometimes titled Bhaviṣyat Purāṇa. In the Padma Purana, it is classified in the rajas category, which contains puranas related to Brahma. Scholars consider the Sattva-Rajas-Tamas classification as "entirely fanciful" and there is nothing in this text that justifies this classification.
Despite being labelled a purana or "tales of ancient times", the work relates only a few legends. It is one of several puranas in which a list of royal dynasties of the "past" are followed by lists of kings predicted to rule in the future; this part of the text has 215 chapters. It covers topics such as rites of passage and feasts, it covers the duties and rights of women, a discussion on the nature of people and how to identify good and bad characters, a caste-related discussion. According to Arora, other scholars, the caste-related and women's rights related discussion in the Bhavishya Purana is egalitarian, similar to those found in Brahma Purana and Vajrasuchi Upanishad, all three of which challenge the views expressed in the Manusmriti; the Brahmaparvan includes sections on festival dates and methods for worshipping Brahma, Ganesha and the Nāga. A considerable section deals with Sun worship in a place called "Śākadvīpa" which may be a reference to Scythia; this overlaps with Zoroastrianism-related views, may be related to ancient migration or interaction between Persia and central Asia with Indian subcontinent.
These chapters are the most comprehensive and important source of sun-worship tradition in India, may be related to the escape and resettlement of people from Persia into western India during the mid to late medieval era. The second part of the Bhavisya Purana has 62 chapters on Tantra; this is not mentioned in ot
Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and as the supreme God in his own right, he is the god of compassion and love in Hinduism, is one of the most popular and revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar; the anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are titled as Krishna Leela. He is a central character in the Mahabharata, the Bhagavata Purana and the Bhagavad Gita, is mentioned in many Hindu philosophical and mythological texts, they portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, as the universal supreme being. His iconography reflects these legends, shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.
The synonyms of Krishna have been traced to 1st millennium BCE literature. In some sub-traditions, Krishna is worshipped as Svayam Bhagavan, this is sometimes referred to as Krishnaism; these sub-traditions arose in the context of the medieval era Bhakti movement. Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, Kuchipudi and Manipuri dance, he is a pan-Hindu god, but is revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, the Jagannatha aspect in Odisha, Mayapur in West Bengal and Junagadh in Gujarat, in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, Nathdwara in Rajasthan, Guruvayur in Kerala. Since the 1960s, the worship of Krishna has spread to the Western world and to Africa due to the work of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness; the name "Krishna" originates from the Sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, an adjective meaning "black", "dark", or "dark blue". The waning moon is called Krishna Paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening"; the name is interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive".
As a name of Vishnu, Krishna is listed as the 57th name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Based on his name, Krishna is depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is known by various other names and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are Mohan "enchanter"; some names for Krishna hold regional importance. Krishna is with some common features, his iconography depicts him with black, dark, or blue skin, like Vishnu. However and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material out of which he is formed, both in India and in southeast Asia. In some texts, his skin is poetically described as the color of Jambul. Krishna is depicted wearing a peacock-feather wreath or crown, playing the bansuri. In this form, he is shown standing with one leg bent in front of the other in the Tribhanga posture, he is sometimes accompanied by a calf, which symbolise the divine herdsman Govinda. Alternatively, he is shown as a romantic and seductive man with the gopis making music or playing pranks.
In other icons, he is a part of battlefield scenes of the epic Mahabharata. He is shown as a charioteer, notably when he is addressing the Pandava prince Arjuna character, symbolically reflecting the events that led to the Bhagavad Gita – a scripture of Hinduism. In these popular depictions, Krishna appears in the front as the charioteer, either as a counsel listening to Arjuna, or as the driver of the chariot while Arjuna aims his arrows in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Alternate icons of Krishna show him as a baby, a toddler crawling on his hands and knees, a dancing child, or an innocent-looking child playfully stealing or consuming butter, holding Laddu in his hand or as a cosmic infant sucking his toe while floating on a banyan leaf during the Pralaya observed by sage Markandeya. Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha in Odisha, Vithoba in Maharashtra, Shrinathji in Rajasthan and Guruvayoorappan in Kerala. Guidelines for the preparation of Krishna icons in design and architecture are described in medieval-era Sanskrit texts on Hindu temple arts such as Vaikhanasa agama, Vishnu dharmottara, Brihat samhita, Agni Purana.
Early medieval-era Tamil texts contain guidelines for sculpting Krishna and Rukmini. Several statues made according to these guidelines are in the collections of the Government Museum, Chennai; the earliest text containing detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahabharata, which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu. Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic; the eighteen chapters of the sixth book of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield. The Harivamsa, a appendix to the Mahabharata contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth; the Chandogya Upanishad, estimated to have been composed sometime between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, has been another source of speculation regarding Krishna in ancient India. The
Śrāddha or Shraaddha is a Sanskrit word which means anything or any act, performed with all sincerity and faith. In the Hindu religion, it is the ritual that one performs to pay homage to one's'ancestors' to one's dead parents. Conceptually, it is a way for people to express heartfelt gratitude and thanks towards their parents and ancestors, for having helped them to be what they are and praying for their peace, it can be thought of as a "day of remembrance". It is performed for both the mother separately, on the days they became deceased, it is performed on the death anniversary or collectively during the Pitru Paksha or Shraaddha paksha, right before Sharad Navaratri in autumn. In practice, the karta invites Brahmanaas and his relatives and friends that day, treats Brahmanaas as his/her parent, performs a homa, offers balls of rice to the departed souls; the karta serves the priest with sumptuous food, treating them with all hospitality, concludes the ceremony by giving "dakshina" to the brahmanaas..
Cows are considered ancestors in Hinduism and during Śrāddha the practice of offering food or pinda to cows is still in vogue. Since this is one of the more important and noble "Saṃskāras" that the Hindu sages have envisaged, it is imperative that the performer of the ritual understands what he or she is doing. Only will the true intent of the ritual be fulfilled and the performer of the ritual feel gratified. Else, the ritual becomes just a mechanical exercise for one's part. In Hindu amanta calendar, second half of the month Bhadrapada is called Pitru Paksha: Pitripaksha or Shraddha paksha and its amavasya is called sarvapitri amavasya; this part is considered inauspicious in muhurtshashtra. At this time crops in India and Nepal are ready and the produce is offered as a mark of respect and gratitude first to the ancestors be they parents or forefathers before other festivals like Navaratri begin. Many people visit Hindu pilgrimage sites to perform, Shraadha ceremonies, like Haridwar, Nashik, Gaya etc.
Haridwar is known for its Hindu genealogy registers. Shraaddha, R. K. Srikanta Kumaraswamy, IIT, Chennai. In the Kannada language https://sanskritdocuments.org/articles/shrAddha_DrMNarayanaBhat.pdf (An abridged English version of ಆಶ್ವಲಾಯನ ಪಾರ್ವಣ ಶ್ರಾದ್ಧ ಚಂದ್ರಿಕೆ, a treatise in Kannada on rigvedic ritual by Dr. M. Narayana Bhat] Pitru Paksha Pitru Paksha Puja Online Course for Basic Vedic Mantras,Shraaddha & Tharpana rituals for Brahmins Online Vedic Courses to learn from Home