International Tennis Federation
The International Tennis Federation is the governing body of world tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. It was founded in 1913 as the International Lawn Tennis Federation by twelve national associations, as of 2016, is affiliated with 211 national tennis associations and six regional associations; the ITF's governance responsibilities include maintaining and enforcing the rules of tennis, regulating international team competitions, promoting the game, preserving the sport's integrity via anti-doping and anti-corruption programs. The ITF partners with the Women's Tennis Association and the Association of Tennis Professionals to govern professional tennis; the ITF organizes the Grand Slam events, annual team competitions for men and mixed teams, as well as tennis and wheelchair tennis events at the Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games on behalf of the International Olympic Committee. The ITF sanctions the Grand Slam tennis tournaments as well as circuits which span age ranges as well as disciplines.
In addition to these circuits, the ITF maintains rankings for juniors, seniors and beach tennis. Duane Williams, an American who lived in Switzerland, is recognized as the initiator and driving force behind the foundation of the International Tennis Federation, he died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Called the International Lawn Tennis Federation it held its inaugural conference at the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques, in Paris, France on 1 March 1913, attended by 12 national associations. Three other countries had requested to become a member. Voting rights were divided based on the perceived importance of the individual countries with Great Britain's Lawn Tennis Association receiving the maximum six votes; the LTA was given the perpetual right to organize the World Grass Championships which led to a refusal by the United States Lawn Tennis Association to join the ILTF as they were of the opinion that this title should be given to the Davis Cup. France received permission to stage the World Hard Court Championships until 1916 and additionally a World Covered Court Championships was founded.
The USLTA joined in 1923 on the basis of two compromises: the title'World Championships' would be abolished and wording would be'for in the English language'. The World Championships were replaced by a new category of Official Championships for the main tournaments in Australia, Great Britain and the United States. In 1924, the ILTF became the recognised organisation with authority to control lawn tennis throughout the world, with official ILTF Rules of Tennis. In 1939 the ILTF had 59 member nations, its funds were moved to London, England during World War II and from that time onward the ITF has been run from there. It was based at Wimbledon until 1987, it moved again in 1998 to the Bank of England Sports Ground, its current base of operations. In 1977 the word'Lawn' was dropped from the name of the organization, in recognition of the fact that most tennis events were no longer played on grass, its official annual is The ITF Year. This replaced World of Tennis, the ITF official annual from 1981 through 2001.
In addition it publishes. As of 2017, there are 211 national associations affiliated with the ITF, of which 148 are voting members and 63 are associate members; the criteria for allocating votes to each voting member are: performance in ITF team competitions. For example, France garners 12 votes, Canada has 9, Egypt has 5, Pakistan has 3, Botswana has 1 vote. Regional associations were created in July 1975 as six "supra-national associations" with the aim to decrease the gap between the ILTF and the national associations; these evolved into the current regional associations: Asian Tennis Federation – 44 members Central American & Caribbean Tennis Confederation – 33 members Confederation of African Tennis – 52 members Oceania Tennis Federation – 20 members South America Tennis Confederation – 10 members Tennis Europe – 50 members ITF members with no regional affiliation The ITF President and Board of Directors are elected every four years by the national associations. Candidates are nominated by the national associations, may serve up to twelve years.
The ITF is the world governing body for the sport of tennis. Its governance includes the following responsibilities: make and enforce the Rules of Tennis. By its own constitution, the ITF guarantees that the official Rules of Tennis "shall be for in the English language". A committee within the ITF periodically makes rule amendment recommendations to the Board of Directors; the Rules of Tennis encompass the manner of play and scoring, in-game coaching, the technical specifications of equipment and other technology. The Rules cover tennis, wheelchair tennis, beach tennis. Through the Tennis Anti-Doping Program, the ITF implements the World Anti-Doping
The French Open called Roland-Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros, it is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open and the US Open. The French Open is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, it is the zenith of the spring clay court season; because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches, the event is considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world. Named in French Championnats Internationaux de France de tennis and Tournoi de Roland-Garros, the tournament is referred to in English as the "French Open" and alternatively as "Roland Garros", the designation used by the tournament itself in all languages. French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen.
Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros. In 1891 the Championnat de France, referred to in English as the French Championships, began, they were only open to tennis players. The first winner was a Briton—H. Briggs—who was a Paris resident; the first women's singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the women's doubles in 1907; this "French club members only" tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period: Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, played on sand laid out on a bed of rubble. The Racing Club de France, played on clay. For one year, 1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, on clay. Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is sometimes considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors, it was held on clay courts at Stade Français in Saint-Cloud from 1912 to 1914 after World War I, was contested there again in 1920, 1921 and 1923, with the 1922 tournament held at Brussels, Belgium.
Winners of this tournament included world No. 1's such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games. In 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF, it was held at the Stade Français on clay courts. In 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French Championship on clay. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the French decided to defend the cup in 1928 at a new tennis stadium at Porte d'Auteuil; the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros. The new Stade de Roland Garros, its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge. In 1928, the French Internationals were moved there, the event has been held there since.
During World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. In 1946 and 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, making it the third Grand Slam event of the year. In 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented: the Prix Citron and the Prix Bourgeon. In another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the tournament's opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place, where the profits go to different charity associations. In March 2007, it was announced that the event would provide equal prize money for both men and women in all rounds for the first time. In 2010, it was announced that the French Open was considering a move away from Roland Garros as part of a continuing rejuvenation of the tournament.
Plans to renovate and expand Roland Garros have put aside any such consideration, the tournament remains in its long time home. Clay courts slow down the ball and produce a high bounce when compared to grass courts or hard courts. For this reason, clay courts take away some of the advantages of big servers and serve-and-volleyers, which makes it hard for these types of players to dominate on the surface. For example, Pete Sampras, known for his huge serve and who won 14 Grand Slam titles, never won the French Open – his best result was reaching the semi-finals in 1996. Other notable players who have won multiple Grand Slam events but have never won the French Open i
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, Wimbledon known as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, is regarded by many as the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, since 1877 and is played on outdoor grass courts. Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass; the tournament traditionally took place over two weeks in late June and early July, starting on the last Monday in June and culminating with the Ladies' and Gentlemen's Singles Finals, scheduled for the Saturday and Sunday at the end of the second week. However recent changes to the tennis calendar have seen the event moved back by a week to begin in early July. Five major events are held each year, with additional junior and invitational competitions taking place. Wimbledon traditions include a strict dress code for Royal patronage.
Strawberries and cream is traditionally consumed at the tournament. In 2017, fans consumed 10,000 litres of cream; the tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts, except the advertisements of Rolex. In 2009, Wimbledon's Centre Court was fitted with a retractable roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain; the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a private club founded on 23 July 1868 as "The All England Croquet Club". Its first ground was at Nursery Road off Worple Road, Wimbledon. In 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier as an outdoor version of court tennis and given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club. In spring 1877, the club was renamed "The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club" and signalled its change of name by instituting the first Lawn Tennis Championship. A new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event.
Today's rules are similar except for details such as the height of the net and posts and the distance of the service line from the net. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemen's Singles was the only event held, it was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, from a field of 22. About 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final; the lawns at the ground were arranged so that the principal court was in the middle with the others arranged around it, hence the title "Centre Court". The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, although no longer a true description of its location. However, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more described; the opening of the new No. 1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description. By 1882, activity at the club was exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word "croquet" was dropped from the title.
However, for sentimental reasons it was restored in 1899. In 1884, the club added Gentlemen's Doubles competitions. Ladies' Doubles and Mixed Doubles events were added in 1913; until 1922, the reigning champion had to play only in the final, against whomever had won through to challenge him/her. As with the other three Major or Grand Slam events, Wimbledon was contested by top-ranked amateur players; this changed with the advent of the open era in 1968. No British man won the singles event at Wimbledon between Fred Perry in 1936 and Andy Murray in 2013, while no British woman has won since Virginia Wade in 1977, although Annabel Croft and Laura Robson won the Girls' Championship in 1984 and 2008 respectively; the Championship was first televised in 1937. Though properly called "The Championships, Wimbledon", depending on sources the event is known as "The All England Lawn Tennis Championships", "The Wimbledon Championships" or "Wimbledon". From 1912 to 1924, the tournament was recognized by the International Lawn Tennis Federation as the "World Grass Court Championships".
Wimbledon is considered the world's premier tennis tournament and the priority of the Club is to maintain its leadership. To that end a long-term plan was unveiled in 1993, intended to improve the quality of the event for spectators, players and neighbours. Stage one of the plan was completed for the 1997 championships and involved building the new No. 1 Court in Aorangi Park, a broadcast centre, two extra grass courts and a tunnel under the hill linking Church Road and Somerset Road. Stage two involved the removal of the old No. 1 Court complex to make way for the new Millennium Building, providing extensive facilities for players, press and members, the extension of the West Stand of the Centre Court with 728 extra seats. Stage three has been completed with the construction of an entrance building, club staff housing, museum and ticket office. A new retractable roof was built in time for the 2009 championships, marking the first time that rain did not stop play for a lengthy time on Centre Court.
The Club tested the new roof at an event called A Centre Court Celebration on Sunday, 17 May 2009, which featured exhibition matches involving Andre Agassi, Steffi Graf, Kim Clijsters and Tim Henman. The first Championship match to take place under the roof was the completion of the fourth round women's singles match between Dinara Safina and Amélie Mauresmo; the first match to be played in its entirety under the new roof took place between Andy Murray and Stanislas Wawrinka on 29 June 2009. Murray was involve
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season. Only the Czechs have won all three competitions in one calendar year, doing so in 2012.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900.
From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition. During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.
Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition; the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition; this was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000, they in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches.
Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheles
2008 French Open
The 2008 French Open was a tennis tournament played on outdoor clay courts. It was the 112th edition of the French Open, the second Grand Slam event of the year, it took place at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, from 25 May until 8 June 2008. Justine Henin did not defend her trophy due to her retirement from the sport on May 14. Ana Ivanovic, the runner-up to Henin in 2007, won the Women's Singles. On the men's side, Rafael Nadal won the Men's Singles, equalled Björn Borg's record of four consecutive French Open titles in the open era. Other competitions included men and women's doubles, junior singles and doubles as well as wheelchair and'veteran' competitions; the 2008 edition marked the first time in the Open Era no American man or woman reached the singles' quarterfinals at Roland Garros. On May 14, 2008, less than two weeks before the start of the 2008 French Open, defending champion and World No. 1 Justine Henin, announced in a press conference her immediate retirement from the sport. Four-time winner in Roland-Garros, where she defeated Kim Clijsters in 2003, Mary Pierce in 2005, Svetlana Kuznetsova in 2006 and Ana Ivanovic in 2007, Henin became the first player, at 25, to stop her career while holding the number one rank.
Despite undergoing a poor run in the 2008 season, Henin was still considered to be a strong favourite for the French Open crown. Her retirement left Serena Williams, the 2002 champion and the tournament favourite this year, as the only former French Open champion remaining in the women's draw, allowed WTA World No. 2 Maria Sharapova to be installed as the new World No. 1, become the top seed for the tournament. Henin's last match was against Dinara Safina, who went on to have a successful French Open, reaching the final, where she was beaten by Ana Ivanovic. Henin returned at the end of the women's tournament, presented new champion Ana Ivanovic with the trophy; this tournament saw the worst performance by any of the Williams sisters at a Grand Slam tournament since the 2006 Australian Open. Serena Williams, the only former French Open champion left in the draw, was stunned in the third round by Katarina Srebotnik, ensuring that there would be a new champion this year. Williams had never lost to Srebotnik in four previous attempts, had defeated her in the second round of the 2001 French Open and as as in the third round of the 2008 Family Circle Cup, where she won the title as part of a seventeen-match winning streak compiled between February and May.
Her third round exit was her worst performance at the tournament since 1999, when she fell in the third round. Two ESPN experts had touted Serena Williams as the pre-tournament favourite. Williams had said prior to the French Open that she had "enjoyed her best preparation since winning the event in 2002". On the same day as Serena Williams' defeat, older sister Venus Williams was upset by World No. 26 Flavia Pennetta, who had never advanced past the fourth round of the French Open, in the third round, adding to her recent history of early exits at the French Open. This marked the first time since the 2004 French Open that both the Williams sisters were defeated within 24 hours of each other; the 2008 French Open saw the last appearance on the ATP Tour of former World No. 1 Gustavo "Guga" Kuerten. The 31-year-old Brazilian champion, had been awarded a wild card to play his final tournament in Roland-Garros, where he won his three Grand Slam titles in 1997, 2000 and 2001. Kuerten played his first round, final singles match on Court Philippe Chatrier against eighteenth-seeded Paul-Henri Mathieu.
Kuerten conceded the victory in straight sets after a little less than two hours on the court. A ceremony followed, where Kuerten was awarded a trophy encasing the multiple layers of the French Open's clay courts. Kuerten played his last match in the men's doubles with Sébastien Grosjean; the pair was defeated after three sets by Florin Mergea & Horia Tecău on the score of 5–7, 6–3, 6–1, ending the final appearance of Gustavo Kuerten on the tour. As each year since 1981, three trophies are awarded during the tournament to the players of Roland-Garros: the Prix Orange, awarded by the public to the player with the most sportsmanship, the Prix Citron, awarded by both the public and a journalists' association to the player with the strongest nature, the Prix Bourgeon, given by the journalists only to the most improved player of the year. In 2008, the Prix Orange was received, for the fourth year in a row, by Roger Federer, who came first of a tally with five choices, followed by Rafael Nadal, Gustavo Kuerten, James Blake and Carlos Moyá.
The Prix Citron was obtained by Fabrice Santoro, who preceded Novak Djoković, Maria Sharapova, Serena Williams and Juan Carlos Ferrero in the votes. The Prix Bourgeon was given by the press to Alizé Cornet, ahead of Janko Tipsarević and Ernests Gulbis. Gustavo Kuerten the recipient of three Prix Orange in 1998, 2002, 2004, was presented a special ten-year prize for fair-play, in honor of his career and his successes at the French Open; the Sunday start saw several seeds in the women's field go out, with Nicole Vaidišová losing to compatriot Ivet
2006 Australian Open
The 2006 Australian Open was played between 16 and 29 January 2006. Marat Safin could not defend his 2005 title, due to an injury he suffered in late 2005. Roger Federer won his second Australian Open title, defeating Marcos Baghdatis in the final in four sets. Serena Williams was unsuccessful in defending her 2005 title, losing in the third round against Daniela Hantuchová. Amélie Mauresmo won her first Australian Open title, defeating 2004 champion Justine Henin in the final, it began Henin-Hardenne's run of reaching the final of all four Grand Slam events, winning the French Open. Several leading men's players declined to attend the Open due to injury, including Andre Agassi, Rafael Nadal and defending champion Marat Safin; the women's tournament fared much better, with no absentees among the top 20 ranked players. It was Martina Hingis' first grand slam event in her comeback to the game. Lindsay Davenport and Serena Williams were among those who welcomed her return to the circuit as a positive step forward for women's tennis.
Roger Federer defeated Marcos Baghdatis, 5–7, 7–5, 6–0, 6–2 It was Federer's 2nd title of the year, his 35th overall. It was his 7th career Grand Slam title, his 2nd Australian Open title. Amélie Mauresmo defeated Justine Henin, 6–1, 2–0, retired It was Mauresmo's 1st title of the year, her 20th overall, it was her 1st career Grand Slam title. Bob Bryan / Mike Bryan defeated Martin Damm / Leander Paes, 4–6, 6–3, 6–4 Yan Zi / Zheng Jie defeated Samantha Stosur / Lisa Raymond, 2–6, 7–6, 6–3 Martina Hingis / Mahesh Bhupathi defeated Elena Likhovtseva / Daniel Nestor, 6–3, 6–3 Alexandre Sidorenko defeated Nick Lindahl, 6–3, 7–6 Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova defeated Caroline Wozniacki, 1–6, 6–2, 6–3 Błażej Koniusz / Grzegorz Panfil defeated Kellen Damico / Nathaniel Schnugg, 7–6, 6–3 Sharon Fichman / Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova defeated Alizé Cornet / Corinna Dentoni, 6–2, 6–2 John Fitzgerald / Todd Woodbridge defeated Pat Cash / Peter McNamara, 6–3, 6–3, Phil Dent / Dianne Balestrat defeated Tony Roche / Liz Smylie, 6–1, 6–1 Michael Jeremiasz defeated Satoshi Saida, 5–7, 6–4, 6-3 Esther Vergeer defeated Jiske Griffioen, 6-4, 6-0 Robin Ammerlaan / Martin Legner defeated Michael Jeremiasz / Satoshi Saida, 3–6, 6–3 7–6 Jiske Griffioen / Esther Vergeer defeated Yuka Chokyu / Mie Yaosa, 6-2, 6-0 reference reference Pearce, Linda.
"Dokic leaves shattered but philosophical". The Age. Australian Open official site