Adam Kisiel Adam Kysil was a Polish nobleman, the Voivode of Kiev and castellan or voivode of Czernihów. He was the last Orthodox senator of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Kisiel has become better known for his mediation during the Khmelnytsky Uprising. Adam Kisiel was a member of the noble family Kisiel, which used his own coat of arm, sometime called Światołdycz, it was Ruthenian family, originated from Volyn. His grandfather, Gniewosz Kisiel, was a colonel in the service of the Polish king Sigismund I the Old, lost his life in the battle of Orsza, his father, was a podsędek of Włodzimierz. He sign himself as Kisiel Niskinicki. Adam's brother was a chorąży of Nowogród Siewierski. Adam Kisiel was married to Anastazja Krystyna Bohuszewicz, she was a daughter of Filion Bohuszewicz Hulkiewicz, widow after Butowicz. The couple was childless. Adam Kisiel described himself as a Polish noble. Adam Kisiel according to the older historiography was born around 1580. After Tadeusz Jan Lubomirski in 1905 published his work Adam Kisiel wojewoda kijowski, where is contained information that on the grave inscription of Adam Kisiel is mentioned that he died as 53 years old, historians stated that he was born in 1600.
Kisiel was baptized into the Eastern Orthodox faith. He was educated in Zamojski Academy in spirit of tolerance. Adam Kisiel fought under the order of Stanisław Żółkiewski since 1617 to 1620, he fought in the battle of Chocim. Kisiel persuaded king Władysław IV Vasa to reinstate the Orthodox hierarchy and he acted as an intermediary between the Royal Court, General Sejm, Cossacks, he was a mediator in the 1637 Pavlyuk Uprising. Afterwords he was responsible for the conscription of 5,000 Registered Cossacks. Kisiel was appointed as the Voivode of Bratslav in 1647. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising he was one of the most prominent members of the negotiations and pro-Cossack factions among the szlachta. In the beginning of the Uprising he sent an Eastern Orthodox monk, Petroni Łaska, to try to calm down the Cossacks and begin negotiations; the Sejm resolution of 22 July 1648 chose him, Aleksander Sielski, podkomorzy poznański, Franicszek Dubrawski, podkomorzy przemyski and Teodor Obuchowicz, podkomorzy mozyrski, to negotiate with Khmelnytsky.
The negotiations ended in failure by February 1649. Adam Kisiel died on 3 May 1653. Frank Sysyn. Between Poland and the Ukraine: The Dilemma of Adam Kysil, 1600-1653
Zaporizhia known as Zaporozhye Alexandrovsk, is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative centre of the Zaporizhia Oblast; the city population is the sixth largest in Ukraine. Zaporizhia is known for its island of Dnieper Hydroelectric Station, it is important industrial centre producing steel, aircraft engines, transformers for substations, other heavy industry goods. Until 1921 the city bore the name of Aleksandrovsk after the name of a fortress, a part of the Dnieper Defence Line of Russian Empire. In 1921 the city name was changed to Zaporizhia; the city's name "Zaporizhia" means the position of the city located beyond the rapids. Archaeological finds show that about two or three thousand years ago Scythians lived around a modern city. Khazars, Kuman and Slavs dwelt there; the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks passed through the island of Khortytsia. These territories were called the "Wild Fields", because they were not under the control of any state (it was the land between the eroded borders of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Ottoman Empire.
In 1552 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky erected wood-earth fortifications on the small island Little Khortytsia, near the western shore of Khortytsia island. The scientists consider these fortifications to be a prototype for the Zaporizhian Sich — the stronghold of the paramilitary peasant regiments of Cossacks. In 1770 the fortress of Aleksandrovskaya was erected and is considered to be the year of the foundation of Zaporizhia; as a part of the Dnieper Defence Line the fortress protected the southern territories of Russian Empire from Crimean Tatar invasions. It is uncertain in; some believe that it was the general who served Catherine the Great. Other possibilities are Alexander Rumyantsev. In 1775, Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Küçük Kaynarca peace treaty, according to which the southern lands of the Russian Plain and Crimean peninsula became Russian-governed territories; as a result, the Aleksandrovskaya Fortress lost its military significance and converted into a small provincial rural town, known from 1806 under the name Alexandrovsk.
In 1789, Mennonites from Danzig accepted the invitation from Catherine the Great to settle several colonies in the area of the modern city. The island of Khortitza was gifted to them for "perpetual possession" by the Russian government. In 1914, the Mennonites sold the island back to the city; the Mennonites built agricultural factories in Alexandrovsk. During the Russian Revolution and by World War II most of the Mennonites had fled to North and South America as well as being forcfully relocated to eastern Russia. At present, few Mennonites live in Zaporizhia, although in the area many industrial buildings and houses built by Mennonites are preserved. In 1829, it was proposed to build a cable ferry across the Dnieper; the ferry could carry a dozen carts. The project was approved by Tsar and was used in other parts of the Russian Empire. In 1904 the ferry was replaced by the Kichkas Bridge, built in the narrowest part of the river called "Wolf Throat", near to the northern part of the Khortytsia Island.
The first railway bridge over the Dnieper was the Kichkas Bridge, designed by Y. D. Proskuryakov and E. O. Paton; the construction works were supervised by F. W. Lat; the total bridge length was 336 meters. It crossed the river with a single span of 190 m; the upper tier carried a double-track railway line, whilst the lower tier was used for other types of vehicles. It was built at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river known as Wolf Throat. Construction started in 1900, it opened for pedestrian traffic in 1902; the official opening of the bridge was 17 April 1904, though railway traffic on the bridge only commenced on 22 January 1908. The opening of the Kichkas Bridge led to the industrial growth of Alexandrovsk. In 1916, during the World War I, the aviation engines plant of DEKA Stock Association was transferred from Saint Petersburg; the Kichkas Bridge was of strategic importance during the Russian Civil War, carried troops, the wounded and medical supplies. Because of this bridge and its environs was the scene of fierce fighting from 1918 to 1921 between the Red Army and the White armies of Denikin and Wrangel and German-Austrian troops, after their defeat, the struggle with insurgents led by Grigoriev and Makhno.
The bridge was damaged a number of times. The most serious damage was inflicted by Makhno's troops when they retreated from Alexandrovsk in 1920 and blew a 40 m wide gap in the middle of the bridge. People's Commissar of Railways Dzerzhinsky of the Bolshevik government ordered the repair of the bridge; the metallurgical plant of Bryansk joint-stock company in Dnipropetrovsk built a replacement section. The Kichkas Bridge reopened on 14 September 1921. On 19 October 1921, the Soviet Council of Labour and Defence awarded the Yekaterininsky railroad the Order of the Red Banner of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic for the early restoration of the Kichkas Bridge. At the beginning of 20th century, Zaporizhia was a s
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth – formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and, after 1791, the Commonwealth of Poland – was a dual state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, both King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th– to 17th-century Europe. At its largest territorial extent, in the early 17th century, the Commonwealth covered 400,000 square miles and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million; the Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in July 1569, but the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania had been in a de facto personal union since 1386 with the marriage of the Polish queen Hedwig and Lithuania's Grand Duke Jogaila, crowned King jure uxoris Władysław II Jagiełło of Poland. The First Partition of Poland in 1772 and the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in 1795.
The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states. Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act 1573. The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it. After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.
The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the "Rzeczpospolita". Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. The English term'Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth' and German'Polen-Litauen' are seen as renderings of the Commonwealth of Two Nations variant. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.
Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent 1569 Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus, last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in 1572 was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden, the Tsardom of Russia, vassals of the Ottoman Empire, launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors. In several invasions during the Time of Troubles, Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September 1610 to 4 November 1612, when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades. A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in 1648.
It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav, for protection by the Russian Tsar. Russian annexation of part of Ukraine supplanted Polish influence; the other blow to the Commonwealth was a Swedish invasion in 1655, known as the Deluge, supported by troops of Transylvanian Duke George II Rákóczi a
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is estimated at 1.770 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 8th most-populous capital city in the European Union. The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres, while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres. Warsaw is an alpha global city, a major international tourist destination, a significant cultural and economic hub, its historical Old Town was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Once described as the'Paris of the North', Warsaw was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II. Bombed at the start of the German invasion in 1939, the city withstood a siege for which it was awarded Poland's highest military decoration for heroism, the Virtuti Militari. Deportations of the Jewish population to concentration camps led to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising in 1943 and the destruction of the Ghetto after a month of combat.
A general Warsaw Uprising between August and October 1944 led to greater devastation and systematic razing by the Germans in advance of the Vistula–Oder Offensive. Warsaw gained the new title of Phoenix City because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after World War II, which had left over 85% of its buildings in ruins. Warsaw is one of Europe's most dynamic metropolitan cities. In 2012 the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Warsaw as the 32nd most liveable city in the world. In 2017 the city came 4th in the "Business-friendly" category and 8th in "Human capital and life style", it was ranked as one of the most liveable cities in Central and Eastern Europe. The city is a significant centre of research and development, Business process outsourcing, Information technology outsourcing, as well as of the Polish media industry; the Warsaw Stock Exchange is most important in Central and Eastern Europe. Frontex, the European Union agency for external border security as well as ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Together with Frankfurt and Paris, Warsaw is one of the cities with the highest number of skyscrapers in the European Union. The city is the seat of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw National Philharmonic Orchestra, University of Warsaw, the Warsaw Polytechnic, the National Museum, the Great Theatre—National Opera, the largest of its kind in the world, the Zachęta National Gallery of Art; the picturesque Old Town of Warsaw, which represents examples of nearly every European architectural style and historical period, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980. Other main architectural attractions include the Castle Square with the Royal Castle and the iconic King Sigismund's Column, the Wilanów Palace, the Łazienki Palace, St. John's Cathedral, Main Market Square, palaces and mansions all displaying a richness of colour and detail. Warsaw is positioning itself as Central and Eastern Europe’s chic cultural capital with thriving art and club scenes and serious restaurants, with around a quarter of the city's area occupied by parks.
Warsaw's name in the Polish language is Warszawa. Other previous spellings of the name may have included Werszewa. According to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In Pre-Slavic toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia tends to have unclear etymology. Warszawa was the name of a fishing village. According to one theory Warszawa means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; however the ending -awa is unusual for a big city. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River. In actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village located at the modern-day site of the Mariensztat neighbourhood. See the Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland; the official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa. A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian – in Polish warszawiak, warszawianka and warszawianie.
Other names for Warsaw include Varsovia and Varsóvia, Varsavia, Warschau, װאַרשע /Varshe, Varšuva, Varsó and Varšava The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were located in Bródno and Jazdów. After Jazdów was raided by nearby clans and dukes, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa; the Prince of Płock, Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern-day Warsaw, in about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the official capital of the Masovian Duchy in 1413. 14th-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in 1526. In 1529, Warsaw for the first time became the seat of th
Battle of Kumeyki
The Battle of Kumeyky was fought during the Pavlyuk Uprising between the Polish crown forces and insurgent Cossacks on December 16, 1637. The Polish crown army under the command of Mikołaj Potocki defeated Cossacks commanded by Pavlo Pavliuk. Marcin Gawęda, Powstanie kozackie 1637, Zabrze 2007, ISBN 978-83-89943-17-0
Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The general sejm was the bicameral parliament of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was established by the Union of Lublin in 1569 from the merger of the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Seimas of Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Samogitia, it was one of the primary elements of the democratic governance in the Commonwealth. The sejm was a powerful political institution and the king could not pass laws without the approval of that body. Duration and frequencies of the sejms changed over time, with the six-week sejm session convened every two years being most common. Sejm locations changed throughout history with the Commonwealth capital of Warsaw emerging as the primary location; the number of sejm deputies and senators grew over time, from about 70 senators and 50 deputies in the 15th century to about 150 senators and 200 deputies in the 18th century. Early sejms have seen majority voting, but beginning in the 17th century, unanimous voting became more common, 32 sejms were vetoed with the infamous liberum veto in the first half of the 18th century.
This vetoing procedure has been credited with paralyzing the Commonwealth governance. In addition to the regular sessions of the general sejm, in the era of electable kings, beginning in 1573, three special types of sejms handled the process of the royal election in the interregnum period. In total, 173 sejms met between 1569 and 1793; the word sejm and sejmik are derived from old Czech sejmovat, which means "to bring together" or "to summon". In English, the terms general, full or ordinary sejm are used for the sejm walny. Sejm of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was established by the Union of Lublin in 1569 and merged the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland and the Seimas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Both countries had centuries-long tradition of public participation in policy making, traced to the Slavic assembly known as the wiec. Another form of public decision making in Poland was that of royal election, which occurred when there was no clear heir to the throne, or the heir's appointment had to be confirmed.
With time the power of such assemblies grew, entrenched with milestone privileges obtained by the nobility during periods of transition from one dynasty or royal succession system to another. Tracing the history of the Sejm of Poland, Bardach points to the national assemblies of the early 15th century, Jędruch prefers, as "a convenient time marker", the sejm of 1493, the first recorded bicameral session of the Polish parliament. Sedlar, noted that 1493 is the first time such a session was recorded in sources, the first bicameral session might have taken place earlier; the first traces of large nobility meetings in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania can be found in the Treaty of Salynas of 1398 and the Union of Horodło of 1413. It is considered that the first Seimas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania met in Hrodna in 1445 during talks between Casimir IV Jagiellon and the Lithuanian Council of Lords; as the Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars raged the country continuously between 1492 and 1582, the Grand Duke needed more tax revenues to finance the army and had to call the Seimas more frequently.
In exchange for cooperation, the nobility demanded various privileges, including strengthening of the Seimas. At first the Seimas did not have the legislative power, it would debate on foreign and domestic affairs, wars, state budget. At the beginning of the 16th century, the Seimas acquired some legislative powers; the Seimas could petition the Grand Duke to pass certain laws. Sejms, including their senate, sejmiks limited the king's powers; the Sejm of the Kingdom of Poland has a great impact on the king's powers. From 1505 the king could not pass laws himself without the approval of the sejm, this being forbidden by Polish szlachta privilege laws like nihil novi. According to the nihil novi constitution, a law passed by the sejm had to be agreed by the three estates. There were only few areas in which the king could pass legislation without consulting the sejm: on royal cities, peasants in royal lands, fiefs and on mining; the three estates of the sejm had the final decision in legislation on taxation and treasury matters, foreign policy and ennoblement.
The sejm received fiscal reports from deputy treasurers, debated on most important court cases, with the right of amnesty. The sejm could legislate in the absence of the king, although such legislation would have to be accepted by the king ex post. Following the Constitution of May 3, 1791, the senate's competences were altered. Legislative power was limited to the deputies of the sejm; the king, who nominated senators and other officials, presided over the senate, could propose new laws together with the executive government, over which he presided. The sejm had the supervisory role, as government ministers and other officials were to be responsible to it; until the end of the 16th century, unanimity was not required and majority voting predominated. With the rise of the magn
A jester, court jester, or fool, was an entertainer during the medieval and Renaissance eras, a member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain him and his guests. A jester was an itinerant performer who entertained common folk at fairs and markets. Jesters are modern-day entertainers who resemble their historical counterparts. Jesters in medieval times are thought to have worn brightly coloured clothes and eccentric hats in a motley pattern and their modern counterparts mimic this costume. Jesters entertained with a wide variety of skills: principal among them were song and storytelling, but many employed acrobatics, telling jokes, magic tricks. Much of the entertainment was performed in a comic style and many jesters made contemporary jokes in word or song about people or events well known to their audiences; the modern use of the English word jester did not come into use until the mid-16th century, during Tudor times. This modern term derives from the older form gestour, or jestour from Anglo-Norman meaning storyteller or minstrel.
Other earlier terms included fol and bourder. These terms described entertainers who differed in their skills and performances but who all shared many similarities in their role as comedic performers for their audiences. Early jesters were popular in Ancient Egypt, entertained Egyptian pharaohs; the ancient Romans had a tradition of called balatrones. Balatrones were paid for their jests, the tables of the wealthy were open to them for the sake of the amusement they afforded. Jesters were popular with the Aztec people in the 14th to 16th centuries. Many royal courts throughout English royal history employed entertainers and most had professional fools, sometimes called licensed fools. Entertainment included music and physical comedy, it has been suggested they performed acrobatics and juggling. Henry VIII of England employed a jester named Will Sommers. During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I of England, William Shakespeare wrote his plays and performed with his theatre company the Lord Chamberlain's Men.
Clowns and jesters were featured in Shakespeare's plays, the company's expert on jesting was Robert Armin, author of the book Fooled upon Foole. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night, Feste the jester is described as "wise enough to play the fool". King James VI of Scotland employed a jester called Archibald Armstrong. During his lifetime Armstrong was given great honours at court, he was thrown out of the King's employment when he over-reached and insulted too many influential people. After his disgrace, books telling of his jests were sold in London streets, he held some influence at court still in estates of land in Ireland. Charles employed a jester called Jeffrey Hudson, popular and loyal. Jeffrey Hudson had the title of Royal Dwarf. One of his jests was to be presented hidden in a giant pie. Hudson fought on the Royalist side in the English Civil War. A third jester associated with Charles I was called Muckle John. Scholar David Carlyon has cast doubt on the "daring political jester", calling historical tales "apocryphal", concluding that "popular culture embraces a sentimental image of the clown.
Jesters could give bad news to the King that no one else would dare deliver. In 1340, when the French fleet was destroyed at the Battle of Sluys by the English. Phillippe VI's jester told him the English sailors "don't have the guts to jump into the water like our brave French". After the Restoration, Charles II did not reinstate the tradition of the court jester, but he did patronize the theatre and proto-music hall entertainments favouring the work of Thomas Killigrew. Though Killigrew was not a jester, Samuel Pepys in his famous diary does call Killigrew "The King's fool and jester, with the power to mock and revile the most prominent without penalty"; the last British nobles to keep jesters were the Bowes-Lyons. In the 18th century, jesters had died out except in Russia and Germany. In France and Italy, travelling groups of jesters performed plays featuring stylized characters in a form of theatre called the commedia dell'arte. A version of this passed into British folk tradition in the form of a puppet show and Judy.
In France the tradition of the court jester ended with the French Revolution. In 1968, the Canada Council awarded a $3,500 grant to Joachim Foikis of Vancouver "to revive the ancient and time-honoured tradition of town fool". In the 21st century, the jester is still seen at medieval-style pageants. In 2015, the town of Conwy in North Wales appointed Russel Erwood as the official resident jester of the town and its people, a post, vacant since 1295. Poland's most famous court jester was Stańczyk, whose jokes were related to political matters, who became a historical symbol for Poles. In 2004 English Heritage appointed Nigel Roder as the State Jester for England, the first since Muckle John 355 years previously. However, following an objection by the National Guild of Jesters, English Heritage accepted they were not authorised to grant such a title. Roder was succeeded as "Heritage Jester" by Pete Cooper. In Germany, Till Eulenspiegel is a folkloric hero dating back to medieval times and ruling each year over Fasching or Carnival time, mocking politicians and public figures of power