Meringue is a type of dessert or candy associated with French, Spanish and Italian cuisine, traditionally made from whipped egg whites and sugar, an acidic ingredient such as lemon, vinegar, or cream of tartar. A binding agent such as salt, corn starch, or gelatin may be added to the eggs; the key to the formation of a good meringue is the formation of stiff peaks by denaturing the protein ovalbumin via mechanical shear. Meringues are flavoured with vanilla, a small amount of almond, or coconut, although if extracts of these are used and are based on an oil infusion, an excess of fat from the oil may inhibit the egg whites from forming a foam, they are light and sweet confections. Homemade meringues are chewy and soft with a crisp exterior, while many commercial meringues are crisp throughout. A uniform crisp texture may be achieved at home by baking at a low temperature for an extended period of up to two hours, it has been claimed that meringue was invented in the Swiss village of Meiringen and improved by an Italian chef named Gasparini between the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century.
However, this claim is contested. It is sure that the name meringue for this confection first appeared in print in François Massialot's cookbook of 1692; the word meringue first appeared in English in 1706 in an English translation of Massialot's book. Two earlier seventeenth-century English manuscript books of recipes give instructions for confections that are recognizable as meringue, though called "white biskit bread" in the book of recipes started in 1604 by Lady Elinor Poole Fettiplace of Gloucestershire and called "pets" in the manuscript of collected recipes written by Lady Rachel Fane of Knole, Kent. Baked meringues are still referred to as "pets" in the Loire region of France due to their light and fluffy texture. Meringues were traditionally shaped between two large spoons, as they are at home today. Meringue piped through a pastry bag was introduced by Antonin Carême. There are several types of meringue: the sweetened, beaten egg whites that form the "islands" of floating island. Different preparation techniques produce these results.
French meringue, or basic meringue, is the method best known to home cooks. Fine white sugar is beaten into egg whites. Italian meringue is made with boiling sugar syrup, instead of caster sugar; this creates a much more stable soft meringue which can be used in various pastries without collapsing. In an Italian meringue, a hot sugar syrup is whipped into whipped egg whites until stiff, until the meringue becomes cool; this type of meringue is safe to use without cooking. It will not deflate for a long while and can be either used for decoration on pie, or spread on a sheet or baked Alaska base and baked. Swiss meringue is whisked over a bain-marie to warm the egg whites, whisked until it cools; this forms a glossy marshmallow-like meringue. It is then baked. Vegan meringue is imitation meringue made using aquafaba with a small dose of vinegar and caster sugar, it holds similar characteristics to that of egg-based meringue, but it will burn if torched or baked incorrectly. Protein distribution in egg whites is as follows: ovalbumin, conalbumin/ ovotransferrin, ovoglobulins and ovomucin.
Ovoglobulins drive foaming, ovomucin is the main stabilization agent, the remainder of the proteins interact to contribute to overall foaming and stability. When egg whites are beaten, some of the hydrogen bonds in the proteins break, causing the proteins to unfold and to aggregate non-specifically; when these egg white proteins denature, their hydrophobic regions are exposed and the formation of intermolecular protein-protein interactions is promoted. These protein-protein interactions disulfide bridges, create networks responsible for the structure of the foam and this change in structure leads to the stiff consistency required for meringues; the use of a copper bowl, or the addition of cream of tartar is required to additionally denature the proteins to create the firm peaks, otherwise the whites will not be firm. Plastic bowls, wet or greasy bowls will result in the meringue mix being prevented from becoming peaky. Wiping the bowl with a wedge of lemon to remove any traces of grease can help the process.
When beating egg whites, they are classified in three stages according to the peaks they form when the beater is lifted: soft and stiff peaks. Egg whites and sugar are both hygroscopic chemicals. Meringue becomes soggy when refrigerated or stored in a high-humidity environment; this quality explains the problem called "weeping" or "sweating", in which beads of moisture form on all surfaces of the meringue. Sweating is a particular problem for French meringues in which the granulated sugar is inadequately dissolved in the egg whites, for high-moisture pie fillings. There are three main ingredients in a meringue recipe that interact to form the foam structure, egg whites and cream of tartar or acid; the backbone of the foam structure is made up of amino acid chains. Egg whites provide the meringue with necessary proteins; the proteins are oriented in a tangled ball but must be uncoiled int
Passiflora edulis is a vine species of passion flower, native to southern Brazil through Paraguay and northern Argentina. It is cultivated commercially in tropical and subtropical areas for its sweet, seedy fruit called passion fruit; the fruit is a pepo, a type of berry, round to oval, either yellow or dark purple at maturity, with a soft to firm, juicy interior filled with numerous seeds. The fruit is both eaten or juiced, the juice added to other fruit juices to enhance aroma; the passion fruit is so called because it is one of the many species of passion flower, the English translation of the Latin genus name, Passiflora. Around 1700, the name was given by missionaries in Brazil as an educational aid while trying to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Christianity. P. edulis is a perennial vine. There are two main varieties: a purple-fruited type, P. edulis f. edulis, the yellow-fruited P. edulis f. flavicarpa. The vine produces a single flower 5–7.5 cm wide at each node. The flower has green sepals and 5 white petals.
The sepals and petals form a fringe. The base of the flower is a rich purple with 5 stamens, an ovary, a branched style; the styles bend backward and the anthers, which are located on top of the styles, have a distinct head. The fruit produced is fleshy, is spherical to ovoid; the outside color of the berry ranges from dark-purple with fine white specks to light yellow. The fruit is 4—7.5 cm in diameter. The smooth, leathery rind is 9–13 mm thick, including a thick layer of pith. Within the berry, there are 250 black seeds, each 2.4 mm in length. Each seed is surrounded by a membranous sac filled with pulpy juice; the flavor of the juice is acidic and musky. The passion fruit's flavor can be compared to that of the guava fruit. Several distinct varieties of passion fruit with differing exterior appearances exist; the bright yellow flavicarpa variety known as yellow or golden passionfruit, can grow up to the size of a grapefruit, has a smooth, glossy and airy rind, has been used as a rootstock for purple passionfruit in Australia.
The dark purple edulis variety is smaller than a lemon, though it is less acidic than yellow passionfruit, has a richer aroma and flavour. Passion fruit has a variety of uses juice. In Australia and New Zealand, it is fresh and tinned, it is added to fruit salads, fresh fruit pulp or passion fruit sauce is used in desserts, including as a topping for pavlova and ice cream, a flavouring for cheesecake, in the icing of vanilla slices. A passionfruit-flavored soft drink called Passiona has been manufactured in Australia since the 1920s, it can be used in some alcoholic cocktails. In Brazil, the term maracujá applies to passion granadillo. Passion fruit mousse is a common dessert, passion fruit pulp is used to decorate the tops of cakes. Passion fruit juice, ice pops and more soft drinks are popular; when making caipirinha, one may use passion fruit instead of lime. In Colombia, it is one of the most important fruits for juices and desserts, it is available all over the country and three kinds of "maracuyá" fruit may be found.
In the Dominican Republic, where it is locally called chinola, it is used to make juice and Fruit preserves. Passion fruit-flavored syrup is used on shaved ice, the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar. In East Africa, passion fruit is used to make fruit juice and is eaten as a whole fruit. In Hawaii, where it is known as liliko'i, passion fruit can be cut in half and the seeds scooped out with a spoon. Lilikoi-flavoured syrup is a popular topping for shave ice, it is used as a dessert flavouring for malasadas, cookies, ice cream and mochi. Passion fruit is favoured as a jam or jelly, as well as a butter. Lilikoi syrup can be used to glaze or to marinate meat and vegetables. In India, the government of Andhra Pradesh started growing passion fruit vines in the Chintapalli forests to make fruit available within the region; the fruit is eaten raw, sprinkled with sugar and is used to make juice. In Indonesia, there are two types of white flesh and yellow flesh; the white one is eaten straight as a fruit, while the yellow variety is strained to obtain its juice, cooked with sugar to make thick syrup.
In Mexico, passion fruit is eaten raw with chilli powder and lime. In Paraguay, passion fruit is used principally for its juice, to prepare desserts such as passion fruit mousse, ice cream, to flavour yogurts and cocktails. In Peru, passion fruit has long been a staple in homemade ice pops called "marciano" or "chupetes". Passion fruit is used in several desserts mousses and cheesecakes. Passion fruit juice is drunk on its own and is used in ceviche variations and in cocktails, including the Maracuyá sour, a variation of the Pisco sour. Can be eaten raw. In the Philippines, passion fruit is sold in public markets and in public schools; some vendors sell the fruit with a straw to enable sucking out the juices inside. In Portugal the Azores
Dame Nellie Melba GBE was an Australian operatic soprano. She became one of the most famous singers of the late Victorian era and the early 20th century, was the first Australian to achieve international recognition as a classical musician, she took the pseudonym "Melba" from her home town. Melba made a modest success in performances there. After a brief and unsuccessful marriage, she moved to Europe in search of a singing career. Failing to find engagements in London in 1886, she studied in Paris and soon made a great success there and in Brussels. Returning to London she established herself as the leading lyric soprano at Covent Garden from 1888, she soon achieved further success in Paris and elsewhere in Europe, at the Metropolitan Opera in New York, debuting there in 1893. Her repertoire was small, she sang little German opera. During the First World War, Melba raised large sums for war charities, she returned to Australia during the 20th century, singing in opera and concerts, had a house built for her near Melbourne.
She was active in the teaching of singing at the Melbourne Conservatorium. Melba continued to sing until the last months of her life and made a large number of "farewell" appearances, her death, in Australia, was news across the English-speaking world, her funeral was a major national event. The Australian $100 note features her image. Melba was born in Richmond, the eldest of seven children of the builder David Mitchell and his wife Isabella Ann née Dow. Mitchell, a Scot, had emigrated to Australia in 1852. Melba first sang in public around age six, she was educated at a local boarding school and at the Presbyterian Ladies' College. She studied singing with Mary Ellen Christian and Pietro Cecchi, an Italian tenor, a respected teacher in Melbourne. In her teens, Melba continued to perform in amateur concerts in and around Melbourne, she played the organ at church, her father encouraged her in her musical studies, but he disapproved of her taking up singing as a career. Melba's mother died in 1881 at Richmond.
Melba's father moved the family to Mackay, where he built a new sugar mill. Melba soon became popular in Mackay society for her piano-playing. On 22 December 1882 in Brisbane, she married Charles Nesbitt Frederick Armstrong, the youngest son of Sir Andrew Armstrong, they had one child, a son, born on 16 October 1883. The marriage was not a success; the couple separated after just over a year, Melba returned to Melbourne determined to pursue a singing career, debuting professionally in concerts in 1884. She was accompanied in concert, some of her concerts were organised, at times throughout her career by the flautist John Lemmone, who became a "lifelong friend and counsellor". On the strength of local success, she travelled to London in search of an opportunity, her debut at the Princes' Hall in 1886 made little impression, she sought work unsuccessfully from Sir Arthur Sullivan, Carl Rosa and Augustus Harris. She went to Paris to study with the leading teacher Mathilde Marchesi, who recognised the young singer's potential: she exclaimed, "J'ai enfin une étoile!"
– "I have a star at last!". Melba made such rapid progress that she was allowed to sing the "Mad Scene" from Ambroise Thomas's Hamlet at a matinée musicale in Marchesi's house in December the same year, in the presence of the composer; the young singer's talent was so evident that, after less than a year with Marchesi, the impresario Maurice Strakosch gave her a ten-year contract at 1000 francs annually. After she had signed, she received a far better offer of 3000 francs per month from the Théâtre de la Monnaie, but Strakosch would not release her and obtained an injunction preventing her from accepting it, she was in despair. She made her operatic debut four days as Gilda in Rigoletto at La Monnaie on 12 October 1887; the critic Herman Klein described her Gilda as "an instant triumph of the most emphatic kind... followed... a few nights with an equal success as Violetta in La Traviata." It was at this time, on Marchesi's advice, that she adopted the stage name of "Melba", a contraction of the name of her home city.
Melba made her Covent Garden début in the title role in Lucia di Lammermoor. She received a friendly but not excited reception; the Musical Times wrote, "Madame Melba is a fluent vocalist, a quite respectable representative of light soprano parts. She was offended when Augustus Harris in charge at Covent Garden, offered her only the small role of the page Oscar in Un ballo in maschera for the next season, she left England vowing never to return. The following year, she performed at the Opéra in the role of Ophélie in Hamlet. Melba was persuaded to return, Harris cast her in Roméo et Juliette co-starring with Jean de Reszke, she recalled, "I date my success in London quite distinctly from the great night of 15 June 1889." After this, she returned to Paris as Ophélie, Lucia in
Gelatin or gelatine is a translucent, flavorless food ingredient, derived from collagen taken from animal body parts. Brittle when dry and gummy when moist, it is called hydrolyzed collagen, collagen hydrolysate, gelatine hydrolysate, hydrolyzed gelatine, collagen peptides, it is used as a gelling agent in food, medications and vitamin capsules, photographic films and papers, cosmetics. Substances containing gelatin or functioning in a similar way are "gelatinous". Gelatin is an irreversibly hydrolyzed form of collagen, wherein the hydrolysis reduces protein fibrils into smaller peptides. Gelatin is in gelatin desserts. Gelatin for cooking comes as powder and sheets. Instant types can be added to the food. Hydrolysis results in the reduction of collagen protein fibrils of about 300,000 Da into smaller peptides. Depending upon the process of hydrolysis, peptides will have broad molecular weight ranges associated with physical and chemical methods of denaturation; the amino acid content of hydrolyzed collagen is the same as collagen.
Hydrolyzed collagen contains 19 amino acids, predominantly glycine and hydroxyproline, which together represent around 50% of the total amino acid content. Hydrolyzed collagen contains 8 out of 9 essential amino acids, including glycine and arginine—two amino-acid precursors necessary for the biosynthesis of creatine, it contains no tryptophan and is deficient in isoleucine and methionine. The bioavailability of hydrolyzed collagen in mice was demonstrated in a 1999 study. A 2005 study in humans found hydrolyzed collagen absorbed as small peptides in the blood. Ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen may affect the skin by increasing the density of collagen fibrils and fibroblasts, thereby stimulating collagen production, it has been suggested, based on mouse and in vitro studies, that hydrolyzed collagen peptides have chemotactic properties on fibroblasts or an influence on growth of fibroblasts. Some clinical studies report that the oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen decreases joint pain, those with the most severe symptoms showing the most benefit.
Beneficial action is due to hydrolyzed collagen accumulation in the cartilage and stimulated production of collagen by the chondrocytes, the cells of cartilage. Several studies have shown that a daily intake of hydrolyzed collagen increases bone mass density in rats, it seems that hydrolyzed collagen peptides stimulated differentiation and osteoblasts activity - the cells that build bone - over that of osteoclasts. However, other clinical trials have yielded mixed results. In 2011, the European Food Safety Authority Panel on Dietetic Products and Allergies concluded that "a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of collagen hydrolysate and maintenance of joints". Four other studies reported benefit with no side effects. One study found that oral collagen only improved symptoms in a minority of patients and reported nausea as a side effect. Another study reported no improvement in disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Another study found that collagen treatment may cause an exacerbation of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms.
Hydrolyzed collagen, like gelatin, is made from animal by-products from the meat industry, including skin and connective tissue. In 1997, the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, with support from the TSE Advisory Committee, began monitoring the potential risk of transmitting animal diseases bovine spongiform encephalopathy known as mad cow disease. An FDA study from that year stated: "...steps such as heat, alkaline treatment, filtration could be effective in reducing the level of contaminating TSE agents. On March 18, 2016 the FDA finalized three previously-issued interim final rules designed to further reduce the potential risk of BSE in human food; the final rule clarified that "gelatin is not considered a prohibited cattle material if it is manufactured using the customary industry processes specified."The Scientific Steering Committee of the European Union in 2003 stated that the risk associated with bovine bone gelatin is low or zero. In 2006, the European Food Safety Authority stated that the SSC opinion was confirmed, that the BSE risk of bone-derived gelatin was small, that it recommended removal of the 2003 request to exclude the skull and vertebrae of bovine origin older than 12 months from the material used in gelatin manufacturing.
In cosmetics, hydrolyzed collagen may be found in topical creams, acting as a product texture conditioner, moisturizer. Gelatin is a mixture of peptides and proteins produced by partial hydrolysis of collagen extracted from the skin and connective tissues of animals such as domesticated cattle, chicken and fish. During hydrolysis, the natural molecular bonds between individual collagen strands are broken down into a form that rearranges more easily, its chemical composition is, in many aspects similar to that of its parent collagen. P
New Zealand national rugby union team
The New Zealand national rugby union team, called the All Blacks, represents New Zealand in men's rugby union, known as the country's national sport. The team has won the last two Rugby World Cups, in 2011 and 2015 as well as the inaugural tournament in 1987, they have a 77% winning record in test match rugby, are the only international men’s side with a winning record against every opponent. Since their international debut in 1903, they have lost to only six of the 19 nations they have played in test matches. Since the introduction of the World Rugby Rankings in 2003, New Zealand has held the number one ranking longer than all other teams combined; the All Blacks jointly hold the record for the most consecutive test match wins for a tier one ranked nation, along with England. New Zealand competes with Argentina and South Africa in The Rugby Championship; the All Blacks have won the trophy sixteen times in the competition's twenty-three-year history. New Zealand have completed a Grand Slam tour four times – 1978, 2005, 2008 and 2010.
The All Blacks have been named the World Rugby Team of the Year ten times since the award was created in 2001, an All Black has won the World Rugby Player of the Year award ten times over the same period. Fifteen former All Blacks have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; the team's first match was in 1884, their first international test match was in 1903 against Australia in Sydney. The following year, they hosted their first home test, a match against a British Isles side in Wellington; this was followed by a 34-game tour of Europe and North America in 1905, where the team suffered only one defeat – their first test loss, against Wales. New Zealand's early uniforms consisted of a black jersey with a silver fern and white knickerbockers. By the 1905 tour, they were wearing all black, except for the silver fern, the name All Blacks dates from this time; the team perform a Māori challenge or posture dance, before each match. The haka has traditionally been Te Rauparaha's Ka Mate, although since 2005 Kapa o Pango has been performed.
Rugby union – universally referred to only as "rugby" in New Zealand – was introduced to New Zealand by Charles Monro in 1870. The first recorded game in New Zealand took place in May 1870 in Nelson between the Nelson club and Nelson College; the first provincial union, the Canterbury Rugby Football Union, was formed in 1879, in 1882 New Zealand's first internationals were played when New South Wales toured the country. NSW did not face a New Zealand representative team but played seven provincial sides – the tourists won four games and lost three. Two years the first New Zealand team to travel overseas toured New South Wales. A organised British team, which became the British and Irish Lions, toured New Zealand in 1888. No test matches were played, the side only played provincial sides; the British players were drawn from Northern England, but there were representatives from Wales and Scotland. In 1892, following the canvassing of provincial administrators by Ernest Hoben, the New Zealand Rugby Football Union was formed by the majority of New Zealand's provincial unions, but did not include Canterbury, Otago or Southland.
The first sanctioned New Zealand side toured New South Wales in 1893, where the Thomas Ellison captained team won nine of their ten matches. The following year New Zealand played its first home "international" game, losing 8–6 to New South Wales; the team's first true test match occurred against Australia on 15 August 1903 at the Sydney Cricket Ground in front of over 30,000 spectators, resulted in a 22–3 victory. A representative New Zealand team first toured the British Isles in 1905; the side is now known as the "Originals", as the "All Blacks" name emerged during this tour when, according to team member Billy Wallace, a London newspaper reported that the New Zealanders played as if they were "all backs". Wallace claimed that because of a typographical error, subsequent references were to "All Blacks"; this account is most a myth – because of their black playing strip, the side was referred to as the Blacks before they left New Zealand. Though the name All Blacks most existed before the trip, the tour did popularise it.
The Originals played 35 matches on tour, their only loss was a 3–0 defeat to Wales in Cardiff. The match has entered into the folklore of both countries because of a controversy over whether All Black Bob Deans scored a try which would have earned his team a 3–3 draw. In contrast to the success of the Originals on the field, the team did antagonise some in the Home Nations' rugby establishment; this complaint continued to dog New Zealand teams until the 1930s. The success of the Originals had uncomfortable consequences for the amateur NZRFU. In 1907, a party of professional players was assembled to tour the British Isles and play rugby league – a professional offshoot of rugby union, played by clubs that split from England's Rugby Football Union due to disagreements over financial compensation for players; when the "All Golds", as the team came to be known, returned they established rugby league in New Zealand, a large number of players switched to the professional code. English and Welsh authorities were alarmed by the threat of professionalism to rugby in New Zealand, in 1908 an Anglo-Welsh side undertook a tour to New Zealand to help promote the amateu
A Swiss roll, jelly roll, roll cake, or cream roll is a type of sponge cake roll filled with whipped cream, jam, or icing. The origins of the term are unclear. In spite of the name "Swiss roll", the cake is believed to have originated elsewhere in Central Europe Austria, it appears to have been invented in the nineteenth century, along with Battenberg and Victoria sponge. The spiral layered shape of the Swiss roll has inspired usage as a descriptive term in other fields, such as in optics and many forms of the term "jelly roll"; the earliest published reference for a rolled cake spread with jelly was in the Northern Farmer, a journal published in Utica, New York, in December 1852. Called “To Make Jelly Cake”, the recipe describes a modern "jelly roll" and reads: “Bake quick and while hot spread with jelly. Roll and wrap it in a cloth; when cold cut in slices for the table.” The terminology evolved in America for many years. From 1852 to 1877 such a dessert was called: Jelly Cake, Roll Jelly Cake, Swiss Roll, Jelly Roll, Rolled Jelly Cake.
The name “Jelly Roll” was adopted. The origin of the term "Swiss roll" is unknown; the earliest British reference to a rolled cake by that name appeared on a bill of fare dated 18 June 1871, published in the 1872 book A Voyage from Southampton to Cape Town, in the Union Company’s Mail Steamer “Syria”. A recipe for "Swiss roll" appeared in the US that same year in The American Home Cook Book, published in Detroit, Michigan, in 1872. Several 1880s to 1890s cookbooks from London, used the name Swiss roll exclusively; the American Pastry Cook, published in Chicago in 1894, presented a basic "Jelly Roll Mixture" listed variants made from it that included a Swiss roll, Venice roll, Paris roll, chocolate roll, jelly roll cotelettes, decorated jelly rolls. In the Czech Republic the Swiss roll is called piškotová roláda; the origin of this cake is the UK, since Hong Kong was an integral British territory from the 19th century to 1997. The cake is never pre-packaged. Overall, this cake has been sold next to other Chinese pastries well before the popularising of Western-style bakeries such as Maxim.
There are several popular variations. Swiss roll. Cake layer is made of a standard recipe, a whipped cream filling is standard. Chocolate Swiss roll. Cake layer is made of egg in combination with chocolate flavouring, it has a whipped cream filling. Some bakeries offer their own variations, such as layers of chocolate swirl. Other variations include coffee or orange fillings. Another flavour popular in Hong Kong is the mango version, which has a mango-flavoured roll with a whipped cream filling. Most US Chinatown bakeries sell the basic Hong Kong Swiss roll version, it looks and tastes identical to the one sold in Hong Kong. A popular flavour in Chinese bakeries in the US is the tiger roll, which has a coffee-flavoured golden-esque striped outer appearance, is chocolate-coloured or light-coloured, with traditional white cream inside, it is similar to the look of a tiger bread. In India, Swiss rolls are called "jam rolls". In Indonesia, the Swiss roll cake is called bolu gulung. Most bakeries sell Swiss rolls daily, they are filled with butter cream, cheese or fruit jam.
It is very common for Swiss rolls to be sold by the slice, but some shops sell by both slice and roll. In the area from Sicily to Caltanissetta, there is a food made with sponge ciccolato, ricotta cheese, marzipan called the rollò. In Japan, Swiss rolls are called "roll cake", they are filled sometimes with fruits like strawberries. In Colombia, a Swiss roll is called either pionono or brazo de reina, it is filled with dulce de guayaba or arequipe. In Argentina and Peru, it is called pionono, it is filled with dulce de leche manjar blanco. In Chile it is called brazo de reina, filled with dulce de leche only, sprinkled with powdered sugar. In Puerto Rico and Venezuela it is known as brazo de gitano, but there is a vast array of fillings that include cream, chocolate truffle, dulce de guayaba, dulce de leche manjar blanco combined with fruits. In Brazil, it is called rocambole. In Mexico it is called nino envuelto. In Ecuador it is known as a brazo gitano. Varieties produced in Malaysia include kaya, blueberry, sweet potato, vanilla, chocolate and local fruits like durian and mango.
In the Philippines, it is called pianono, has been adapted into several variations which use native flavors, such as ube and macapuno. Pianono has a different texture and is sold in prolific neighborhood bakeries such as a sari-sari stores. Due to American influence, it is called a "cake roll" in high-end bakeshops. A similar roll is the Brazo de Mercedes, composed of a custard core. A variant of ube cake can be baked into a Swiss roll. In Portugal, desserts called tortas are found on restaurant menus; such desserts are not tarts, nor are they similar to German torte. They are Swiss rolls with jam filling. In Denmark and Sweden the Swiss roll is called roulade, rullade, or rulltårta. An alternative Norwegian name is rullekake. In Sweden and Finland, the Swiss roll is called rulltårta kääretorttu, it is served with coffee; the filling consists of butter cream and strawberry jam. The base of a chocolate version, called drömrulltårta, is made of potato flour, instead
Rugby refers to the team sports rugby league and rugby union. Legend claims that rugby football was started about 1845 in Rugby School, Warwickshire, although forms of football in which the ball was carried and tossed date to medieval times. Rugby split into two sports in 1895 when twenty-one clubs split from the original Rugby Football Union, to form the Northern Union in the George Hotel, Northern England over the issue of payment to players, thus making rugby league the first code to turn professional and pay its players, rugby union turned professional in 1995. Both sports are run by their respective world governing bodies World Rugby and the Rugby League International Federation. Rugby football was one of many versions of football played at English public schools in the 19th century. Although rugby league used rugby union rules, they are now wholly separate sports. In addition to these two codes, both American and Canadian football evolved from rugby football. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, the two forms rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only.
Soon the rules of rugby league were modified. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the Olympic form of rugby is known as Rugby 7s. In this form of the game, each team has 7 players on the field at one time playing 7 minute halves; the rules and pitch size are the same as rugby union. The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games, some of which involved the use of the feet; the Roman game harpastum is believed to have been adapted from a Greek team game known as "ἐπίσκυρος" or "φαινίνδα", mentioned by a Greek playwright and referred to by the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria. These games appear to have resembled rugby football; the Roman politician Cicero describes the case of a man, killed whilst having a shave when a ball was kicked into a barber's shop. Roman ball games knew the air-filled ball, the follis. Episkyros is recognised as an early form of football by FIFA. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union.
In 1892, after charges of professionalism were made against some clubs for paying players for missing work, the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed. The existing rugby union authorities responded by issuing sanctions against the clubs and officials involved in the new organization. After the schism, the separate clubs were named "rugby league" and "rugby union". Rugby union is both a professional and amateur game, is dominated by the first tier unions: New Zealand, Wales, South Africa, Argentina, Scotland and France. Second and third tier unions include Belgium, Canada, Fiji, Germany, Hong Kong, Kenya, the Netherlands, Romania, Samoa, Tonga, the United States and Uruguay. Rugby Union is administered by World Rugby, whose headquarters are located in Ireland, it is the national sport in New Zealand, Fiji, Tonga and Madagascar, is the most popular form of rugby globally. The Olympic Games have admitted the seven-a-side version of the game, known as Rugby sevens, into the programme from Rio de Janeiro in 2016 onwards.
There was a possibility sevens would be a demonstration sport at the 2012 London Olympics but many sports including sevens were dropped. In Canada and the United States, rugby union evolved into gridiron football. During the late 1800s, the two forms of the game were similar, but numerous rule changes have differentiated the gridiron-based game from its rugby counterpart, introduced by Walter Camp in the United States and John Thrift Meldrum Burnside in Canada. Among unique features of the North American game are the separation of play into downs instead of releasing the ball upon tackling, the requirement that the team with the ball set into a set formation for at least one second before resuming play after a tackle, the allowance for one forward pass from behind the site of the last tackle on each down, the evolution of hard plastic equipment, a smaller and pointier ball, favorable to being passed but makes drop kicks impractical, a smaller and narrower field measured in customary units instead of metric, a distinctive field with lines marked in five-yard intervals.
Rugby league is both a professional and amateur game, administered on a global level by the Rugby League International Federation. In addition to amateur and semi-professional competitions in the United States, Lebanon, Serbia and Australasia, there are two major professional competitions—the Australasian National Rugby League and the Super League. International Rugby League is dominated by Australia and New Zealand. In Papua New Guinea it is the national sport. Other nations from the South Pacific and Europe play in the Pacific Cup and European Cup respectively. Distinctive features common to both rugby codes include the oval ball and throwing the ball forward is not allowed so that players can gain ground only