Chupryna, khokhol, or oseledets is an element of traditional Ukrainian Cossack haircut. It describes a style of man's haircut that features a lock of hair sprouting from the top or the front of an otherwise shaven head. There are several Ukrainian surnames deriving from words chub and oseledets Russians use the word khokhol as an ethnic slur for Ukrainians; the term is derogatory or condescending, an equivalent of the Ukrainian term katsap and Polish kacap for Russians. Mohawk hairstyle Queue Sarmatism Sikha Stamerov K. History of Ukrainian costume: from the Scythian period to the late 17th century. Melbourne: Bayda Books, 1986 - 62 p. ISBN 0-908480-16-4, ISBN 978-0-908480-16-6
The Khmelnytsky Uprising was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands. Under the command of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the Zaporozhian Cossacks, allied with the Crimean Tatars and local peasantry, fought against the armies and paramilitary forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth; the insurgency was accompanied by mass atrocities committed by Cossacks against the civilian population against the Roman Catholic clergy and the Jews. The uprising has a symbolic meaning in the history of Ukraine's relationship with Russia, it ended. The event triggered a period of political turbulence and infighting in the Hetmanate known as the Ruin; the success of anti-Polish rebellion, along with internal conflicts in Poland as well as concurrent wars waged by Poland with Russia and Sweden and Second Northern War respectively), ended the Polish Golden Age and caused a secular decline of Polish power during the period known in Polish history as the Deluge.
In Jewish history, the Uprising is known for the concomitant outrages against the Jews who, in their capacity as leaseholders, were seen by the peasants as their immediate oppressors. In 1569 the Union of Lublin granted the southern Lithuanian-controlled Ruthenian voivodeships of Volhynia, Bracław and Kiev—to the Crown of Poland under the agreement forming the new Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Kingdom of Poland was controlling several Ruthenian lands which formed the voivodeships of Lviv and Belz. Although the local nobility was granted full rights within the Rzeczpospolita, their assimilation of Polish culture alienated them from the lower classes, it was important in regard of powerful and traditionally influential great princely families of ruthenian origins, among them Wiśniowieccy, Ostrogscy, Zbarascy and Zasławscy, which acquired more power and were able to gather more lands, creating huge latifundia. This szlachta, along with the actions of the upper-class Polish Magnates, oppressed the lower-class Ruthenians, with the introduction of Counter-Reformation missionary practices and the use of Jewish arendators to manage their estates.
Local Orthodox traditions were under siege from the assumption of ecclesiastical power by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1448. The growing Russian state in the north sought to acquire the southern lands of Kievan Rus', with the fall of Constantinople it began this process by insisting that the Metropolitan of Moscow and All Rus′ was now the primate of the Russian Church; the pressure of Catholic expansionism culminated with the Union of Brest in 1596, which attempted to retain the autonomy of the Eastern Orthodox churches in present-day Ukraine and Belarus by aligning themselves with the Bishop of Rome. While all of the people did not unite under one church, the concepts of autonomy were implanted into consciousness of the area and came out in force during the military campaign of Bohdan Khmelnytsky. Born to a noble family, Bohdan Khmelnytsky attended Jesuit schools. At the age of 22 he joined his father in the service of the Commonwealth, battling against the Ottoman Empire in the Moldavian Magnate Wars.
After being held captive in Constantinople, he returned to life as a registered Cossack, settling in his hometown of Subotiv with a wife and several children. He participated in campaigns for Grand Crown Hetman Stanisław Koniecpolski, led delegations to King Władysław IV Vasa in Warsaw and was well respected within the Cossack ranks; the course of his life was altered, when Aleksander Koniecpolski, heir to Hetman Koniecpolski's magnate estate, attempted to seize Khmelnytsky's land. In 1647 Chyhyryn starost Daniel Czapliński started to harass Khmelnytsky on behalf of the younger Koniecpolski in an attempt to force him off the land. On two occasions raids were made to Subotiv, during which considerable property damage was done and his son Yurii was badly beaten, until Khmelnytsky moved his family to a relative's house in Chyhyryn, he twice sought assistance from the king by traveling to Warsaw, only to find him either unwilling or powerless to confront the will of a magnate. Having received no support from Polish officials, Khmelnytsky turned to his Cossack friends and subordinates.
The case of a Cossack being unfairly treated by the Poles found a lot of support not only in his regiment but throughout the Sich. All through the autumn of 1647 Khmelnytsky traveled from one regiment to the other and had numerous consultations with different Cossack leaders throughout Ukraine, his activity raised the suspicions of Polish authorities used to Cossack revolts, he was promptly arrested. Polkovnyk Mykhailo Krychevsky assisted Khmelnytsky in his escape, with a group of supporters he headed for the Zaporozhian Sich; the Cossacks were on the brink of the new rebellion as plans for the new war with the Ottoman Empire advanced by the Polish king Władysław IV Vasa were cancelled by the Sejm. Cossacks were gearing up to resume their traditional and lucrative attacks on the Ottoman Empire (in the first quarter o
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host or Zaporozhians were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine. Today much of its territory is flooded by the waters of Kakhovka Reservoir; the Zaporozhian Sich grew in the 15th century from serfs fleeing the more controlled parts of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It became established as a well-respected political entity with a parliamentary system of government. During the course of the 16th, 17th and well into the 18th century, the Zaporozhian Cossacks became a strong political and military force that challenged the authority of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Tsardom of Russia, the Crimean Khanate; the Host went through a series of conflicts and alliances involving the three powers, including supporting an uprising in the 18th century. Their leader signed a treaty with the Russians; this group was forcibly disbanded in the late 18th century by the Russian Empire, with most of the population relocated to the Kuban region in the South edge of the Russian Empire.
The Cossacks served a valuable role of conquering the Caucasian tribes and in return enjoyed considerable freedom granted by the Tsars. The name Zaporozhtsi comes from the location of their fortress, the Sich, in Zaporozhia, the ‘land beyond the rapids’, it is not clear. There are signs and stories of similar people living in the steppes as early as the 12th century AD. At that time they were not called Cossacks, since cossack is a Turkish word meaning a "free man." The steppes to the north of the Black Sea were inhabited by nomadic tribes such as the Cumans and Khazars. The role of these tribes in the ethnogenesis of the Cossacks is disputed, although Cossack sources claimed Khazar origin. There were groups of people who fled into these wild steppes from the cultivated lands of Kievan Rus' in order to escape oppression or criminal pursuit, their lifestyle resembled that of the people now called Cossacks. They raiding the Asiatic tribes for horses and food. In the 16th century, a great organizer, Dmytro Vyshnevetsky, a Ukrainian noble, united these different groups into a strong military organization.
Zaporozhian Cossacks had various social and ethnic origins but were predominantly made up of escaped serfs who preferred the dangerous freedom of the wild steppes, rather than life under the rule of Polish aristocrats. However, lesser noblemen and Tatars from Crimea became part of the Cossack host, they had to accept Orthodox Christianity as their religion, adopt its rituals and prayers. The nomadic hypothesis was that the Cossacks came from one or more nomadic peoples who at different times lived in the territory of the Northern Black Sea. According to this hypothesis the Cossacks' ancestors were the Scythians, Khazars, Circassians and others; the nomadic hypothesis of the origin of the Cossacks was formed under the influence of the Polish historical school of the 16th-17th centuries and was connected with the theory of the Sarmatian origin of the gentry. According to the tradition of deriving the origin of the state or people from a certain people of antiquity, the Cossack chroniclers of the 18th century advocated the Khazar origin of the Cossacks.
With the expansion of the source base and the formation of historical science, nomadic hypotheses were rejected by official historiography. For the first time, Alexander Rigelman pointed out the imperfection of the hypothesis. In the 20th century, the Russian scientist Gumilyov was an apologist for the Polovtsian origin of the Cossacks. In the XXI century; this hypothesis - concerning Cossacks and Kubans - has been refuted by a number of genetic studies. In the 16th century, with the dominance of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth extending south, the Zaporozhian Cossacks were if tentatively, regarded by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth as their subjects. Registered Cossacks were a part of the Commonwealth army until 1699. Around the end of the 16th century, relations between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire, which were not cordial to begin with, were further strained by increasing Cossack aggression. From the second part of the 16th century, the Cossacks started raiding Ottoman territories.
The Polish government could not control the fiercely independent Cossacks but, since they were nominally subjects of the Commonwealth, it was held responsible for raids by their victims. Reciprocally, the Tatars living under the Ottoman rule launched raids in the Commonwealth in the sparsely inhabited south-east territories of the Ukraine. Cossacks, were raiding wealthy merchant port cities in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which were just two days away by boat from the mouth of the Dnieper River. By 1615 and 1625, Cossacks had managed to raze townships on the outskirts of Constantinople, forcing the Ottoman Sultan Murad IV to flee his palace, his nephew, Sultan Mehmed IV, fared little better as the recipient of the legendary Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, a ribald response to Mehmed's insistence that the Cossacks submit to his authority. Consecutive treaties between the Ottoman Empire and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth called for both parties to
The Red Cossacks was a military formation of Bolsheviks and their puppet government of Ukraine. Red Cossacks was a collective for one of the biggest cavalry formations of the Workers-Peasant Red Army and was part of the Ukrainian and Southwestern fronts during the Russian Civil War and was stationed in the Ukrainian SSR; the Red Cossacks were the only military unit of Bolsheviks that contain some Ukrainian national characteristics. According to Vitaliy Primakov, the formation was created in protection of the Soviet government in Ukraine, liquidation of so-called "nationalistic and counter-revolutionary" Central Council of Ukraine and as an opposing force to the Central Council's armed forces, so called "Free Cossacks"; the creation of Red Cossacks was first declared on 10 January 1918 in Kharkiv by Vitaliy Primakov who participated in the Bolshevik coup-d'etat and was among those who "stormed" the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg. He participated against the Kerensky–Krasnov uprising; the formation of the military unit continued until 9 February 1918.
In the beginning after announcing the formation, the military unit was joined by soldiers of former 3rd battalion of 2nd Ukrainian Reserve Regiment who were disarmed by revolutionary detachments that arrived out of the Bolshevik Russia. The newly announced military unit included local Red guards of several Kharkiv factories such as Kharkiv Locomotive Factory, General Electric Company, Helfferich-Sade Association. With time the Red Cossacks detachments were established where was declared the Soviet power including Kharkiv Governorate, Poltava Governorate, Kiev Governorate; the formations were established voluntarily and composed out of workers and peasants predominantly Ukrainians, but contained other ethnic representatives. Sister of Yuriy Kotsiubynsky, Oksana was in charge of agitation and propaganda and chief editor of Red Cossack newspaper "To arms". On 2 February 1918 the People's Secretariat of Ukraine issued its decree about organization of People's Revolutionary and Socialist Army in Ukraine, the Red Cossacks.
At first in January 1918 the regiment as part of the Soviet 4th Revolutionary Army took part in advance against the troops loyal to Central Council of Ukraine and in fought against the advance of German and Ukrainian forces in March-April 1918. On 1 March 1918 soldiers of the 1st Horse Regiment of Red Cossacks attempted to rename their regiment to the 1st Workers-Peasants Socialist Regiment of the Red Army. After that the regiment was "cleansed" from non-Ukrainian element by Soviet government. During liberation of Ukraine from Bolsheviks, number of Red Cossacks sided with the Army of Ukrainian People's Republic after the 1918 Battle of Poltava. After being withdrawn out of Ukraine, in summer of 1918 it was reformed into the 1st Dnieper Partizan detachment that operated in so called "neutral zone", established along the Russia-Ukraine border. During the fall of 1918 it was reestablished as part of the 1st Ukrainian Soviet Division and the 2nd Ukrainian Soviet Division that fought against the Army of UNR.
As part of the Army Group of Kiev direction in May 1919 participated in suppression of Nikifor Grigoriev rebellion and in July–September 1919 fought against armies of Anton Denikin. In August 1919 the regiment was expanded into brigade, part of 12th and 14th armies of the Workers and Peasants Red Army. In October 1919 it expanded further into the 8th Cavalry Division of Red Cossacks which in November of same year conducted a raid across the Denikin's Army rears. In April 1920 battled in the Northern Taurida Governorate against the Pyotr Wrangel's troops. Soon after the Polish-Ukrainian union treaty of Warsaw in 1920, the division participated in the Polish-Soviet War. During that campaign it reached the city of Stryi, but during a retreat of the Red Army, it was encircled and destroyed at Zbruch River. Syla Mishchenko Bublyk brothers Vitaliy Primakov Rudolf Sivers Red Army Ukrainian–Soviet War 1st Cavalry Division Dubinskiy, I. Shevchuk, G. Chervonnoye kazachestvo. Kiev, 1977 Red avatars of Ukraine: military uniforms of the Primakov's eagles based on the book of Yaroslav Tynchenko "Red Cossacks.
1917–1925. Organization and uniform".. Red avatars of Ukraine: Forgotten stepson of the Revolution. Zdorov, A; the 1918 Red Cossacks appeared before the Red Army. Ukrayinska Pravda. 23 February 2011
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. It is claimed that he was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League. Mazepa was famous as a patron of the arts, played an important role in the Battle of Poltava, where after learning that Tsar Peter I intended to relieve him as acting Hetman of Zaporizhian Host and to replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with King Charles XII of Sweden; the political consequences and interpretation of this desertion have resonated in the national histories both of Russia and of Ukraine. The Russian Orthodox Church laid an anathema on Mazepa's name in 1708 and refuses to revoke it to this day. Anti-Russian elements in Ukraine from the 18th century onwards were derogatorily referred to as Mazepintsy; the alienation of Mazepa from Ukrainian historiography continued during the Soviet period, but post-1991 in independent Ukraine there have been strong moves to rehabilitate Mazepa's image, although he remains a controversial figure.
Mazepa was born on March 30, 1639, in Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva part of the Kiev Voivodeship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, into a noble Ruthenian-Lithuanian family. His mother was Maryna Mokievska, his father was Stefan Adam Mazepa. Maryna Mokievska came from the family of a Cossack officer, she gave birth to two children -- Oleksandra. Stefan Mazepa served as an Otaman of Bila Tserkva, a Cossack representative of the King of the Polish-Lithuanian Rzecz Pospolita, a Czernihów podczaszy. Ivan Mazepa was educated first in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy at a Jesuit college in Warsaw; as a page Mazepa was sent to study "gunnery" in Deventer in 1656–1659, during which time he traveled across Western Europe. From 1659 he served at the court of the Polish king, John II Casimir on numerous diplomatic missions to Ukraine, his service at the Polish royal court earned him a reputation as an alleged catholicized "Lyakh" – the Russian Imperial government would use this slur to discredit Mazepa. During this time there arose the legend of his affair with Madam Falbowska that inspired number of European Romantics, such Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo, many others.
In 1663 Mazepa returned home. After the death of his father he inherited the title of the Czernihów cupbearer. In 1669–1673 Mazepa served under Petro Doroshenko as a squadron commander in the Hetman Guard during Doroshenko's 1672 campaign in Halychyna, as a chancellor on diplomatic missions to Poland and Ottoman Empire. In 1674–1681 Mazepa served as a "courtier" of Doroshenko's rival Hetman Ivan Samoylovych after was taken hostage on the way to Crimea by the Kosh Otaman Ivan Sirko in 1674. In 1677–1678 Mazepa participated in the Chyhyryn campaigns during which Yuri Khmelnytsky, with the support from the Ottoman Empire, tried to regain power in Ukraine; the young educated Mazepa rose through the Cossack ranks, in 1682–1686 he served as an Aide-du-Camp General. In 1687 Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster, was elected the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine in Kolomak, with the support of Vasily Galitzine. At the same time Ivan Mazepa signed the Kolomak Articles, which were based on the Hlukhiv Articles of Demian Mnohohrishny.
Mazepa accumulated great wealth, becoming one of Europe's largest land owners. A multitude of churches were built all over Ukraine during his reign in the Ukrainian Baroque style, he founded schools and printing houses, expanded the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the primary educational institution of Ukraine at the time, to accommodate 2,000 students. In 1702, the Cossacks of Right-bank Ukraine, under the leadership of hetman Semen Paliy, began an uprising against Poland, which after early successes was defeated. Mazepa convinced Russian Tsar Peter I to allow him to intervene, which he did, taking over major portions of Right-bank Ukraine, while Poland was weakened by an invasion of Swedish king Charles XII. In the beginning of the 18th century, as the Russian Empire lost significant territory in the Great Northern War, Peter I decided to reform the Russian army and to centralize control over his realm. In Mazepa's opinion, the strengthening of Russia's central power could put at risk the broad autonomy granted to the Cossack Hetmanate under the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654.
Attempts to assert control over the Zaporozhian Cossacks included demands of having them fight in any of the tsar's wars, instead of only defending their own land against regional enemies as was agreed to in previous treaties. Now Cossack forces were made to fight in distant wars in Livonia and Lithuania, leaving their own homes unprotected from the Tatars and Poles. Ill-equipped and not properly trained to fight on par with the tactics of modern European armies, Cossacks suffered heavy losses and low morale, as their commanders were Russians and Germans who did not value their lives or their specific military abilities; the Hetman himself started to feel his post threatened in the face of increasing calls to replace him with one of the abundant generals of the Russian army. The last straw in the souring relations with Tsar Peter was his refusal to commit any significant force to defend Ukraine against
Stepan Timofeyevich Razin, known as Stenka Razin, was a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia in 1670-1671. Razin's parents were from the village of Usman Sobakina, 8 kilometres outside of Voronezh, he was first noted by history in 1661, as part of a diplomatic mission from the Don Cossacks to the Kalmyks. That same year Razin went on a long-distance pilgrimage to the great Solovetsky Monastery on the White Sea for the benefit of his soul. After that, all trace of him was lost for six years, when he reappeared as the leader of a robber community established at Panshinskoye, among the marshes between the rivers Tishina and Ilovlya, from whence he levied tribute from all vessels passing up and down the Volga. A long war with Poland in 1654-1667 and Sweden in 1656-1658 put heavy demands upon the people of Russia. Taxes increased. Many peasants, hoping to escape these burdens, fled south and joined bands of Razin's marauding Cossacks.
They were joined by many others who were disaffected with the Russian government, including people of the lower classes, as well as representatives of non-Russian ethnic groups such as Kalmyks, that were being oppressed at the time. Razin's first considerable exploit was to destroy the great naval convoy consisting of the treasury barges and the barges of the Patriarch and the wealthy merchants of Moscow. Razin sailed down the Volga with a fleet of 35 vessels, capturing the more important forts on his way and devastating the country. At the beginning of 1668, he defeated the voivode Yakov Bezobrazov, sent against him from Astrakhan, in the spring embarked on a predatory expedition into Daghestan and Persia, which lasted for eighteen months. Russia began the 17th century with the Time of Troubles, which lasted from 1598 to 1613; this time marked the beginning of the Romanov dynasty. Michael Romanov and his son Alexis both strove to strengthen the power of the tsar in order to stabilize the country after the turmoil of the Time of Troubles.
As a result, the Zemsky Sobor and the boyar council, two other bodies of government in Russia lost influence. The Russian population went from fifteen years of "near anarchy" to the reigns of two strong, centralizing autocrats. In addition, a deep divide existed between the nobility in Russia. Recent changes in the treatment and legal standing of peasants, including the institutionalization of serfdom in the Law Code of 1649, contributed to the unrest among the peasantry; the Don Cossacks, a lower-class group that lived independently near the Don River and whom the tsar's government supplied in exchange for defending Russia, led Razin's rebellion. Historian Paul Avrich characterizes Razin's revolt as a "curious mixture of brigandage and revolt," similar to other popular uprisings of the period. Razin revolted against the "traitor-boyars" rather than the tsar; the Cossacks supported the tsar. In 1667, Razin gathered a small group of Cossacks and left the Don for an expedition in the Caspian Sea.
He aimed to set up a base in plunder villages from there. However, Moscow attempted to stop him; as Razin traveled down the Volga River to Tsaritsyn, the voivodes of Astrakhan warned Andrei Unkovsky of Razin's arrival and recommended that he not allow the Cossacks to enter the town. Unkovsky attempted to negotiate with Razin, but Razin threatened to set fire to Tsaritsyn if Unkovsky interfered; when he encountered a group of political prisoners being transported by the tsar's representatives on his way from the Don to the Volga, Razin said, "I shall not force you to join me, but whoever chooses to come with me will be a free Cossack. I have come to fight the wealthy lords; as for the poor and plain folk, I shall treat them as brothers."When Razin sailed by Tsartisyn, Unkovsky did not attack. This incident gave Razin the reputation of an "invincible warrior endowed with supernatural powers." He continued his travels down the Volga and into the Caspian Sea, defeating several detachments of streltsy, or armed guardsmen.
In July 1667, Razin captured Yaitsk by disguising himself and some of his companions as pilgrims to pray at the cathedral. Once inside Yaitsk, they opened the gates for the rest of the troops to occupy the city; the opposition sent to fight Razin felt reluctant to do so because they sympathized with the Cossacks. In the spring of 1668, Razin led the majority of his men down the Yaik River while a small portion stayed behind to guard Yaitsk. However, the government defeated Razin's men in Razin lost his base there. After losing Yaitsk, Razin sailed south down the coast of the Caspian Sea to continue his pillaging, he and his men attacked Persia. Failing to capture the well-defended fortress port of Darband/Derbent in present-day Dagestan, his forces moved south to attack the small port of Badkuba located on the Absheron Peninsula in present-day Republic of Azerbaijan, but at Rasht the Persians killed 400 Cossacks in a surprise attack. Razin we
The Orenburg Cossack Host was a part of the Cossack population in pre-revolutionary Russia, located in the Orenburg province. After having constructed fortifications around the future town of Orenburg in 1734, they founded it in 1735. For the purpose of defending the city and colonizing the region, The Russian government relocated the Cossacks from Ufa, Iset and other places and created the Orenburg non-regular corps in 1748. In 1755, a part of it was transformed into the Orenburg Cossack Host with 2,000 men. In 1773—1774, the Orenburg Cossacks took part in Yemelyan Pugachev's insurrection. In 1798, all of the Cossack settlements in the Southern Urals were incorporated into the Orenburg Cossack Host. A decree of 1840 established the borders of its composition. In the mid-19th century, the Cossack population of this region equaled 200,000 people; the Orenburg Host participated in the Russo-Swedish War of 1788–1790, in the campaigns that Russia waged in order to conquer Central Asia. The Orenburg Host okrugs.
By 1916, the Cossack population of this region had grown to 533,000 people occupying a territory of 7,45 million desyatinas. One desyatina equaled 2,7 acres. In the early 19th century, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 6 cavalry regiments, 3 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards and 2 detached sotnyas. During World War I, the Orenburg Cossack Host supplied 18 cavalry regiments, 9,5 artillery battalions, 1 cavalry battalion, 1 sotnya of guards, 9 unmounted sotnyas, 7,5 reserve sotnyas and 39 detached and special sotnyas. After the October Revolution of 1917, the leadership of the Orenburg Cossack Host, under the command of Ataman Alexander Dutov, fought against the Soviets; the poorer Cossacks joined the ranks of the Red Army. The 1st Orenburg Cossack Socialist Regiment took part in the Ural Army Campaign of 1918. In 1920, the Orenburg Cossack Host ceased to exist; the distinguishing colour of the Orenburg Cossack Host was light blue. High fleece hats were worn on occasion with light blue cloth tops.
Officers wore braiding. After 1907 a khaki-grey service uniform of standard Imperial Cavalry pattern was introduced but the light blue distinctions were retained until 1920. Nagaybaks, Tatar-speaking Cossacks belonging to the Orenburg Host Petr I. Avdeev Istoricheskaya Zapiska ob Orenburgskom Kazach'em Voiske, 1904