National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Scholars are people who devote themselves to study to an area in which they have developed expertise. A scholar may be an academic, a person who works as a teacher or researcher at a university or other higher education institution. An academic holds an advanced degree; the term scholar is sometimes used with equivalent meaning to that of academic and describes in general those who attain mastery in a research discipline. However, it has wider application, with it being used to describe those whose occupation was researched prior to organized higher education. In 1847, minister Emanuel Vogel Gerhart delivered an extensive address on the role of the scholar in society, writing: Who is a scholar? the first reply that must be given is: He is a scholar whose whole inward intellectual and moral being has been symmetrically unfolded and strengthened under the influence of truth. The different mental activities will always be exercised rightly when the proper equilibrium is preserved. No one faculty should be drawn out to the neglect of others.
The whole inner man should be unfolded harmoniously. Gerhart argued that a scholar can not be focused on a single discipline, contending that knowledge of multiple disciplines is necessary to put each into context and to inform the development of each: o be a scholar involves more than mere learning, he may know much about many things and yet know little or nothing right. Knowledge without system or order is of no more service than useless lumber. A genuine scholar possesses something more: he penetrates and understands the principle and laws of the particular department of human knowledge with which he professes acquaintance, he imbibes the life of Science. To know only one thing as it ought to be known constitutes a man more of a scholar than to know many things by rote; the man of one idea may be an object of ridicule, yet if his one idea is apprehended in its proper life and power, he is of far more account than if he had collected a number of notions, all jumbled together in his mind confusedly.
The knowledge of a scholar becomes a part of himself. Yielding himself to the plastic power of truth, as such, his mind is transfused and moulded by its energy and spirit. A more recent examination outlined the following attributes accorded to scholars as "described by many writers, with some slight variations in the definition": The common themes are that a scholar is a person who has a high intellectual ability, is an independent thinker and an independent actor, has ideas that stand apart from others, is persistent in her quest for developing knowledge, is systematic, has unconditional integrity, has intellectual honesty, has some convictions, stands alone to support these convictions. Scholars may rely on the scholarly method or scholarship, a body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, to make them known to the scholarly public, it is the methods that systemically advance the teaching and practice of a given scholarly or academic field of study through rigorous inquiry.
Scholarship is creative, can be documented, can be replicated or elaborated, can be and is peer-reviewed through various methods. Scholars have been upheld as creditable figures engaged in work important to the advance of society. In Imperial China, in the period from 206 BC until AD 1912, the intellectuals were the Scholar-officials, who were civil servants appointed by the Emperor of China to perform the tasks of daily governance; such civil servants earned academic degrees by means of imperial examination, were skilled calligraphers, knew Confucian philosophy. Historian Wing-Tsit Chan concludes that: Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one, it was good enough to be imitated in 18th century Europe. It has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse. In Joseon Korea, the intellectuals were the literati, who knew how to read and write, had been designated, as the chungin, in accordance with the Confucian system.
They constituted the petite bourgeoisie, composed of scholar-bureaucrats who administered the dynastic rule of the Joseon dynasty. In his 1847 address, Gerhart asserted that scholars have an obligation to continue their studies so as to remain aware of new knowledge being generated, to contribute their own insights to the body of knowledge available to all: The progress of science involves momentous interests, it merits the attention of all sincere lovers of truth. Every one professing to be a scholar is under obligations to contribute towards the ever-progressive unfolding of its riches and power. Not content with what is well known in reference to a great variety of subjects —not content with the imperfect views that have been acquired of many others, all genuine scholars, availing themselves of previous efforts, should combine their energies to bring to view what has eluded the keen vision of those men of noble intellectual stature who have lived and died before them. Many scholars are professors engaged in the teaching of others.
In a number of countries, the title "research professor" refers to a professor, or engaged in research, who has few or no teaching obligations. For example, the title is used in this sense in the United Kingdom (where it is known as research professor at some universities and professorial research fellow at some other institutions
A veterinary physician called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon, is a professional who practices veterinary medicine by treating diseases and injuries in animals. In many countries, the local nomenclature for a veterinarian is a regulated and protected term, meaning that members of the public without the prerequisite qualifications and/or licensure are not able to use the title. In many cases, the activities that may be undertaken by a veterinarian are restricted only to those professionals who are registered as a veterinarian. For instance, in the United Kingdom, as in other jurisdictions, animal treatment may only be performed by registered veterinary physicians, it is illegal for any person, not registered to call themselves a veterinarian or prescribe any treatment. Most veterinary physicians work in clinical settings; these veterinarians may be involved in a general practice. As with other healthcare professionals, veterinarians face ethical decisions about the care of their patients.
Current debates within the profession include the ethics of certain procedures believed to be purely cosmetic or unnecessary for behavioral issues, such as declawing of cats, docking of tails, cropping of ears and debarking on dogs. The word "veterinary" comes from the Latin veterinae meaning "working animals". "Veterinarian" was first used in print by Thomas Browne in 1646. Ancient Indian sage and veterinary physician Shalihotra, the son of a Brahmin sage, Hayagosha, is considered the founder of veterinary sciences; the first veterinary college was founded in France in 1762 by Claude Bourgelat. According to Lupton, after observing the devastation being caused by cattle plague to the French herds, Bourgelat devoted his time to seeking out a remedy; this resulted in his founding a veterinary college in Lyon in 1761, from which establishment he dispatched students to combat the disease. The Odiham Agricultural Society was founded in 1783 in England to promote agriculture and industry, played an important role in the foundation of the veterinary profession in Britain.
A 1785 Society meeting resolved to "promote the study of Farriery upon rational scientific principles." The professionalization of the veterinary trade was achieved in 1790, through the campaigning of Granville Penn, who persuaded the Frenchman Benoit Vial de St. Bel to accept the professorship of the newly established Veterinary College in London; the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons was established by royal charter in 1844. Veterinary science came of age in the late 19th century, with notable contributions from Sir John McFadyean, credited by many as having been the founder of modern Veterinary research. Veterinarians treat disease, disorder or injury in animals, which includes diagnosis and aftercare; the scope of practice and experience of the individual veterinarian will dictate what interventions they perform, but most will perform surgery. Unlike in human medicine, veterinarians must rely on clinical signs, as animals are unable to vocalize symptoms as a human would. In some cases, owners may be able to provide a medical history and the veterinarian can combine this information along with observations, the results of pertinent diagnostic tests such as radiography, CT scans, MRI, blood tests and others.
Veterinarians must consider the appropriateness of euthanasia if a condition is to leave the animal in pain or with a poor quality of life, or if treatment of a condition is to cause more harm to the patient than good, or if the patient is unlikely to survive any treatment regimen. Additionally, there are scenarios where euthanasia is considered due to the constrains of the client's finances; as with human medicine, much veterinary work is concerned with prophylactic treatment, in order to prevent problems occurring in the future. Common interventions include vaccination against common animal illnesses, such as distemper or rabies, dental prophylaxis to prevent or inhibit dental disease; this may involve owner education so as to avoid future medical or behavioral issues. Additionally veterinarians have the prevention of zoonoses; the majority of veterinarians are employed in private practice treating animals. Small animal veterinarians work in veterinary clinics, veterinary hospitals, or both.
Large animal veterinarians spend more time travelling to see their patients at the primary facilities which house them, such as zoos or farms. Other employers include charities treating animals, colleges of veterinary medicine, research laboratories, animal food companies, pharmaceutical companies. In many countries, the government may be a major employer of veterinarians, such as the United States Department of Agriculture or the Animal and Plant Health Agency in the United Kingdom. State and local governments employ veterinarians. Veterinarians and their practices may be specialized in certain areas of veterinary medicine. Areas of focus include: Exotic animal veterinaria
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Beluša is a large village and municipality in Púchov District in the Trenčín Region of north-western Slovakia. It is located in the northern parts of the Ilava Basin and is one of the largest communities of the Považie region; the archaeological evidence shows that the village has been inhabited in the Neolithic and early Bronze Age. It was mentioned for the first time in a written document in 1330. There is a Romanesque St Anne chapel from the mid-13th century in the village; this was mentioned in the Papal documentation in 1332 which makes the rectory one of oldest one on the river Váh. The little church can be still found in the village center; the main church located right next to it has been dedicated to St. Elizabeth and it was built in 1560; the newest church standing in Belusa Hloza is known as Our Lady of Sorrows church and was built in 1990. It is visible from the D1 freeway. In Belusa part Hloza on the Trencianska Street can be found a small St. John of Nepomuk chapel; this one has been standing there since 1766.
The close proximity to the river Váh as well Pruzinka creek brought several times devastating floods to the village. The worst on record happened between August 26.-28. 1813 and June the 2nd 1823 respectively. The most recent one took place in 1939. Pruzinka Creek has been regulated since 1940 and therefore preventing any further flooding. Fire in September 1827 burned 130 houses. In the beginning of the 19th Century the town inaugurated the first basket-maker school of the Kingdom of Hungary. Plague, major problem in Europe wiped out 262 inhabitants in 1831. An important day for the village was July 1913 which brought the first pharmacy to Belusa; the license was issued to Julius Thaller. The first pharmacy was located close to the church; until 1918, Beluša municipality in the county Trenčín has been a part of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Trianon Treaty it became part of the newly formed Czechoslovakia. Prior to the World War II there used to be a small Jewish community in the village; the only proof of their presence is a small Jewish cemetery hidden in the north part of the village.
It has been renovated and it's been documented in the Jewish archives. The municipality lies at an altitude of 251 metres and covers an area of 51.343 km². Belusa has a population of about 6060 inhabitants; the municipality consists of four parts: Belušské Slatiny, Hloža, Podhorie. The town hall is located in Beluša; the village is an important crossroad on the main road from Trenčín to Žilina. The main freeway D1 connecting Bratislava with Žilina bypasses Belusa; the main railway line from Bratislava to Košice via Žilina has got a stop here. The railway line built in the years 1878-1883 helped to the development. In 1883 the railways station was completed; the line is being updated to the higher speed. Once completed the average train speed should be around 160 km/h. River Váh flows close to the village. Part of Beluša are the Beluša Baths; the spa used to be more popular, but it lost majority of its thermal water. After some extensive drilling there was an interesting outcome. There is a direct connection between the spring in Beluša Baths and the one in the spa resort town of Trenčianske Teplice.
Outdoor swimming pool in Beluša Baths is a popular summer place for the locals. All year round the spa with sulfur-aerated warm water can be enjoy in one of the hotels. Many of the bigger businesses in the region have their cottages in Belusa Baths. There are several mid-size factories in the village. Linco margarine is produced in the village; the most popular sport in the village is soccer. The modest stadium can accommodate 1200 spectators; the team has been participant of the regional league. Proximity of village of Mojtin offers skiing in the winter; the nearest indoor swimming pool is in nearby Puchov. Hiking in woods as is common by the locals and tourist alike. Prof. MUDr. Emanuel Filo — Former dean of Comenius University in Bratislava and MD. RNDr. Pavel Šulek, CSc. — Slovak physicist. Vojtech Ambrus — less known teacher and biologist Pavel Adami — important veterinarian PhDr. Jozef Kočiš, CSc. — historian and writer The records for genealogical research are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Bytca,Slovakia" Roman Catholic church records: 1675-1895 Lutheran church records: 1784-1909 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Official site Belusa.info portal Football club TJ Kovo Beluša Surnames of living people in Belusa
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and speak the Slovak language. In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora; the name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs. The original stem has been preserved in all Slovak words except the masculine noun; the first written mention of adjective slovenský is in 1294. The original name of Slovaks Slovenin/Slovene was still recorded in Pressburg Latin-Czech Dictionary, but it changed to Slovák under the influence of Czech and Polish language; the first written mention of new form in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov. The mentions in Czech sources are older; the change is not related to the ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages.
The word Slovak was used later as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language together with other forms. In Hungarian "Slovak" is Tót, an exonym, it was used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but came to refer to Slovaks. Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, Tótkomlós still bear the name. Tóth is a common Hungarian surname; the Slovaks have historically been variously referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende, or Wenden. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements; the early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level. Original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. Weakening of tribal consciousness was accelerated by Avars, who did not respect tribal differences in the controlled territory and motivated remaining Slavs to join together and to collaborate on their defense.
In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union: Samo's empire. Regardless of Samo's empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities; the final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise. The first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia if it was inhabited by related Slavs; the Principality of Nitra become a part of a common state of Moravians and Slovaks. The short existence of Great Moravia prevented it from suppressing differences which resulted from its creation from two separate entities, therefore a common "Slovak-Moravian" ethnic identity failed to develop; the early political integration in the territory of present-day Slovakia was however reflected in linguistic integration. While dialects of early Slovak ancestors were divided into West Slavic and non-West Slavic, between the 8th and 9th centuries both dialects merged, thus laying the foundations of a Slovak language.
The 10th century is a milestone in the Slovak ethnogenesis. The fall of Great Moravia and further political changes supported their formation into a separate nation. At the same time, with the extinction of the Proto-Slavic language, between the 10th and 13th centuries Slovak evolved into an independent language; the early existence of the Kingdom of Hungary positively influenced the development of common consciousness and companionship among Slavs in the Northern Hungary, not only within boundaries of present-day Slovakia. The clear difference between Slovaks and Hungarians made adoption of specific name unnecessary and Slovaks preserved their original name, used in communication with other Slavic peoples. In political terms, the medieval Slovaks were a part of the multi-ethnic political nation Natio Hungarica, together with Hungarians, Germans and other ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary. Since a medieval political nation did not consist of ordinary people but nobility, membership of the privileged class was necessary for all these peoples.
Like other nations, the Slovaks began to transform into a modern nation from the 18th century under the idea of national romanticism. The modern Slovak nation is the result of radical processes of modernization within the Habsburg Empire which culminated in the middle of the 19th century; the transformation process was slowed down by conflict with Hungarian nationalism and the ethnogenesis of the Slovaks become a political question regarding their deprivation and preservation of their language and national rights. In 1722, Mich