GKS Katowice is a Polish football club based in Katowice, Poland. The club plays in the Polish First League. In 1963 in Katowice a special organizational committee was called with the purpose of uniting all the clubs and sporting organizations of the city into one large club which would encompass many disciplines. In mid-1963 Rapid Welnowiec and Orzeł Welnowiec merged, creating Rapid/Orzeł. In 1964 Rapid/Orzeł, Górnik Katowice, Koszutka Katowice, Katowicki Klub Łyżwiarski, Katowicki Klub Sportowy Górnik, Górniczy Klub Żeglarski Szkwał amongst other clubs from Katowice merged creating GKS Katowice. Four years on the 9 August 1968, Dąb Katowice amalgamated with GKS Katowice. GKS Katowice made its debut in Polish football's top league on 8 August 1965 when GKS Katowice took on local rivals Górnik Zabrze. GKS Katowice's debut season in the top flight was in the season of 1965–66; the new team gained experience and ability. A bad patch for the club came in 1971; the club's problems were overcome, GKS returned to the top flight where they played with pride and passion.
From 1982 the club found itself up the top end of the ladder, as well as playing off in several Polish Cup finals. In 1985 GKS Katowice played in its first Polish Cup final but lost in a penalty shootout to Widzew Łódź; the following year GKS played off in a memorable final at Stadion Śląski against Górnik Zabrze. From that moment the city of Katowice began to breathe football; the next year GKS finished third and the two following years they were runners-up. In 1989 GKS again came third, in 1991 GKS were runners-up. From 1986 to 1995 to GKS Katowice were four times runners-up in the league, twice the winners of the Polish Supercup and three-time Polish Cup winners; the biggest moments for the club and fans were always. The first time GKS faced European opposition was in 1970, in the now defunct Inter-Cities Fairs Cup, GKS took on the might of Barcelona in a two-legged tie. Katowice didn't lose by much, the fans were proud of their club; the second time GKS took part in European football they played better football.
In the first round of the 1986–1987 UEFA Cup Winners Cup GKS defeated Iceland's Fram Reykjavík but in the second round, they lost to Switzerland's Sion. For the next 10 years, GKS Katowice took part in European football. Over the years fans of GKS got to witness their team take on the likes of Sportul Studentsc Bucharest, Club Brugge, Benfica, Girondins Bordeaux and twice Bayer Leverkusen. GKS's record in European football stands at 10 wins, 7 draws, 19 losses. GKS Katowice again fell on hard times during the mining crisis. In 1999 the team was relegated from the Ekstraklasa, but was back in the topflight only a year later. Piotr Dziurowicz became president who, despite growing debts and financial troubles, kept the team in the top flight. In 2003 the team managed to qualify for the UEFA Cup by finishing third in the league under coach Jan Żurek; this was hailed as one of the biggest surprises in the history of the Ekstraklasa. Despite the success, the debts under Piotr Dziurowicz began to grow to a significant sum.
From March 27, 2003 to June 11, 2004, the club played under the name of its main sponsor Dospel Katowice. GKS Katowice Sportowa Spółka Akcyjna finished its reins at the helm of the club in the summer of 2005 after the disastrous 2004–2005 season where GKS finished 14th in the Ekstraklasa and was relegated to the second Division. To make matters worse the team had to drop to the 4th Division due to legal and financial problems. After the drop to the 4th division, a group of dedicated fans known as the "Stowarzyszenie Sympatyków Klubu GKS Katowice" took over the helm at the club. In June 2006 the club was promoted to the 3rd division, in June 2007 the team again won promotion this time to the 2nd Division, which in 2008 was renamed the 1st Division; the team continues to play in the 1st Division despite lack of sponsors and money. Polish Cup titles: 1986, 1991, 1993 Polish Cup final: 1985, 1987, 1990, 1995, 1997 Polish Supercup titles: 1991, 1995 Polish Ekstraklasa Runner Up: 1988, 1989, 1992, 1994 Polish Ekstraklasa Third Team: 1987, 1990, 1995, 2003 Round of 16 - Cup Winners' Cup – 1986/87, 1991/92 Round of 16 - UEFA Cup – 1994/95 Polish U-19 Bronze Medal: 1995, 2002 As of 3 November 2017.
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Admir Adžem Gija Guruli Paweł Brożek Grzegorz Fonfara Jan Furtok Jacek Gorczyca Janusz Jojko Marek Koniarek Mirosław Kubisztal Piotr Polczak Mirosław Sznaucner Sławomir Wojciechowski Adam Ledwoń Bartosz Karwan Football in Poland List of football teams Champions' Cup/League UEFA Cup Ruch Chorzów Górnik Zabrze Banik Ostrava GKS Katowice - Official website GKS Katowice at 90minut.pl
Kielce is a city in south central Poland with 196,335 inhabitants. It has been the capital city of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship since 1999, was the capital of the predecessor Kielce Voivodeship; the city is located in the middle of the Świętokrzyskie Mountains, on the banks of the Silnica River, in northern part of the historical Polish province of Lesser Poland. The history of Kielce dates back over 900 years and the exact date when the town was founded remains unknown; the name of the city derives from the migrating Celts, who once stopped here during their journey across the European continent. The area was inhabited at the beginning of the 11th century by hunters and beekeepers, who bartered the fruit of their work for seed grain, it was that a marketplace was established, where forest products were exchanged for agricultural produce. At the turn of the 12th century, the bishops of Kraków became the owners of the settlement and began constructing a castle on a nearby hill. Under the influence of Vincent Kadłubek, a parish school was established in the town.
Kielce was mentioned in medieval documents for the first time in 1212 and obtained a city charter sometime before the year 1295. In the 13th century, Tatar raids on Poland destroyed the city but it was soon rebuilt and surrounded by a high defensive wall, equipped with firing slots for archers. At the end of the 15th century, Frederick Jagiellon granted the town its official symbols: a golden crown on a red shield with the letters "CK" - Civitas Kielcensis. Between 1637 and 1642, due to the initiative of bishop Jakub Zadzik, a Renaissance palace was erected, which survived to the present day and remains an icon; the city was burned to the ground during the Swedish Deluge in the 17th century. After the Partitions of Poland, Kielce became part of the Austrian Empire. In 1809, the city was incorporated into the Duchy of Warsaw and after 1815 into the Congress Kingdom of Poland. During World War II, Kielce was the site of German Nazi atrocities and executions carried out on the Jewish population in the ghetto.
After the war the city saw an outbreak of violence against the Jewish community, which became known as the Kielce pogrom. Kielce was once an important centre of limestone mining and the vicinity is famous for its natural resources like copper and iron, over the centuries, were exploited on a large scale. There are several exhibitions held in Kielce throughout the year; the area of Kielce has been inhabited since at least the 5th century BC. Until the 6th or 7th century the banks of the Silnica were inhabited by Celts, they were driven out by a Slavic tribe of Vistulans who started hunting in the nearby huge forests and had settled most of the area now known as Lesser Poland and present-day Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The lands of Wiślanie were at first subdued by Bohemia, however they soon came under the control of the Piast dynasty and became a part of Poland. According to a local legend, son of Boleslaus II of Poland dreamt he was attacked by a band of brigands in a forest. In the dream he saw a vision of Saint Adalbert.
When Mieszko woke up, he found the Silnica River. He discovered huge white tusks of an unknown animal. Mieszko announced he would build a church to St. Adalbert at that site. According to this legend, the town's name Kielce commemorates the mysterious tusks. Various other legends exist to explain the name's origin. One states that the town was named after its founder who belonged to the noble family of Kiełcz, while another claims that it stems from the Kelts who may have lived in the area in previous centuries. Other theories connect the town's name to occupational names relating to mud huts, iron tips for arrows and spears, or the production of tar; the earliest extant document referring to the settlement by the name of Kielce dates to 1213. The area of the Holy Cross Mountains was unpopulated until the 11th century when the first hunters established permanent settlements at the outskirts of the mountains, they needed a place to trade furs and meat for grain and other necessary products, so the market of Kielce was formed.
In the early 12th century the new settlement became a property of the Bishops of Kraków, who built a wooden church and a manor. In 1171 a stone church was erected by bishop Gedeon Gryf. During the times of Wincenty Kadłubek a parochial school in Kielce was opened in 1229. By 1295 the town was granted city rights. In the mid-13th century the town was destroyed by the Mongol invasion of Ögedei Khan, but it recovered; the area around Kielce was rich in minerals such as copper ore, lead ore, iron, as well as limestone. In the 15th century Kielce became a significant centre of metallurgy. There were several glass factories and armourer shops in the town. In 1527 bishop Piotr Tomicki founded a bell for the church and between 1637 and 1642 Manierist palace was erected near the market place by Bishop Jakub Zadzik, it is one of the few examples of French Renaissance architecture in Poland and the only example of a magnate's manor from the times of Vasa dynasty to survive World War II. During The Deluge the town was burnt by the Swedes.
Only the palace and the church survived, but the town managed to recover under the rule of bishop Andrzej Załuski. By 1761 Kielce had more than 4,000 inhabitants. In 1789 Kielce were nationalised and the burgers were
Heart of Midlothian F.C.
Heart of Midlothian Football Club known as Hearts, is a Scottish professional football club based in the Gorgie area of Edinburgh, that plays in the Scottish Premiership, the top tier in Scottish football. Hearts are the oldest football club in the Scottish capital, as they were formed in 1874 by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly, whose name was influenced by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian; the modern club crest is based on the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the city's Royal Mile and the team's colours are predominantly maroon and white. Hearts play at Tynecastle Park, where home matches have been played since 1886. After renovating the ground into an all-seater stadium following the findings of the Taylor Report in 1990, the stadium now has a capacity of just over 20,000 following the completion of a newly rebuilt main stand in 2017, their current training facilities are based at the Oriam, Scotland's national performance centre for sport, where they run their youth academy.
Heart of Midlothian have won the Scottish league championship four times, most in 1959–60, when they retained the Scottish League Cup to complete a League and League Cup double – the only club outside of the Old Firm to achieve such a feat. The club's most successful period was under former player turned manager Tommy Walker from the early 1950s to mid 1960s. Between 1954 and 1962 they won two league titles, one Scottish Cup, four Scottish League Cups, finished inside the league's top four positions for 11 consecutive seasons between 1949–50 and 1959–60. Jimmy Wardhaugh, Willie Bauld and Alfie Conn Sr. known affectionately as the Terrible Trio, were famed forwards at the start of this period with wing half linchpins Dave Mackay and John Cumming. Wardhaugh was part of another notable Hearts attacking trinity in the 1957–58 league winning side. Along with Jimmy Murray and Alex Young, they set the record for the number of goals scored in a Scottish league winning campaign. In doing so, they became the only side to finish a season with a goal difference exceeding 100.
Hearts have won the Scottish Cup eight times, most in 2012 after a 5–1 victory over Hibernian, their local rivals. All four of Hearts' Scottish League Cup triumphs came under Walker, most a 1–0 victory against Kilmarnock in 1962, their most recent Scottish League Cup Final appearance was in 2013, where they lost 3–2 to St Mirren. In 1958, Heart of Midlothian became the third Scottish and fifth British team to compete in European competition at the time; the club reached the quarter-finals of the 1988–89 UEFA Cup, losing out to Bayern Munich 2–1 on aggregate. The club was formed by a group of friends from the Heart of Midlothian Quadrille Assembly Club; the group of friends bought a ball before playing local rules football at the Tron from where they were directed by a local policeman to The Meadows to play. Local rules football was a mix of association football. In December 1873 a match was held between XIs selected by Mr Thomson from Queens Park and Mr Gardner from Clydesdale at Raimes Park in Bonnington.
This was the first time. Members from the dance club viewed the match and in 1874 decided to adopt the association rules; the new side was Heart of Mid-Lothian Football Club. The exact date of the club's formation was never recorded; the earliest mention of Heart of Midlothian in a sporting context is a report in The Scotsman newspaper from 20 July 1864 of The Scotsman vs Heart of Mid-Lothian at cricket. It is not known if this was the same club who went on to form the football club, but it was common for football clubs in those days to play other sports as well; the club took its name from historic county Midlothian, dating from the Middle Ages, as well as the Heart of Midlothian mosaic on the Royal Mile, which marks the historic entrance to The Old Tolbooth jail, demolished in 1817 but was kept fresh in the mind by Walter Scott's novel The Heart of Midlothian. Led by captain Tom Purdie the club played its matches in the East Meadows and in 1875 Hearts became members of the Scottish Football Association and were founder members of the Edinburgh Football Association.
By becoming members of the SFA Hearts were able to play in the Scottish Cup for the first time. Hearts played against 3rd Edinburgh Rifle Volunteers on October 1875 at Craigmount Park in Edinburgh; the game ended in a scoreless draw. A replay was held at the Meadows which again finished 0–0. Under rules at the time both clubs progressed to the next round with Hearts losing out to Drumpellier in the next round. In the 1884–85 season, clubs in Scotland struggled to attract players, who were attracted to play in England, due to the games professional status there. After an 11–1 win in the Scottish Cup over Dunfermline a protest was raised against the club for fielding two professional players. Hearts were suspended by the SFA for two years; this was the first suspension of an SFA club. After a change of the clubs' committee the club was readmitted. Hearts had considerable success in the early years of the Scottish Football League, winning the league championship in 1895 and 1896, they won four Scottish Cups in a 15-year period from 1891 to 1906.
The team played against Sunderland in the 1894–95 World Championship, but lost with a 5–3 score. Hearts did win the World Championship title in 1902, beating Tottenham Hotspur 3–1 in Tynecastle Park, after a 0–0 in London few month earlier. In November 1914, Heart of Midlothian comfortably led the First Division, having started
Zabrze is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The west district of the Silesian Metropolis, a metropolis with a population of around 2 million, it is on the Bytomka River, a tributary of the Oder. Zabrze is in the Silesian Voivodeship, reformulated in 1999. Before 1999 it was in Katowice Voivodeship, it is one of the cities composing the 2.7 million inhabitant conurbation referred to as the Katowice urban area, itself a major centre in the greater Silesian metropolitan area, populated by just over five million people. The population of Zabrze as of December 2017 is 174,349, down from June 2009 when the population was 188,122. Biskupice, now a subdivision of Zabrze, was first mentioned in 1243 as Biscupici dicitur cirka Bitom. Alt-Zabrze was mentioned in 1295-1305 as Sadbre sive Cunczindorf. In the Late Middle Ages, the local Silesian Piast dukes invited German settlers into the territory, resulting in increasing German settlement. Zabrze became part of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526, was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the Silesian Wars.
In 1774, the Dorotheendorf settlement was founded. When the first mine in Zabrze became operational in 1790, the town became an important mining center. In 1905, the Zabrze commune was formed by the former communes Alt-Zabrze, Klein-Zabrze and Dorotheendorf; the Zabrze commune was renamed Hindenburg in 1915 in honour of Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg. The name change was approved by King Wilhelm II on 21 February 1915. During the plebiscite held after World War I, 21,333 inhabitants of the Hindenburg commune voted to remain in Germany, while 14,873 voted for incorporation to Poland. In May 1921 the Third Silesian Uprising broke out and Hindenburg was captured by Polish insurgents, who held it until the end of the uprising; when Upper Silesia was divided between Poland and Germany in 1921, the Hindenburg commune remained in Germany. It received its city charter in 1922. Just five years after founding Hindenburg became the biggest city in German Upper Silesia and the second biggest City in German Silesia after Breslau.
In the March 1933 elections, most of the citizens voted for the Nazi Party, followed by Zentrum and the Communist Party. Nazi politician Max Fillusch became the city's mayor and remained in the position until 1945; the town's synagogue, that had stood since 1872, was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogroms of November 1938. During some of the time of the Nazi German control of the region, a subcamp of Auschwitz III was located here. Following World War II, the city was annexed by Poland in 1945 and was renamed back to Zabrze on May 19, 1945. Most of the German inhabitants were expelled. On 17 September 2012, the Zabrze city council decided on a new administrative division of the city. Zabrze was subsequently divided into 3 housing estates; the Polish A4, part of the European E40, has a motorway junction near Zabrze. The Drogowa Trasa Srednicowa leads through the town. Members of Parliament elected from Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency Chojnacki Jan, SLD-UP Dulias Stanisław, Samoobrona Gałażewski Andrzej, PO Janik Ewa, SLD-UP Kubica Józef, SLD-UP Martyniuk Wacław, SLD-UP Okoński Wiesław, SLD-UP Szarama Wojciech, PiS Szumilas Krystyna, PO Widuch Marek, SLD-UP Górnik Zabrze - men's football team Wojtek Wolski - Pro ice hockey player for the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League Like other towns in this populous region, it is an important manufacturing centre, having coal-mines, wire, glass and oil works, local Upper Silesia Brewery, etc.
Karl Godulla, Prussian industrialist James Kleist, German-American Jesuit scholar Heinz Fiebig, Wehrmacht general Wolfgang Jörchel, Standartenführer in the Waffen SS Fritz Laband, German footballer Friedrich Nowottny, German television journalist Janosch, German author Joachim Kroll, German serial killer Joachim Kerzel, German actor Wojtek Wolski, Polish-Canadian hockey player playing for the Washington Capitals of the NHL, was born here in 1986. Krystian Zimerman, internationally renowned classical pianist, was born here in 1956. Czesław Śpiewa, singer Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz, Polish-Pakistani military scientist Jan Sawka, Polish-American artist, architect Bartłomiej Socha, footballer Waldemar Sorychta, heavy metal musician and producer The Dumplings, electropop band Zabrze is twinned with these cities: Notes Municipal website Zabrze Community Portal Zabrze.com.pl Encyclopædia Britannica Zabrze Jewish Community in Zabrze on Virtual Shtetl Old images of the city http://www.zabrze.aplus.pl/
Poland national football team
The Poland national football team represents Poland in association football and is controlled by the Polish Football Association, the governing body for football in Poland. At the FIFA World Cup, the current best result for Poland are two bronze medals won in 1974 and 1982, with this era being regarded as the golden era of Polish international association football. At the Euros, Poland's best result is reaching the quarter-finals in 2016, in Poland's third consecutive appearance at the competition. Poland's debut at the Euros was in 2008, they were co-hosts of the 2012 edition, along with Ukraine. Overall, Poland's best result in international football tournaments as a whole was the gold medal won at the 1972 Munich Olympics, along with winning the silver medal on two occasions; the first football federation was established on 25 June 1911 in Lwów as the Polish Football Union. After I World War members of PFU established on 20 December 1919 in Warsaw the Polish Football Federation. Poland would play its first official international match on 18 December 1921 in Budapest, where the side lost to Hungary 1–0.
Their first international win would come on 28 May 1922 where they took on Sweden in Stockholm and beat them 2–1. Poland qualified for their first World Cup in 1937 when they beat Yugoslavia 4–0 and lost 1–0 in the two qualifying matches and ensured their place in the 1938 World Cup in France. During their debut in the World Cup, Poland would play Brazil in a match which would become one of the most memorable matches in World Cup history. Despite Brazil not being regarded as the world's top team in the 1930s, it was still believed to be a hard-to-beat side, having participated in two first World Cups. Under these circumstances, the Polish team – which had never before participated on such a level – was expected to lose the game against the South Americans. Thus, the defeat was not a sensation. However, all fans were surprised at the style with which the Poles played their lone game of the tournament; the white and reds got to the extra time, only losing 5–6. Ernest Wilimowski, who played for Ruch Chorzów at the time, scored four of Poland's five goals, which to date is one of the most impressive individual performances in the history of the World Cup.
Poland played what would be their last international match before the outbreak of World War II against Hungary, the runners-up in the 1938 World Cup. The match stands out as an achievement as Poland defeated the favored Hungarian side 4–2. On 11 June 1946, following the aftermath of World War II, Poland played their first international friendly match, against Norway in Oslo, a 3–1 defeat; the biggest success in the early years after the war was the victory against one of Europe's best at the time, Czechoslovakia. Poland defeated their southern neighbors 3–1. Poland suffered the worst defeat in the team's history on 26 April 1948 with a 0–8 loss to the Danish side. Poland would erase that memory as they posted their second highest victory in Szczecin when they took down Norway 9–0 on 4 September 1963; the game marked the debut for Włodzimierz Lubański. He scored one of the goals in the game. Lubański became the all-time top scorer for Poland while playing from 1963 to 1980 scoring 48 goals in 75 appearances.
This victory was surpassed on 1 April 2009 in Kielce when Poland defeated San Marino 10–0. On 1 December 1970, Polish football history would change forever all due to one man. Kazimierz Górski was named head coach of the national team, his success with the team was evident from the start with a gold medal at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Górski would lead the team to another medal at the 1976 Olympics where they captured silver. However, nothing matched the two bronze medals at the 1982 World Cups. Poland being unknown on the international football scene before 1974 shook up the football world during the World Cup in Germany. However, this was no huge surprise as the core of the team achieved a gold medal place in the Munich Olympics in 1972; the Olympics were not considered a major tournament by most Western nations, but Eastern European countries bypassed the amateur rules by fielding their full national teams, as most players had employment with national industries or within the army. With their lightning speed and incredible team chemistry they were unstoppable.
In qualifying they surprised everyone by eliminating England, quarter-finalists in 1970 and Champions in 1966. In their opening match of Germany'74 Poland met Argentina, a team, appearing in their 6th World Cup. Within eight minutes Poland were up 2–0, Grzegorz Lato opened the scoring in the seventh minute and just a minute Andrzej Szarmach doubled the lead. In the 60th minute, Argentina cut the lead in half. Two minutes however, Lato scored his second, which turned out to be the winning goal as Carlos Babington gave Argentina their second in the 66th; the match finished 3–2 for Poland. Poland thrashed Haiti 7–0 in their second game; the goals included a hat-trick from two from Lato. In their final match of the first stage, Poland met Italy, who finished second at the previous World Cup in 1970. Poland were through to the Second Round but needed at least a draw to win the group. At half-time, Poland was leading 2 -- 0 on goals from Kazimierz Deyna, it was not until the 86th minute. This gave Poland their third consecutive win.
In the second round, Poland first won 1–0 against a Swedish side, which had not conceded any goals in their first three matches
Association Sportive Nancy-Lorraine is a French association football club based in Nancy, Lorraine. The club was founded in 1967 and plays in Ligue 2. Nancy was founded as the successor to FC Nancy, which collapsed in 1965; the club has spent its entire life playing in either Ligue 1 or Ligue 2. Nancy has won the second division on five occasions. Nancy's biggest achievement came in 1978 when the club won the Coupe de France defeating Nice in the final; the club has won the Coupe de la Ligue in 2006. Nancy is presided over by Jacques Rousselot. Rousselot serves as a vice-president of the French Football Federation and is a member of the federation's Federal Council. One of the club's most notable players is Michel Platini, the former president of UEFA. Platini began his career at the club in 1972, he scored the only goal in the aforementioned Coupe de France final and won two French Player of the Year awards whilst playing with the club. Platini established himself as a French international while at the club and went on to achieve numerous team and individual accolades after his departure from Nancy.
He is considered to be, the club's greatest player and, upon entering the section of the club's official website showing Nancy's greats, a picture of a young Platini is displayed. Prior to the creation of AS Nancy, the city of Nancy was host to football by FC Nancy and US Frontière. FC Nancy was formed in 1901, while US Frontière was founded in 1910. Both clubs were a part of the Ligue de Lorraine. US Frontière dissolved in 1935, while FC Nancy continued to play football through the professional transition; the club achieved little during its 64 years of existence only winning the second division twice in 1946 and 1958. FC Nancy did reach the final of the Coupe de France in 1953 and 1962, however, on both appearances, the club lost to Lille and Saint-Étienne, respectively. In 1965, with the club enduring financial difficulties during the 1963–64 season due to the club being abandoned by the city's municipality and its supporters according to its president, Nancy folded shortly before the new season.
The idea of a new club in the city was thought of by Claude Cuny in the spring of 1964. Cuny had worked with FC Nancy, but left the club prior to its destruction. Cuny is considered one of the leaders of French football because of his innovative ideas and strategies. After forming Nancy, he created the first youth academy of French football. Prior to the club beginning its life as a football club, Cuny devised a strategy to immerse the club into the city's public. First, he sent out over 18,000 petitions to draw interest to the team. Once the public gained notice, Cuny organised. After accruing enough money, Cuny sought to turned the club professional, despite several setbacks, on 16 June 1967, Nancy were granted professional status and inserted into Division 2, the second level of French football; the club's first manager was René Pleimelding, a former French international who played for FC Nancy. Nancy, recruited several former FC Nancy players such as Antoine Redin, as well as players from the region such as Michel Lanini, Gérard Braun and Roger Formica.
In Nancy's inaugural season of football, the club finished tenth in the league table and reached the Round of 16 in the Coupe de France. Two seasons the club earned promotion to Division 1 and finished in 13th place in its first season in the league. In 1972, Michel Platini arrived at the club with the club's reserve team, his first full season as a player came in the 1974–75 season whilst the club was playing in the second division, having suffered relegation from Division 1 the previous season. The season was a success for both club and player: Nancy achieved its first major honour winning Division 2, while Platini appeared in 32 league matches and scored 17 goals. In the ensuing three seasons in Division 1, led by Platini, Jean-Michel Moutier, Carlos Curbelo, Paco Rubio and Philippe Jeannol, finished in the top ten. Platini won the French Player of the Year award in two of those seasons. In 1978, Nancy achieved its highest honour to date after winning the Coupe de France. In the final, the club faced Nice and defeated its southern foes 1–0 with Platini scoring the lone goal.
President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing presented Platini with the trophy to cap off the victory. Nancy's Coupe de France triumph saw the club qualify for European competition for the first time in its short history; the club participated in the 1978–79 edition of the European Cup Winners' Cup and were eliminated in the second round after losing 4–3 on aggregate to Swiss club Servette. The club played most of the season without Platini, injured. Platini left the club after the season, however most of the club's nucleus remained. In the team's first season without Platini, Nancy finished in 11th place. In the next three seasons, Nancy finished in the top ten. After the 1984 season and Rubio became the last of the club's influential players to depart and Nancy suffered a free-fall finishing in the next three seasons; the implosion concluded after the 1986–87 season when Nancy finished in 19th place, thus falling back to Division 2. The only ray of sunshine for the club during this declining stint was the testimonial match held for Platini on 23 May 1988 following the players' club and international retirement.
That evening, fans were treated to an exhibition that featured Pelé and Diego Maradona. In the 1988–89 season, Nancy earned promotion back to the first division. However, the club spen
The Süper Lig is a Turkish professional league for association football clubs. It is the top-flight of the Turkish football league system and is run by the Turkish Football Federation. Eighteen clubs compete annually, where a champion is decided and three clubs are promoted and relegated from, to, the 1. Lig; the season runs from August with each club playing 34 matches. Matches are played Friday through Monday; the competition was established as the Millî Lig in 1959 - the first professional nationwide league competition held in Turkey. The league succeeded the Turkish Football Championship and the National Division, both being former top-level national competitions; the Süper Lig is 10th in the UEFA coefficient ranking of leagues based on club performances in European competitions over the last five years. A total of 68 clubs have competed in the Süper Lig, but only six have won the title so far: Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş, Bursaspor. Football in Turkey stems back to the late 19th century, when Englishmen brought the game with them while living in Salonica.
The first league competition was the Istanbul Football League, which took place in the 1904–05 season. The league went through several variations until the creation of the Millî Lig in 1959. Between the creation of the Istanbul League and Millî Lig, several other regional leagues took place: Adana, Eskişehir, İzmir and Trabzon, to name a few; the first competition to bring forth a national champion was the former Turkish Football Championship, which began in 1924 and continued until 1951. The championship format was based on a knockout competition, contested between the winners of each of the country's top regional leagues; the National Division was the first national league competition in Turkey. Started in 1937, the Millî Küme consisted of the strongest clubs from the Ankara, İzmir Leagues; the championship lasted until 1950. The Federation Cup was created in 1956 to decide a national champion; this champion would go on to participate in the European Cup. The competition was held for two years.
Beşiktaş won both editions, qualified for the European Cup during the two-year span. However, since the TFF failed to register their name for the draw in time, Beşiktaş could not participate in the 1957–58 season after all; the top clubs from Ankara, İzmir competed in the 1959 Millî Lig. The first season took place in the calendar year of 1959, instead of 1958-59, because the qualifying stages took place in 1958; the 16 clubs who competed in the first season were: Adalet, Ankaragücü, Ankara Demirspor, Beşiktaş, Fatih Karagümrük, Fenerbahçe, Gençlerbirliği, Göztepe, Hacettepe Gençlik, İstanbulspor, İzmirspor, Karşıyaka, Vefa. Only five of those clubs are competing in the Super League: Ankaragücü, Beşiktaş, Fenerbahçe, Göztepe; the first champions were Fenerbahçe and the first "Gol Kralı" was Metin Oktay. No clubs were relegated at the end of the first season; the 2. Lig was created at the start of the 1963–64 season and the Millî Lig became known as the 1. Lig. Before the creation of a second division, the bottom three clubs competed with regional league winners in a competition called the Baraj Games.
The top three teams of the seven-team group were promoted to the Millî Lig. After the creation of a new second division in 2001, known as the 1. Lig, the titled 1. Lig was rebranded as Süper Lig; the Fenerbahçe–Galatasaray derby is the most watched football game in Turkey. It is considered to be one of the best and most intense in the world. British Daily Mail ranked it second among the ten greatest football rivalries of all-time. There are 18 clubs in the Süper Lig. During the course of the season each club plays the others twice, once at their home stadium and once at that of their opponents, for a total of 34 games. Teams receive one point for a draw. No points are awarded for a loss. Teams are ranked by total points head-to-head record goal difference, goals scored. At the end of each season, the club with the most points is crowned champion. If points are equal, the head-to-head record and goal difference determine the winner; the three lowest placed teams are relegated to the 1. Lig and the top two teams from the 1.
Lig, together with the winner of play-offs involving the third to sixth placed 1. Lig clubs are promoted in their place. Qualification for European competitions is as follows: champions qualify for the group stage of the Champions League, runners-up qualify for the second qualifying round of the Champions League, third place qualifies for the third qualifying round of the Europa League, fourth place qualifies for the second qualifying round of the same competition. A fifth spot is given to the winner of the Turkish Cup, who qualify for the play-off round of the Europa League. If the Turkish Cup winner has qualified for European competition through their league finish, the next highest placed club in the league takes their place; as of 14 December 2018 a Founding member of the Süper Ligb Never been relegated from the Süper Lig In total, 14 clubs have won the Turkish championship title, including titles won before the Süper Lig's inception, namely in the former Turkish Football Championship and Turkish National Div